Alternations of Evenki

Alternations
Alternation name Description Examples Verbs
The direct object of the active corresponds to the subject of the passive. This is the most common type of personal passive constructions. Passive constructions differ from the corresponding active ones only in the topicalized element: active constructions involve topicalized agents expressed by subjects, whereas personal passive constructions involve topicalized patients which are also expressed by subjects. Passivization is accomplished by means of the suffix -v (or its variants -p/-b/-mu/-vuv/-muv/-mup depending on the preceding or the following consonants). Most frequently active transitive verbs are involved in the passivization, e.g. va:- 'kill' - va:-v- 'be killed', o:- 'make', 'build' - o:-v- 'be made', 'be built', misin- 'cut off' - misin-mu 'be cut off', ete- 'finish' - ete-v- 'be finished', uj- 'tie' - ui-v- 'be tied to', baka- 'find' - baka-v- 'be found', ne- 'put', 'lay' - ne-v- 'be put down', 'be laid', iche- 'see' - iche-v- 'be seen'. The direct object of the active verb appears as the subject of the derived passive verb and the subject (agent) of the active verb (if expressed at all) appears, as a rule, in the dative case in the corresponding passive construction. This agentive object is usually missing in personal passive constructions since it is either not known or pragmatically irrelevant.
(92)
D’un djagda sekteldin dasivča bičen.
d’u-n
house-3SG
djagda
pine_tree
sekte-l-di-n
branch-PL-INSTR-3SG
dasi-v-ča
cover-PASS-PART
bi-če-n
be-PAST-3SG
‘His/her house was covered with pine-tree branches.’
51
Decausative forms denoting spontaneous situations NOT involving Agents derived by means of the suffix -v/-p/-mu (homonymous with the passive marker) are formed, for instance, from the following transitives: mana- 'finish' - mana-v-/mana-p- 'finish (intr.)', ula- 'soak' - ula-v-/ula-p- 'soak (intr.)', ni- 'open' - ni-v- 'open (intr.)', sukcha- 'break' - sukcha-v- 'break (intr.)', dasi- 'close' - dasi-v- 'close (intr.)', uchi- 'twirl', 'roll up', 'wind' - uchi-v- 'wind (intr.)', soli- 'mix (up)' - soli-p- 'become mixed up/confused', si:- put/ blow out (fire)' - si:-v- 'go out' (of fire), e.g.
(95)
Nuŋanŋin ŋaalen soot vaapča bisin.
nuŋanŋin
3SG
ŋaale-n
hand-3SG
soot
very
vaa-p-ča
kill/hurt-PASS-PAST.PART
bi-si-n
be-PRES-3SG
‘His hand was hurt very much.’
2
Resultative forms in -cha are formed, for instance, from the following transitives: loko- 'hang' - loku-cha- 'be hung', 'hang (intr.)', uj- 'tie' - ui-che-/uju-che- 'be tied to', ini- ' load s.th. on one's back' - ini-che- 'be fixed to a board (used for carrying things on one's back)', dy- 'hide', 'thrust' - dy-che- 'be put into (a bag, etc.)', be:- 'put into a cradle' - be:-che- 'lie in a cradle' (of a baby), djaja- 'hide' - djaju-cha- 'be hidden', lapku- 'insert' (a branch in a tree trunk as a sign) - lapku-cha- 'stick out' (of a branch as a path marker), lo:van- 'hang (fish or meat on a special rope to cure in the sun)'- lo:van-cha- 'hang (intr.) on a rope for curing', ne:- 'put' - ne:-che- 'lie', 'be put down', elbe- 'cover (the frame of a tent)'- elbe-che- 'be covered (about a tent)', ulgun- 'hang on a hook' (about a cradle) - ulgun-che- 'be hung on a hook', udy- 'decorate' - udy-che- 'be dressed up', chakil- 'wrap up'- chakil-cha- 'be wrapped up', anga- 'open' - anga-cha- 'be open(ed)', som- 'close' - somi-cha- 'be closed', haku- 'close' - haku-cha- 'be closed', ni:- 'open' - ni:-che- 'be widely opened', dali- 'close' - dali-cha- 'be closed', kata- 'lock' - katav-che- 'be locked', tyn- 'unharness (deer)', 'let go' - tyn-che- 'graze (of deer)', chovokolot- 'grasp (with claws; of birds) - chovokolot-cho- 'be in the claws (of a bird)', sangap- 'make holes' - sangap-cha- 'have holes', 'be with holes'. Stative/resultative forms are not derived, for instance, from such transitives as o:- 'make', 'build', ule- 'cook', d'ep- 'eat', va:- 'kill', kapu- 'break', bu:- 'give', noda:- 'throw', duku- 'write' - duku-cha- 'be written', e.g.
(101)
Bejetken berkenin d’udu d’ajučad’aran.
bejetken
boy
berken-in
bow-3SG.POSS
d’u-du
house-DAT
d’aju-ča-d’ara-n.
hide-RESULT-PRES-3SG
‘The boy's bow is hidden in the house.’
13
Reciprocal function is expressed either by declined reciprocal pronouns memegilver 'each other', memeriver 'each other', memegil-du-ver (dat.) 'to each other', memegil-nun-mer (-nun - comitative marker) 'with each other', me:rver 'each other', memegil-duk-ver (abl.) 'from each other', memegil-duli-ver (prol.) 'about each other', in conjunction with a plural verb form or/and by derivational means. The latter include principally the use of specialized reciprocal affix -mAt or the use of affix -ldy- whose main function is sociative (comitative) relation. Reciprocal pronouns are obligatory for the expression of the reciprocal meaning if the specialized reciprocal affix -mAt is lacking in the verb form and the comitative object is not expressed. Otherwise reciprocal pronouns are, as a rule, optional, but if the comitative object is present in the construction the reciprocal pronoun is excluded.
(98)
Nuŋartyn (memegilver) vaamatte.
nuŋartyn
3PL
(memegilver)
(each.other)
vaa-mat-te-Ø
kill-RECIPR-NONFUT-3PL
‘They killed each other.’
35
Derivatives with the passive suffix -v with a few weather verbs and a verb of motion suru- ‘go away/ leave’ denote that a human patient expressed by the subject is subject to a certain atmospheric phenomenon (or leaving the place) considered as adversative to this person. 0