Mediopassive C

Description

A/nom P/acc V -> P/nom V/med
The main functions of the “mediopassive” marker
–b-/-p- are: a) anticausative; b) agentless passive (“quasipassive” in Geniušiene’s terms); c) stative passive; d) “middle” (alias ‘potential passive’ or ‘facilitative passive’); cf. aŋa-b-ta-n [open-MED-AOR-3SG] ‘It opened/was opened/is open/can be opened’.

Two syntactic varieties of the mediopassive are a) personal (P-promoting) mediopassive (A is deleted and P is promoted); b) impersonal mediopassive (A is deleted without P being promoted).

Important: the grammaticality judgments are given for personal (promotional) mediopassive (impersonal mediopassive can be in principle applied to any verb in the facilitative ('it is possible to V') sense).
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
GIVE bö- R
(6)
hurken
boy
kniga-v
book-ACC
hupkučimŋe-du
teacher-DAT
bö-n
give-AOR.3SG
‘The boy gave the book to the teacher.’
LOOK AT it- (1) N
(5)
bej
man
hurken-teki
boy-ALL
it-te-n
see-AOR-3SG
‘The man looked at the boy.’
ASK FOR ulgim- M
(2)
bej
man
hurken-teki
boy-ALL
meŋe-m
money-ACC
bö-de-n
give-PURP-3SG
gasči-n
ask-AOR.3SG
‘The boy asked the man for money.’
HUNT (FOR) buju- R
(21)
bej
man
buju-m
deer-ACC
bujus-se-n
hunt-AOR-3SG
‘The man hunted for deer.’
FEEL PAIN en- N
(22)
min
my
dil-u
head-1SG.POSS
en-se-n
ache-AOR-3SG
‘My head hurts. / I have a headache.’
JUMP melun N
(23)
kuŋa
child
haran-dula
bed-LOC
melun-ni
jump-AOR.3SG
‘The child jumped on the bed.’
KILL ma- R
(24)
hurken
boy
mavdili-v
snake-ACC
mo-č
stick-INSTR
ma-n
kill-AOR.3SG
‘The boy killed the snake with the stick.’

(58)
bej
man
ma-p-ta-n
kill-MED-AOR-3SG
‘The man was / got killed.’
KNOW ha- R
(25)
bej
man
hurke-m
boy-ACC
ha-n
know-AOR.3SG
‘The man knew the boy.’
GO hör- (1) N
(79)
kuŋa
child
d'u-la
house-LOC
hör-re-n
go-AOR-3SG
‘The child went home.’
LIKE ajav- M
(27)
asatkan
girl
hurke-m
boy-ACC
ajav-ra-n
like-AOR-3SG
‘The girl liked/loved the boy.’
LIVE bi-(s) M
(28)
hurken
boy
bilek-le
village-LOC
bi-s-ni
be-AOR-3SG
‘The boy lived in the village.’
LOAD in-u- R
(29)
bej
man
kuŋa-v
child-ACC
turki-la
sledge-LOC
in-u-n
load-TR-AOR.3SG
‘The man loaded the child on the sledge.’
SEE it- (2) R
(39)
bej
man
hurke-m
boy-ACC
it-te-n
see-AOR-3SG
‘The man saw the boy.’
MEET baka-lda- R
(32)
bej
man
asatka-m
girl-ACC
baka-lda-n
find-SOC-AOR.3SG
‘The man met the girl.’
POUR öŋke- R
(33)
asatkan
girl
mö-v
water-ACC
miske-le
bowl-LOC
öŋke-n
pour-AOR.3SG
‘The girl poured the water into the bowl.’

(57)
water
časka-la
cup-LOC
öŋke-p-te-n
pour-MED-AOR-3SG
‘The water was poured (into the cup).’
PUT ne- R
(34)
asi
woman
kuŋa-v
child-ACC
telgu-le
cradle-LOC
ne-d-ni
put-AOR-3SG
‘The woman put the child into the cradle.’
RAIN udn- N
(35)
udan
rain
udn-a-n
rain-AOR-3SG
‘It rains.’
REMEMBER d’öŋči- R
(36)
bej
man
hurke-m
boy-ACC
d’oŋči-n
remember-AOR.3SG
‘The man remembered the boy.’
RUN tut- N
(37)
kuŋa
child
avlan-dula
plain-LOC
tut-te-n
run-AOR-3SG
‘The child ran on the plain.’
SEND hör-u- R
(40)
hupkučimŋe
teacher
kuŋa-v
child-ACC
skola-la
school-LOC
hör-u-n
go-TR-AOR.3SG
‘The teacher sent the boy to school.’
SHOW ič-uken- R
(42)
hurken
boy
kniga-v
book-ACC
hupkučimŋe-du
teacher-DAT
ič-uken-ni
see-CAUS-AOR.3SG
‘The boy showed the book to the teacher.’
SING ike- R
(43)
hurken
boy
ike-v
song-ACC
ike-n
sing-AOR.3SG
‘The boy sang (a song).’
SIT tege-t- M
(44)
bej
man
tör-le
ground-LOC
tege-t-te-n
sit-RES-AOR-3SG
‘The man sat on the ground.’
(78)
kuŋa
child
tör-le
ground-LOC
tege-t-te-n
sit-RES-AOR-3SG
‘The child sat on the ground.’
SIT DOWN teg- N
(45)
bej
man
tör-le
ground-LOC
teg-re-n
sit-AOR-3SG
‘The man sat down (on the ground).’
STEAL d’örmi- R
(46)
hurken
boy
kniga-v
book-ACC
hupkučimŋe-duk
teacher-ABL
d’örmi-n
steal-AOR.3SG
‘The boy stole the book from the teacher.’
TEAR atal- R
(48)
hurken
boy
kniga-duk
book-ABL
stranica-v
page-ACC
atal-ra-n
tear/remove-AOR-3SG
‘The boy tore the page from the book.’
SAY gö’n- R
(38)
bej
man
hurken-teki
boy-ALL
ad’it-u
truth-ACC
gön-ni
say-AOR.3SG
‘The man said the truth to the boy.’
(49)
bej
man
hurken-teki
boy-ALL
ukčenek-u
story-ACC
gön-ni
say-AOR.3SG
‘The man told a story to the boy.’
THROW ule- R
(50)
bej
man
d’eple-v
food-ACC
tog-la
fire-LOC
ule-n
throw-AOR.3SG
‘The man threw the food into the fire.’
TIE ön’e- R
(51)
bej
man
oro-m
reindeer-ACC
hiakita-la
tree-LOC
ön’e-n
tie-AOR.3SG
‘The man tied the reindeer to the tree.’
TOUCH huŋri- R
(52)
hurken
boy
mavdili-v
snake-ACC
mo-č
stick-INSTR
huŋrin-ni
touch-AOR.3SG
‘The boy touched the snake with the stick.’
WASH av- R
(53)
asi
woman
kuŋa-v
child-ACC
av-ra-n
wash-AOR-3SG
‘The woman washed the child.’
WIPE tes- R
(54)
hurken
boy
teti-duk
cloth-ABL
n’aŋsa-v
dirt-ACC
tes-se-n
wipe-AOR-3SG
‘The boy wiped the dirt from the cloth.’
APPEAR hie N
(1)
kuma
seal
tala
there
hie-n
appear-AOR.3SG
‘There appeared a seal.’
FEEL COLD iŋem- N
(3)
kuŋa
child
iŋem-re-n
freeze-AOR-3SG
‘The child froze.’
BE HUNGRY d’em- N
(4)
kuŋa
child
d’em-se-n
want_eat-AOR-3SG
‘The child is hungry.’
BEAT pavul- M
(72)
etiken
old_man
hurke-m
boy-ACC
mo-č
stick-INSTR
pavul-la-n
beat-AOR-3SG
‘The old man beats the boy with the stick.’
BREAK čelgel- M
(7)
hurken
boy
ŋal-u
arm-ACC.1SG.POSS
mo-č
stick-INSTR
čelgel-re-n
break-AOR-3SG
‘The boy broke my arm with the stick.’
BRING em-u- R
(8)
hurken
boy
nimek-tu
neighbor-DAT
kniga-v
book-ACC
em-u-n
come-TR-AOR.3SG
‘The boy brought the book to the neighbor.’
BUILD d’uŋna- R
(9)
bej
man
d'u-v
house-ACC
d’uŋna-n
house_build-AOR.3SG
‘The man built the house.’
NAME gerbet- N
(10)
bej
man
hurke-m
boy-ACC
nuŋu-č
fool-INSTR
gerbet-te-n
call-AOR-3SG
‘The man called the boy a fool.’
CARRY ŋal- R
(76)
asi
woman
kuŋa-v
child-ACC
d'u-la
house-LOC
ŋal-sa-n
carry-AOR-3SG
‘The woman carried the child home.’
CLIMB oj-či- R
(11)
bej
man
urekče-m
mountain-ACC
ojči-n
climb-AOR.3SG
‘The man climbed (up) the mountain.’
COME (2) em- M
(12)
hurken
boy
bilek-le
village-LOC
em-re-n
come-AOR-3SG
‘The boy came (to the village).’
COUGH hiemken- N
(13)
bej
man
hiemken-ni
cough-AOR.3SG
‘The man coughed.’
COVER das- R
(14)
bej
man
kuŋa-v
child-ACC
ulra-č
blanket-INSTR
das-sa-n
cover-AOR-3SG
‘The man covered the child with the blanket.’
CUT mine- R
(15)
hurken
boy
kileb-u
bread-ACC
hirka-n’
knife-INSTR
mine-n
cut-AOR.3SG
‘The boy cut the bread with the knife.’

(60)
ulre
meat
e-s-ni
not_do-AOR-3SG
mine-p-te
cut-MED-CONNEG
‘The meat doesn’t cut (easily).’
DIE kö’ke- N
(16)
etiken
old_man
köke-n
die-AOR.3SG
‘The old man died.’
DRESS tet- R
(18)
asi
woman
teti-v
clothes-ACC
tet-te-n
dress-AOR-3SG
‘The woman dressed/put on clothes.’
EAT d’eb- R
(19)
bej
man
kileb-u
bread-ACC
d’ep-te-n
eat-AOR-3SG
‘The man ate the bread.’
FALL tik- N
(89)
kuŋa
child
tik-re-n
fall-AOR-3SG
‘The child fell.’
FEAR ŋel- N
(63)
kuŋa
child
ŋina-č
dog-INSTR
ŋel-re-n
fear-AOR-3SG
‘The child is afraid of the dog.’
FILL miltere-mken- R
(94)
asi
woman
časka-v
cup-ACC
öke-n'
milk-INSTR
miltere-mken-ni
fill(CAUS)-AOR-3SG
‘The woman filled the cup with milk.’
FOLLOW bod- M
(69)
ŋin
dog
min-u
1SG-ACC
bod-da-n
follow-AOR-3SG
‘The dog followed me.’
FRIGHTEN ŋelu-ken R
(93)
nakat
bear
kuŋa-v
child-ACC
ŋel-uken-ni
be_afraid-CAUS-AOR.3SG
‘The bear frightened the child.’
TAKE ga- R
(73)
nimek
neighbor
min-duk
1SG-ABL
oro-m
reindeer-ACC
ga-d-ni
take-AOR-3SG
‘The neighbor took a reindeer from me.’
HELP bel- M
(68)
asi
woman
kuŋa-v
child-ACC
bel-re-n
help-AOR-3SG
‘The woman helped the child.’
HIDE diken- R
(75)
etiken
old_man
meŋe-m
money-ACC
gia-duk
friend-ABL
diken-ni
hide-AOR.3SG
‘The old man hid the money (from his friend).’
HIT ieč- M
(20)
hurken
boy
huliča-m
fox-ACC
mo-č
stick-INSTR
iet-te-n
hit-AOR-3SG
‘The boy hit the fox with the stick.’
MARRY atikanŋalbu- M
(31)
bej
man
asatka-m
girl-ACC
atikanŋalbu-n
marry-AOR.3SG
‘The man married the girl.’
TALK t’öre- M
(47)
bej
man
hurken-teki
boy-ALL
noŋan-duli-n
3SG-PROL-3SG
töre-n
tell-AOR.3SG
‘The man talked to the boy about him.’
SEARCH FOR gele-t M
(30)
asi
woman
kuŋa-v
child-ACC
gelet-te-n
look_for-AOR-3SG
‘The woman looked for the child.’
DRESS tet-u R
(17)
asi
woman
kuŋa-v
child-ACC
tetu-n
dress-AOR.3SG
‘The woman dressed the child.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) hus- R
(67)
asi
woman
n'urit-u
hair-ACC
hus-sa-n
cut-AOR-3SG
‘The woman cut her hair.’
SHOUT AT irka N
(41)
bej
man
hurken-teki
boy-ALL
irkan-ni
shout-AOR.3SG
‘The man shouted to/at the boy.’
(70)
asi
woman
kuŋa-tki
child-ALL
irka-n
shout-AOR.3SG
‘The woman shouted at the child.’
BUILD o- R
(71)
bej
man
d'u-v
house-ACC
mo-duk
wood-ABL
o-n
build-AOR.3SG
‘The man built the house from wood.’
PEEL n'aŋu- R
(74)
hurken
boy
kortoske-v
potato-ACC
n'aŋu-n
peel-AOR.3SG
‘The boy peeled the potatoes.’
BLINK nimrun- M
(77)
kuŋa
child
iasa-l-i
eye-PL-REFL.POSS.SG
nimrun-ni
blink-AOR.3SG
‘The child blinked.’
LAUGH inin- N
(80)
asatkan
girl
inin-re-n
laugh-AOR-3SG
‘The girl laughed.’
SCREAM kuni- N
(81)
asatkan
girl
kuni-sn-a-n
scream-MOM-AOR-3SG
‘The girl screamed.’
PLAY evi- M
(82)
kuŋa
child
evi-n
play-AOR.3SG
‘The child plays.’
BE SAD nabu-t N
(83)
kuŋa
child
nabut-ta-n
get_upset-AOR-3SG
‘The child is sad.’
ROLL hirun- N
(84)
d'ol
stone
hirun-ni
roll-AOR.3SG
‘The stone rolled.’
SINK hir- N
(85)
moomi
boat
hir-re-n
sink-AOR-3SG
‘The boat sank.’
BURN dur- N
(86)
higi
forest
dur-re-n
burn-AOR-3SG
‘The forest is burning.’
BE DRY ileŋ bi- N
(87)
tör
ground
ileŋ
dry
bi-s-ni
be-AOR-3SG
‘The ground is dry.’
BE A HUNTER bujusemŋe bi- N
(88)
am-mu
father-1SG.POSS
bujusemŋe
hunter
bi-s-ni
be-AOR-3SG
‘My father is a hunter.’
HUG kemni- M
(90)
asi
woman
kuŋa-v
child-ACC
kemni-n
hug-AOR.3SG
‘The woman hugged her child.’
SMELL ŋosu-t- M
(91)
nakat
bear
bej-u
man-ACC
ŋosut-ta-n
smell-AOR-3SG
‘The bear smelled the man.’
THINK mulgat- R
(92)
hi
2SG
min-u
1SG-ACC
malga-ci-nri
think-RES-AOR.2SG
‘You think about me?’
LEAVE hör- (2) N
(26)
hurken
boy
bilek-tuk
village-ABL
hör-re-n
go-AOR-3SG
‘The boy went (from the village).’