Indirect Reciprocal C

Description

A/nom P/acc IO/obl V -> A/nom P/acc V-rec

The reciprocal is coded by the verbal suffix
-mat-, and can mark cross-coreferentiality with direct but also (animate) indirect objects.

Furthermore one can distinguish between argument vs. possessive reciprocals; in the second case the cross-coreferentiality holds between the subject and the possessor of an object. Only reciprocals of the argument type are taken into account in grammaticality judgments.

Only a indirect reciprocal costruction involving cross-coreferentiality between the subject and the indirect object is represented here. (The second argument of a transitive verb does not take part in this alternation, but see Direct Reciprocal)
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
APPEAR hie N
(1)
kuma
seal
tala
there
hie-n
appear-AOR.3SG
‘There appeared a seal.’
ASK FOR ulgim- R
(2)
bej
man
hurken-teki
boy-ALL
meŋe-m
money-ACC
bö-de-n
give-PURP-3SG
gasči-n
ask-AOR.3SG
‘The boy asked the man for money.’
FEEL COLD iŋem- N
(3)
kuŋa
child
iŋem-re-n
freeze-AOR-3SG
‘The child froze.’
BE HUNGRY d’em- N
(4)
kuŋa
child
d’em-se-n
want_eat-AOR-3SG
‘The child is hungry.’
LOOK AT it- (1) N
(5)
bej
man
hurken-teki
boy-ALL
it-te-n
see-AOR-3SG
‘The man looked at the boy.’
GIVE bö- R
(6)
hurken
boy
kniga-v
book-ACC
hupkučimŋe-du
teacher-DAT
bö-n
give-AOR.3SG
‘The boy gave the book to the teacher.’

(104)
hurke-r
boy-PL
kniga-l-bu
book-PL-ACC
bö-met-te
give-REC-AOR.3PL
‘The boys gave books to each otherr.’
BEAT pavul- N
(72)
etiken
old_man
hurke-m
boy-ACC
mo-č
stick-INSTR
pavul-la-n
beat-AOR-3SG
‘The old man beats the boy with the stick.’
BREAK čelgel- N
(7)
hurken
boy
ŋal-u
arm-ACC.1SG.POSS
mo-č
stick-INSTR
čelgel-re-n
break-AOR-3SG
‘The boy broke my arm with the stick.’
BRING em-u- N
(8)
hurken
boy
nimek-tu
neighbor-DAT
kniga-v
book-ACC
em-u-n
come-TR-AOR.3SG
‘The boy brought the book to the neighbor.’
BUILD d’uŋna- N
(9)
bej
man
d'u-v
house-ACC
d’uŋna-n
house_build-AOR.3SG
‘The man built the house.’
NAME gerbet- N
(10)
bej
man
hurke-m
boy-ACC
nuŋu-č
fool-INSTR
gerbet-te-n
call-AOR-3SG
‘The man called the boy a fool.’
CARRY ŋal- N
(76)
asi
woman
kuŋa-v
child-ACC
d'u-la
house-LOC
ŋal-sa-n
carry-AOR-3SG
‘The woman carried the child home.’
CLIMB oj-či- N
(11)
bej
man
urekče-m
mountain-ACC
ojči-n
climb-AOR.3SG
‘The man climbed (up) the mountain.’
COME (2) em- N
(12)
hurken
boy
bilek-le
village-LOC
em-re-n
come-AOR-3SG
‘The boy came (to the village).’
COUGH hiemken- N
(13)
bej
man
hiemken-ni
cough-AOR.3SG
‘The man coughed.’
COVER das- N
(14)
bej
man
kuŋa-v
child-ACC
ulra-č
blanket-INSTR
das-sa-n
cover-AOR-3SG
‘The man covered the child with the blanket.’
CUT mine- N
(15)
hurken
boy
kileb-u
bread-ACC
hirka-n’
knife-INSTR
mine-n
cut-AOR.3SG
‘The boy cut the bread with the knife.’
DIE kö’ke- N
(16)
etiken
old_man
köke-n
die-AOR.3SG
‘The old man died.’
DRESS tet- N
(18)
asi
woman
teti-v
clothes-ACC
tet-te-n
dress-AOR-3SG
‘The woman dressed/put on clothes.’
EAT d’eb- N
(19)
bej
man
kileb-u
bread-ACC
d’ep-te-n
eat-AOR-3SG
‘The man ate the bread.’
FALL tik- N
(89)
kuŋa
child
tik-re-n
fall-AOR-3SG
‘The child fell.’
FEAR ŋel- N
(63)
kuŋa
child
ŋina-č
dog-INSTR
ŋel-re-n
fear-AOR-3SG
‘The child is afraid of the dog.’
FILL miltere-mken- N
(94)
asi
woman
časka-v
cup-ACC
öke-n'
milk-INSTR
miltere-mken-ni
fill(CAUS)-AOR-3SG
‘The woman filled the cup with milk.’
FOLLOW bod- N
(69)
ŋin
dog
min-u
1SG-ACC
bod-da-n
follow-AOR-3SG
‘The dog followed me.’
FRIGHTEN ŋelu-ken N
(93)
nakat
bear
kuŋa-v
child-ACC
ŋel-uken-ni
be_afraid-CAUS-AOR.3SG
‘The bear frightened the child.’
TAKE ga- R
(73)
nimek
neighbor
min-duk
1SG-ABL
oro-m
reindeer-ACC
ga-d-ni
take-AOR-3SG
‘The neighbor took a reindeer from me.’
HELP bel- N
(68)
asi
woman
kuŋa-v
child-ACC
bel-re-n
help-AOR-3SG
‘The woman helped the child.’
HIDE diken- N
(75)
etiken
old_man
meŋe-m
money-ACC
gia-duk
friend-ABL
diken-ni
hide-AOR.3SG
‘The old man hid the money (from his friend).’
HIT ieč- N
(20)
hurken
boy
huliča-m
fox-ACC
mo-č
stick-INSTR
iet-te-n
hit-AOR-3SG
‘The boy hit the fox with the stick.’
HUNT (FOR) buju- N
(21)
bej
man
buju-m
deer-ACC
bujus-se-n
hunt-AOR-3SG
‘The man hunted for deer.’
FEEL PAIN en- N
(22)
min
my
dil-u
head-1SG.POSS
en-se-n
ache-AOR-3SG
‘My head hurts. / I have a headache.’
JUMP melun N
(23)
kuŋa
child
haran-dula
bed-LOC
melun-ni
jump-AOR.3SG
‘The child jumped on the bed.’
KILL ma- N
(24)
hurken
boy
mavdili-v
snake-ACC
mo-č
stick-INSTR
ma-n
kill-AOR.3SG
‘The boy killed the snake with the stick.’
KNOW ha- N
(25)
bej
man
hurke-m
boy-ACC
ha-n
know-AOR.3SG
‘The man knew the boy.’
GO hör- (1) N
(79)
kuŋa
child
d'u-la
house-LOC
hör-re-n
go-AOR-3SG
‘The child went home.’
LIKE ajav- N
(27)
asatkan
girl
hurke-m
boy-ACC
ajav-ra-n
like-AOR-3SG
‘The girl liked/loved the boy.’
LIVE bi-(s) N
(28)
hurken
boy
bilek-le
village-LOC
bi-s-ni
be-AOR-3SG
‘The boy lived in the village.’
LOAD in-u- N
(29)
bej
man
kuŋa-v
child-ACC
turki-la
sledge-LOC
in-u-n
load-TR-AOR.3SG
‘The man loaded the child on the sledge.’
SEE it- (2) N
(39)
bej
man
hurke-m
boy-ACC
it-te-n
see-AOR-3SG
‘The man saw the boy.’
MARRY atikanŋalbu- N
(31)
bej
man
asatka-m
girl-ACC
atikanŋalbu-n
marry-AOR.3SG
‘The man married the girl.’
MEET baka-lda- N
(32)
bej
man
asatka-m
girl-ACC
baka-lda-n
find-SOC-AOR.3SG
‘The man met the girl.’
POUR öŋke- N
(33)
asatkan
girl
mö-v
water-ACC
miske-le
bowl-LOC
öŋke-n
pour-AOR.3SG
‘The girl poured the water into the bowl.’
PUT ne- N
(34)
asi
woman
kuŋa-v
child-ACC
telgu-le
cradle-LOC
ne-d-ni
put-AOR-3SG
‘The woman put the child into the cradle.’
RAIN udn- N
(35)
udan
rain
udn-a-n
rain-AOR-3SG
‘It rains.’
REMEMBER d’öŋči- N
(36)
bej
man
hurke-m
boy-ACC
d’oŋči-n
remember-AOR.3SG
‘The man remembered the boy.’
RUN tut- N
(37)
kuŋa
child
avlan-dula
plain-LOC
tut-te-n
run-AOR-3SG
‘The child ran on the plain.’
SEND hör-u- M
(40)
hupkučimŋe
teacher
kuŋa-v
child-ACC
skola-la
school-LOC
hör-u-n
go-TR-AOR.3SG
‘The teacher sent the boy to school.’
SHOW ič-uken- R
(42)
hurken
boy
kniga-v
book-ACC
hupkučimŋe-du
teacher-DAT
ič-uken-ni
see-CAUS-AOR.3SG
‘The boy showed the book to the teacher.’
SING ike- N
(43)
hurken
boy
ike-v
song-ACC
ike-n
sing-AOR.3SG
‘The boy sang (a song).’
SIT tege-t- N
(44)
bej
man
tör-le
ground-LOC
tege-t-te-n
sit-RES-AOR-3SG
‘The man sat on the ground.’
(78)
kuŋa
child
tör-le
ground-LOC
tege-t-te-n
sit-RES-AOR-3SG
‘The child sat on the ground.’
SIT DOWN teg- N
(45)
bej
man
tör-le
ground-LOC
teg-re-n
sit-AOR-3SG
‘The man sat down (on the ground).’
STEAL d’örmi- N
(46)
hurken
boy
kniga-v
book-ACC
hupkučimŋe-duk
teacher-ABL
d’örmi-n
steal-AOR.3SG
‘The boy stole the book from the teacher.’
TALK t’öre- R
(47)
bej
man
hurken-teki
boy-ALL
noŋan-duli-n
3SG-PROL-3SG
töre-n
tell-AOR.3SG
‘The man talked to the boy about him.’
TEAR atal- N
(48)
hurken
boy
kniga-duk
book-ABL
stranica-v
page-ACC
atal-ra-n
tear/remove-AOR-3SG
‘The boy tore the page from the book.’
SAY gö’n- R
(38)
bej
man
hurken-teki
boy-ALL
ad’it-u
truth-ACC
gön-ni
say-AOR.3SG
‘The man said the truth to the boy.’
(49)
bej
man
hurken-teki
boy-ALL
ukčenek-u
story-ACC
gön-ni
say-AOR.3SG
‘The man told a story to the boy.’

(66)
gia-l
friend-PL
gö-met-te
say-REC-AOR.3PL
‘The friends talked.’
THROW ule- N
(50)
bej
man
d’eple-v
food-ACC
tog-la
fire-LOC
ule-n
throw-AOR.3SG
‘The man threw the food into the fire.’
TIE ön’e- N
(51)
bej
man
oro-m
reindeer-ACC
hiakita-la
tree-LOC
ön’e-n
tie-AOR.3SG
‘The man tied the reindeer to the tree.’
TOUCH huŋri- N
(52)
hurken
boy
mavdili-v
snake-ACC
mo-č
stick-INSTR
huŋrin-ni
touch-AOR.3SG
‘The boy touched the snake with the stick.’
WASH av- N
(53)
asi
woman
kuŋa-v
child-ACC
av-ra-n
wash-AOR-3SG
‘The woman washed the child.’
WIPE tes- N
(54)
hurken
boy
teti-duk
cloth-ABL
n’aŋsa-v
dirt-ACC
tes-se-n
wipe-AOR-3SG
‘The boy wiped the dirt from the cloth.’
SEARCH FOR gele-t N
(30)
asi
woman
kuŋa-v
child-ACC
gelet-te-n
look_for-AOR-3SG
‘The woman looked for the child.’
DRESS tet-u N
(17)
asi
woman
kuŋa-v
child-ACC
tetu-n
dress-AOR.3SG
‘The woman dressed the child.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) hus- N
(67)
asi
woman
n'urit-u
hair-ACC
hus-sa-n
cut-AOR-3SG
‘The woman cut her hair.’
SHOUT AT irka N
(41)
bej
man
hurken-teki
boy-ALL
irkan-ni
shout-AOR.3SG
‘The man shouted to/at the boy.’
(70)
asi
woman
kuŋa-tki
child-ALL
irka-n
shout-AOR.3SG
‘The woman shouted at the child.’
BUILD o- N
(71)
bej
man
d'u-v
house-ACC
mo-duk
wood-ABL
o-n
build-AOR.3SG
‘The man built the house from wood.’
PEEL n'aŋu- N
(74)
hurken
boy
kortoske-v
potato-ACC
n'aŋu-n
peel-AOR.3SG
‘The boy peeled the potatoes.’
BLINK nimrun- N
(77)
kuŋa
child
iasa-l-i
eye-PL-REFL.POSS.SG
nimrun-ni
blink-AOR.3SG
‘The child blinked.’
LAUGH inin- N
(80)
asatkan
girl
inin-re-n
laugh-AOR-3SG
‘The girl laughed.’
SCREAM kuni- N
(81)
asatkan
girl
kuni-sn-a-n
scream-MOM-AOR-3SG
‘The girl screamed.’
PLAY evi- N
(82)
kuŋa
child
evi-n
play-AOR.3SG
‘The child plays.’
BE SAD nabu-t N
(83)
kuŋa
child
nabut-ta-n
get_upset-AOR-3SG
‘The child is sad.’
ROLL hirun- N
(84)
d'ol
stone
hirun-ni
roll-AOR.3SG
‘The stone rolled.’
SINK hir- N
(85)
moomi
boat
hir-re-n
sink-AOR-3SG
‘The boat sank.’
BURN dur- N
(86)
higi
forest
dur-re-n
burn-AOR-3SG
‘The forest is burning.’
BE DRY ileŋ bi- N
(87)
tör
ground
ileŋ
dry
bi-s-ni
be-AOR-3SG
‘The ground is dry.’
BE A HUNTER bujusemŋe bi- N
(88)
am-mu
father-1SG.POSS
bujusemŋe
hunter
bi-s-ni
be-AOR-3SG
‘My father is a hunter.’
HUG kemni- N
(90)
asi
woman
kuŋa-v
child-ACC
kemni-n
hug-AOR.3SG
‘The woman hugged her child.’
SMELL ŋosu-t- N
(91)
nakat
bear
bej-u
man-ACC
ŋosut-ta-n
smell-AOR-3SG
‘The bear smelled the man.’
THINK mulgat- N
(92)
hi
2SG
min-u
1SG-ACC
malga-ci-nri
think-RES-AOR.2SG
‘You think about me?’
LEAVE hör- (2) N
(26)
hurken
boy
bilek-tuk
village-ABL
hör-re-n
go-AOR-3SG
‘The boy went (from the village).’