say

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The verb say affords multiple valency frames, some highly verb-specific.

Coding frame

Simplex Verb form

Examples

(63)
She said something to me.
she
she
said
said
something
something
to
to
me
me
‘She said something to me.’
(64)
They said "no" to me.
they
they
said
said
no
no
to
to
me
me
‘They said "no" to me.’
(67)
Don't say that word.
do
do
not
not
say
say
that
that
word
word
‘Don't say that word.’
(68)
She said her prayers every night.
she
she
said
said
her
her
prayers
prayers
every
every
night
night
‘She said her prayers every night.’
(443)
It's hard to say.
it
it
is
is
hard
hard
to
to
say
say
‘It's hard to say.’
(444)
Why can't they both just say sorry and put it behind them?
why
why
can
can
not
not
they
they
both
both
just
just
say
say
sorry
sorry
and
and
put
put
it
it
behind
behind
them
them
‘Why can't they both just say sorry and put it behind them?’

Verb meaning , Microroles , Coding sets and Argument types

# SAY Coding set Argument type
1 sayer NP-nom V.subj A
2 said content NP-acc P
3 saying addressee to+NP X

Alternations

Alternation name Occurs Examples
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
C
N y
U
N n
C
N y
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
C
N y
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
C
N y
U
N n
C
N y
C
N y
U
M n
(69)
‘Her words said yes, but her face said no.’
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
U
N n
C
N y
U
R n
(65)
‘He said, "Sorry, I have to leave early".’
R
(66)
‘He said that he had to go.’