Alternations of Even

Alternations
Alternation name Description Examples Verbs
C
y A/nom P/acc~X/obl V -> A/nom V-rec
The reciprocal is coded by the verbal suffix
-mat-, and can mark cross-coreferentiality with direct but also (animate) indirect objects.

Furthermore one can distinguish between argument vs. possessive reciprocals; in the second case the cross-coreferentiality holds between the subject and the possessor of an object. Only reciprocals of the argument type are taken into account in grammaticality judgments.

Only a direct reciprocal costruction involving cross-coreferentiality between the subject and the direct object of a transitive verb or an oblique object of a bivalent intransitive is represented here . (For reciprocals with cross-coreferentiality of a subject with indirect object of a trivalent verb see Indirect Reciprocal)
(61)
Kuŋal avmatta.
kuŋa-l
child-PL
av-mat-ta
wash-REC-AOR.3PL
‘The children washed each other.’
28
C
y A/nom P/acc V -> P/nom V/med
The main functions of the “mediopassive” marker
–b-/-p- are: a) anticausative; b) agentless passive (“quasipassive” in Geniušiene’s terms); c) stative passive; d) “middle” (alias ‘potential passive’ or ‘facilitative passive’); cf. aŋa-b-ta-n [open-MED-AOR-3SG] ‘It opened/was opened/is open/can be opened’.

Two syntactic varieties of the mediopassive are a) personal (P-promoting) mediopassive (A is deleted and P is promoted); b) impersonal mediopassive (A is deleted without P being promoted).

Important: the grammaticality judgments are given for personal (promotional) mediopassive (impersonal mediopassive can be in principle applied to any verb in the facilitative ('it is possible to V') sense).
(58)
Bej maptan.
bej
man
ma-p-ta-n
kill-MED-AOR-3SG
‘The man was / got killed.’
38
C
y A/nom P/acc V -> P/nom A/dat V.adv
A/nom X/obl V -> X/nom A/dat V.adv
Adversative passive (AdP) is marked with a verbal suffix
-v-/-m-, from both transitives and intransitives. It implies that the derived subject in the passive construction is adversely affected.

There are two main syntactic varieties of AdPs: direct passives where a derived subject corresponds to an argument (typically P, but also Goal), and indirect (or possessive) passives, where the subject corresponds to the possessor of either object P or subject (S). Only direct passives are taken into account in grammaticality judgments, since possessive AdPs can in principle be built on any verb.
Furthermore only verbs naturally associated with an adversative situation are indicated as undergoing this alternation regularly, other verbs with neutral or positive semantics requiring special contexts are indicated as undergoing an alternation marginally.
(55)
Etiken nugdedu mawran.
etiken
old_man
nugde-du
bear-DAT
ma-w-ra-n
kill-AD-AOR-3SG
‘The old man was killed by the bear.’
15
U
n A/nom men-i (self.acc) V -> S/nom V
An alternation of the transitive and intransitive pattern, where the intransitive pattern has a reflexive meaning (like English: wash (himself)).
(64)
Kuŋa avran.
kuŋa
child
av-ra-n
wash-AOR-3SG
‘The child washed (himself).’
2
U
n A/nom P/acc V --> A/nom P/com V
The transitive pattern alternates with the intransitive pattern with the counteragent in the comitative case (unless the subject is in the plural).
(65)
Bej gian'un bakaldar.
bej
man
gia-n'un
friend-COM
baka-lda-r
find-SOC-AOR.3PL
‘The man met with a friend.’
2
U
n A/nom P/acc V --> A/nom V
Deletion of a possibly cognate object.
(96)
Asi ike-n.
asi
woman
ike-n
sing-AOR.3SG
‘The woman sings.’
5
C
y A/nom P/acc V --> P/nom V.res
A/nom V -> S/nom V.res
The resultative marker
–t-/-č- is used. When applied to intransitives it has the meaning of S-resultative (cf. teg- ‘sit down’ -> tege-t- ‘sit’). In this case verbal valency does not change. When applied to transitives it usually has the meaning of P-resultative (stative passive). In some cases it can also have the meaning of an A-resultative, but such uses will be ignored here as it is not found with the verbs on the list.

The resultative forms are formed only with verbs with affected Ps, mostly Ps that change the location/posture.
(59)
Oron (hiakitala) ön’etten.
oron
reindeer
hiakita-la
tree-LOC
ön’e-t-te-n
tie-RES-AOR-3SG
‘The reindeer is tied to the tree.’
12
C
y A/nom P/acc IO/obl V -> A/nom P/acc V-rec

The reciprocal is coded by the verbal suffix
-mat-, and can mark cross-coreferentiality with direct but also (animate) indirect objects.

Furthermore one can distinguish between argument vs. possessive reciprocals; in the second case the cross-coreferentiality holds between the subject and the possessor of an object. Only reciprocals of the argument type are taken into account in grammaticality judgments.

Only a indirect reciprocal costruction involving cross-coreferentiality between the subject and the indirect object is represented here. (The second argument of a transitive verb does not take part in this alternation, but see Direct Reciprocal)
(104)
Hurker knigalbu bömette.
hurke-r
boy-PL
kniga-l-bu
book-PL-ACC
bö-met-te
give-REC-AOR.3PL
‘The boys gave books to each otherr.’
6