Examples of English

Example Verb meaning Example of...
(1)
I ate too much for lunch.
I
I
ate
ate
too
too
much
much
for
for
lunch
lunch
‘I ate too much for lunch.’
EAT the Verb form eat
(2)
He was still eating when I arrived.
he
he
was
was
still
still
eating
eating
when
when
I
I
arrived
arrived
‘He was still eating when I arrived.’
EAT an Alternation:
Understood Omitted Object
(3)
He used to eat at the cafe.
he
he
used
used
to
to
eat
eat
at
at
the
the
cafe
cafe
‘He used to eat at the cafe.’
EAT an Alternation:
Understood Omitted Object
(4)
It's raining.
it
it
is
is
raining
raining
‘It's raining.’
RAIN a Coding frame:
V
(5)
The fire burnt for hours.
the
the
fire
fire
burnt
burnt
for
for
hours
hours
‘The fire burnt for hours.’
BURN a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1]
(6)
The fire burnt the house down.
the
the
fire
fire
burnt
burnt
the
the
house
house
down
down
‘The fire burnt the house down.’
BURN an Alternation:
Inchoative-Causative
(7)
Her house is burning down around her.
her
her
house
house
is
is
burning
burning
down
down
around
around
her
her
‘Her house is burning down around her.’
BURN the Verb form burn
(8)
Kindling burns well but it doesn't last long.
kindling
kindling
burns
burns
well
well
but
but
it
it
does
does
not
not
last
last
long
long
‘Kindling burns well but it doesn't last long.’
BURN an Alternation:
Middle
(9)
I burnt the papers in the backyard.
I
I
burnt
burnt
the
the
papers
papers
in
in
the
the
backyard
backyard
‘I burnt the papers in the backyard.’
BURN an Alternation:
Inchoative-Causative
(10)
I burnt myself on the hand.
I
I
burnt
burnt
myself
myself
on
on
the
the
hand
hand
‘I burnt myself on the hand.’
BURN an Alternation:
Accidental Reflexive
(11)
The fire burnt her house down.
the
the
fire
fire
burnt
burnt
her
her
house
house
down
down
‘The fire burnt her house down.’
BURN an Alternation:
Inchoative-Causative
(12)
She hugged her little sister and kissed her on the head.
she
she
hugged
hugged
her
her
little
little
sister
sister
and
and
kissed
kissed
her
her
on
on
the
the
head
head
‘She hugged her little sister and kissed her on the head.’
HUG a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc
(13)
They hugged and kissed.
they
they
hugged
hugged
and
and
kissed
kissed
‘They hugged and kissed.’
HUG an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(14)
I haven't had a hug in months.
I
I
have
have
not
not
had
had
a
a
hug
hug
in
in
months
months
‘I haven't had a hug in months.’
HUG an Alternation:
Have-a-VP(nominal)
(15)
Cut the onion with a sharp knife.
cut
cut
the
the
onion
onion
with
with
a
a
sharp
sharp
knife
knife
‘Cut the onion with a sharp knife.’
CUT a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc ( > with+3)
(16)
She cut herself on the finger.
she
she
cut
cut
herself
herself
on
on
the
the
finger
finger
‘She cut herself on the finger.’
CUT an Alternation:
Accidental Reflexive
(17)
He cut his face while shaving.
he
he
cut
cut
his
his
face
face
while
while
shaving
shaving
‘He cut his face while shaving.’
CUT an Alternation:
Accidental Body-part
(18)
A shard of glass cut his hand.
a
a
shard
shard
of
of
glass
glass
cut
cut
his
his
hand
hand
‘A shard of glass cut his hand.’
CUT an Alternation:
Quasi-agentive Instrumental Subject
(19)
A good knife cuts well, offers a good grip, and isn't too heavy to hold.
a
a
good
good
knife
knife
cuts
cuts
well
well
offers
offers
a
a
good
good
grip
grip
and
and
is
is
not
not
too
too
heavy
heavy
to
to
hold
hold
‘A good knife cuts well, offers a good grip, and isn't too heavy to hold.’
CUT an Alternation:
Instrumental Subject
(20)
This material will cut nicely if handled properly.
this
this
material
material
will
will
cut
cut
nicely
nicely
if
if
handled
handled
properly
properly
‘This material will cut nicely if handled properly.’
CUT an Alternation:
Middle
(21)
The fire burnt over 4000 hectares.
the
the
fire
fire
burnt
burnt
over
over
4000
4000
hectares
hectares
‘The fire burnt over 4000 hectares.’
BURN the Verb form burn
(22)
The children laughed and laughed.
the
the
children
children
laughed
laughed
and
and
laughed
laughed
‘The children laughed and laughed.’
LAUGH a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1]
(23)
They laughed at me.
they
they
laughed
laughed
at
at
me
me
‘They laughed at me.’
LAUGH an Alternation:
Directed Nonverbal Expression
(24)
We had a good laugh about it later.
we
we
had
had
a
a
good
good
laugh
laugh
about
about
it
it
later
later
‘We had a good laugh about it later.’
LAUGH an Alternation:
Have-a-VP(nominal)
(25)
I talked to him about his problem for quite a while.
I
I
talked
talked
to
to
him
him
about
about
his
his
problem
problem
for
for
quite
quite
a
a
while
while
‘I talked to him about his problem for quite a while.’
TALK a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] ( > to+2) ( > about+3)
(26)
We had a good long talk about it.
we
we
had
had
a
a
good
good
long
long
talk
talk
about
about
it
it
‘We had a good long talk about it.’
TALK an Alternation:
Have-a-VP(nominal)
(27)
They talked me into doing it.
they
they
talked
talked
me
me
into
into
doing
doing
it
it
‘They talked me into doing it.’
TALK an Alternation:
Into-Resultative
(28)
The boy climbed the tree.
the
the
boy
boy
climbed
climbed
the
the
tree
tree
‘The boy climbed the tree.’
CLIMB an Alternation:
Locative promotion
(29)
They climbed for hours.
they
they
climbed
climbed
for
for
hours
hours
‘They climbed for hours.’
CLIMB an Alternation:
Understood Omitted Object
(30)
We climbed ten kilometres.
we
we
climbed
climbed
ten
ten
kilometres
kilometres
‘We climbed ten kilometres.’
CLIMB an Alternation:
Understood Omitted Object
(31)
I climbed {up/down/over/in}.
I
I
climbed
climbed
{up/down/over/in}
{up/down/over/in}
‘I climbed up/down/over/in.’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > LOC2
(32)
The men carried the gear to camp.
the
the
men
men
carried
carried
the
the
gear
gear
to
to
camp
camp
‘The men carried the gear to camp.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc > LOC3
(33)
He carried it on his back.
he
he
carried
carried
it
it
on
on
his
his
back
back
‘He carried it on his back.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Assisting Body-part
(34)
She carried lip balm with her at all times.
she
she
carried
carried
lip
lip
balm
balm
with
with
her
her
at
at
all
all
times
times
‘She carried lip balm with her at all times.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Quasi-benefactive-accompaniment with
(35)
He was carrying a weapon.
he
he
was
was
carrying
carrying
a
a
weapon
weapon
‘He was carrying a weapon.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc > LOC3
(36)
The flood waters carried her away.
the
the
flood
flood
waters
waters
carried
carried
her
her
away
away
‘The flood waters carried her away.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc > LOC3
(37)
One B-52 carries 29,700 kilos of bombs.
one
one
B-52
B-52
carries
carries
29
29
700
700
kilos
kilos
of
of
bombs
bombs
‘One B-52 carries 29,700 kilos of bombs.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Location-capacity subject
(38)
She put the cup on the table.
she
she
put
put
the
the
cup
cup
on
on
the
the
table
table
‘She put the cup on the table.’
PUT a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc > LOC3
(39)
He put the phone down (way, back).
he
he
put
put
the
the
phone
phone
down
down
(way
(way
back)
back)
‘He put the phone down (way, back).’
PUT a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc > LOC3
(40)
The boy threw the ball through the window.
the
the
boy
boy
threw
threw
the
the
ball
ball
through
through
the
the
window
window
‘The boy threw the ball through the window.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc > LOC3
(41)
The boy threw her the ball.
the
the
boy
boy
threw
threw
her
her
the
the
ball
ball
‘The boy threw her the ball.’
THROW an Alternation:
Dative
(42)
They threw eggs at me.
they
they
threw
threw
eggs
eggs
at
at
me
me
‘They threw eggs at me.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc > LOC3
(43)
She threw herself out of a window.
she
she
threw
threw
herself
herself
out
out
of
of
a
a
window
window
‘She threw herself out of a window.’
THROW the Verb form throw
(44)
The girl looked good (to me).
the
the
girl
girl
looked
looked
good
good
(to
(to
me)
me)
‘The girl looked good (to me).’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Stimulus Subject
(45)
I had a look at it.
I
I
had
had
a
a
look
look
at
at
it
it
‘I had a look at it.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Have-a-VP(nominal)
(46)
I got a good look at him.
I
I
got
got
a
a
good
good
look
look
at
at
him
him
‘I got a good look at him.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Get-a-VP(nominal)
(47)
He looks like my brother.
he
he
looks
looks
like
like
my
my
brother
brother
‘He looks like my brother.’
LOOK AT the Verb form look
(48)
Look! Over there!
look
look
over
over
there
there
‘Look! Over there!’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Understood Omitted Object
(49)
He saw the bear by the river bank.
he
he
saw
saw
the
the
bear
bear
by
by
the
the
river
river
bank
bank
‘He saw the bear by the river bank.’
SEE a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc
(50)
I can't see.
I
I
can
can
not
not
see
see
‘I can't see.’
SEE an Alternation:
Understood Omitted Object
(51)
I saw that they were gone.
I
I
saw
saw
that
that
they
they
were
were
gone
gone
‘I saw that they were gone.’
SEE an Alternation:
That-complement
(52)
I saw them go.
I
I
saw
saw
them
them
go
go
‘I saw them go.’
SEE the Verb form see
(53)
I saw them going.
I
I
saw
saw
them
them
going
going
‘I saw them going.’
SEE an Alternation:
Gerundive complement
(54)
I see what you mean.
I
I
see
see
what
what
you
you
mean
mean
‘I see what you mean.’
SEE an Alternation:
Wh-complement
(55)
I'm seeing him this afternoon.
I
I
am
am
seeing
seeing
him
him
this
this
afternoon
afternoon
‘I'm seeing him this afternoon.’
SEE the Verb form see
(56)
I'm seeing a girl from work.
I
I
am
am
seeing
seeing
a
a
girl
girl
from
from
work
work
‘I'm seeing a girl from work.’
SEE the Verb form see
(57)
The mother was shouting at the children.
the
the
mother
mother
was
was
shouting
shouting
at
at
the
the
children
children
‘The mother was shouting at the children.’
SHOUT AT a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > at+2
(58)
Don't shout!
do
do
not
not
shout
shout
‘Don't shout!’
SHOUT AT the Verb form shout
(59)
"Get out, I never want to see you again", she shouted.
get
get
out
out
I
I
never
never
want
want
to
to
see
see
you
you
again
again
she
she
shouted
shouted
‘"Get out, I never want to see you again", she shouted.’
SHOUT AT an Alternation:
Direct Quotation
(60)
He shouted that he was alright.
he
he
shouted
shouted
that
that
he
he
was
was
alright
alright
‘He shouted that he was alright.’
SHOUT AT an Alternation:
That-complement
(61)
They shouted the answer.
they
they
shouted
shouted
the
the
answer
answer
‘They shouted the answer.’
SHOUT AT an Alternation:
Cognate Object
(62)
They shouted their support.
they
they
shouted
shouted
their
their
support
support
‘They shouted their support.’
SHOUT AT the Verb form shout
(63)
She said something to me.
she
she
said
said
something
something
to
to
me
me
‘She said something to me.’
SAY a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc ( > to+3)
(64)
They said "no" to me.
they
they
said
said
no
no
to
to
me
me
‘They said "no" to me.’
SAY the Verb form say
(65)
He said, "Sorry, I have to leave early".
he
he
said
said
sorry
sorry
I
I
have
have
to
to
leave
leave
early
early
‘He said, "Sorry, I have to leave early".’
SAY an Alternation:
Direct Quotation
(66)
He said that he had to go.
he
he
said
said
that
that
he
he
had
had
to
to
go
go
‘He said that he had to go.’
SAY an Alternation:
That-complement
(67)
Don't say that word.
do
do
not
not
say
say
that
that
word
word
‘Don't say that word.’
SAY the Verb form say
(68)
She said her prayers every night.
she
she
said
said
her
her
prayers
prayers
every
every
night
night
‘She said her prayers every night.’
SAY the Verb form say
(69)
Her words said yes, but her face said no.
her
her
words
words
said
said
yes
yes
but
but
her
her
face
face
said
said
no
no
‘Her words said yes, but her face said no.’
SAY an Alternation:
Quasi-agentive Instrumental Subject
(70)
The bear smelled the boy.
the
the
bear
bear
smelled
smelled
the
the
boy
boy
‘The bear smelled the boy.’
SMELL a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc
(71)
The food smelled good (to me).
the
the
food
food
smelled
smelled
good
good
(to
(to
me)
me)
‘The food smelled good (to me).’
SMELL an Alternation:
Stimulus Subject
(72)
This stuff smells like dead fish.
this
this
stuff
stuff
smells
smells
like
like
dead
dead
fish
fish
‘This stuff smells like dead fish.’
SMELL an Alternation:
Stimulus Subject
(73)
He died when he was sixteen.
he
he
died
died
when
when
he
he
was
was
sixteen
sixteen
‘He died when he was sixteen.’
DIE a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1]
(74)
He almost died in the flood waters.
he
he
almost
almost
died
died
in
in
the
the
flood
flood
waters
waters
‘He almost died in the flood waters.’
DIE the Verb form die
(75)
My computer died on me.
my
my
computer
computer
died
died
on
on
me
me
‘My computer died on me.’
DIE an Alternation:
Malefactive
(76)
I don't know her well.
I
I
do
do
not
not
know
know
her
her
well
well
‘I don't know her well.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc
(77)
He knows a lot about gardening.
he
he
knows
knows
a
a
lot
lot
about
about
gardening
gardening
‘He knows a lot about gardening.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Topic-about
(78)
He knows calculus.
he
he
knows
knows
calculus
calculus
‘He knows calculus.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Cognate Object
(79)
I knew that he was at home.
I
I
knew
knew
that
that
he
he
was
was
at
at
home
home
‘I knew that he was at home.’
KNOW an Alternation:
That-complement
(80)
I didn't know how to do it.
I
I
did
did
not
not
know
know
how
how
to
to
do
do
it
it
‘I didn't know how to do it.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Wh-complement
(81)
I was thinking about my mother yesterday.
I
I
was
was
thinking
thinking
about
about
my
my
mother
mother
yesterday
yesterday
‘I was thinking about my mother yesterday.’
THINK a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > about+2
(82)
I think that the library is still open.
I
I
think
think
that
that
the
the
library
library
is
is
still
still
open
open
‘I think that the library is still open.’
THINK an Alternation:
That-complement
(83)
I thought, "Gee, that's strange".
I
I
thought
thought
gee
gee
that
that
is
is
strange
strange
‘I thought, "Gee, that's strange".’
THINK an Alternation:
Direct Quotation
(84)
I had a long think about it.
I
I
had
had
a
a
long
long
think
think
about
about
it
it
‘I had a long think about it.’
THINK an Alternation:
Have-a-VP(nominal)
(85)
She thought it over.
she
she
thought
thought
it
it
over
over
‘She thought it over.’
THINK the Verb form think
(86)
I jumped for joy.
I
I
jumped
jumped
for
for
joy
joy
‘I jumped for joy.’
JUMP a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1]
(87)
The girl jumped over the puddle.
the
the
girl
girl
jumped
jumped
over
over
the
the
puddle
puddle
‘The girl jumped over the puddle.’
JUMP the Verb form jump
(88)
The horse jumped the fence and got away.
the
the
horse
horse
jumped
jumped
the
the
fence
fence
and
and
got
got
away
away
‘The horse jumped the fence and got away.’
JUMP an Alternation:
Locative promotion
(89)
We gave the books to the children.
we
we
gave
gave
the
the
books
books
to
to
the
the
children
children
‘We gave the books to the children.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc ( > to+3)
(90)
We gave the children the books.
we
we
gave
gave
the
the
children
children
the
the
books
books
‘We gave the children the books.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Dative
(91)
We couldn't afford to give any more.
we
we
could
could
not
not
afford
afford
to
to
give
give
any
any
more
more
‘We couldn't afford to give any more.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Understood Omitted Object
(92)
We give regularly to Doctors Without Frontiers.
we
we
give
give
regularly
regularly
to
to
Doctors
Doctors
Without
Without
Frontiers
Frontiers
‘We give regularly to Doctors Without Frontiers.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Understood Omitted Object
(93)
The girl sent flowers to her grandmother in hospital.
the
the
girl
girl
sent
sent
flowers
flowers
to
to
her
her
grandmother
grandmother
in
in
hospital
hospital
‘The girl sent flowers to her grandmother in hospital.’
SEND a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc ( > to+3)
(94)
She sent her grandmother flowers.
she
she
sent
sent
her
her
grandmother
grandmother
flowers
flowers
‘She sent her grandmother flowers.’
SEND an Alternation:
Dative
(95)
The girl tore the page from the book.
the
the
girl
girl
tore
tore
the
the
page
page
from
from
the
the
book
book
‘The girl tore the page from the book.’
TEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc > LOC3
(96)
She tore the poster down (off the wall).
she
she
tore
tore
the
the
poster
poster
down
down
(off
(off
the
the
wall)
wall)
‘She tore the poster down (off the wall).’
TEAR an Alternation:
Resultative complement
(97)
She tore the page up into tiny pieces.
she
she
tore
tore
the
the
page
page
up
up
into
into
tiny
tiny
pieces
pieces
‘She tore the page up into tiny pieces.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Into-Resultative
(98)
The man killed the snake with a stick.
the
the
man
man
killed
killed
the
the
snake
snake
with
with
a
a
stick
stick
‘The man killed the snake with a stick.’
KILL a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc ( > with+3)
(99)
Thou shalt not kill.
thou
thou
shalt
shalt
not
not
kill
kill
‘Thou shalt not kill.’
KILL an Alternation:
Understood Omitted Object
(100)
He killed himself.
he
he
killed
killed
himself
himself
‘He killed himself.’
KILL the Verb form kill
(101)
Obesity can kill.
obesity
obesity
can
can
kill
kill
‘Obesity can kill.’
KILL an Alternation:
Understood Omitted Object
(102)
The men searched for the women.
the
the
men
men
searched
searched
for
for
the
the
women
women
‘The men searched for the women.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] ( > 2-acc) > for+3
(103)
They searched the house (for the women).
they
they
searched
searched
the
the
house
house
(for
(for
the
the
women)
women)
‘They searched the house (for the women).’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] ( > 2-acc) > for+3
(104)
They searched me (for drugs).
they
they
searched
searched
me
me
(for
(for
drugs)
drugs)
‘They searched me (for drugs).’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] ( > 2-acc) > for+3
(105)
They hugged each other tight.
they
they
hugged
hugged
each
each
other
other
tight
tight
‘They hugged each other tight.’
HUG the Verb form hug
(106)
She hugged him close to her.
she
she
hugged
hugged
him
him
close
close
to
to
her
her
‘She hugged him close to her.’
HUG the Verb form hug
(107)
The men met the boys at the river.
the
the
men
men
met
met
the
the
boys
boys
at
at
the
the
river
river
‘The men met the boys at the river.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc
(108)
They met (up) at the river.
they
they
met
met
(up)
(up)
at
at
the
the
river
river
‘They met (up) at the river.’
MEET an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(109)
The boys followed the girls to the river.
the
the
boys
boys
followed
followed
the
the
girls
girls
to
to
the
the
river
river
‘The boys followed the girls to the river.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc
(110)
The boys followed the path all the way to the river.
the
the
boys
boys
followed
followed
the
the
path
path
all
all
the
the
way
way
to
to
the
the
river
river
‘The boys followed the path all the way to the river.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc
(111)
I helped the boys to fix their bikes.
I
I
helped
helped
the
the
boys
boys
to
to
fix
fix
their
their
bikes
bikes
‘I helped the boys to fix their bikes.’
HELP a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc
(112)
I helped myself to a beer.
I
I
helped
helped
myself
myself
to
to
a
a
beer
beer
‘I helped myself to a beer.’
HELP the Verb form help
(113)
The mother washed the baby.
the
the
mother
mother
washed
washed
the
the
baby
baby
‘The mother washed the baby.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc
(114)
I hadn't washed in a week.
I
I
had
had
not
not
washed
washed
in
in
a
a
week
week
‘I hadn't washed in a week.’
WASH an Alternation:
Understood Reflexive Object
(115)
I had my first wash in a week.
I
I
had
had
my
my
first
first
wash
wash
in
in
a
a
week
week
‘I had my first wash in a week.’
WASH an Alternation:
Have-a-VP(nominal)
(116)
I was washing up when the guests arrived.
I
I
was
was
washing
washing
up
up
when
when
the
the
guests
guests
arrived
arrived
‘I was washing up when the guests arrived.’
WASH the Verb form wash
(117)
The mother dressed her daughter.
the
the
mother
mother
dressed
dressed
her
her
daughter
daughter
‘The mother dressed her daughter.’
DRESS a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc
(118)
She dressed slowly.
she
she
dressed
dressed
slowly
slowly
‘She dressed slowly.’
DRESS an Alternation:
Understood Reflexive Object
(119)
I washed and dressed with special care.
I
I
washed
washed
and
and
dressed
dressed
with
with
special
special
care
care
‘I washed and dressed with special care.’
WASH an Alternation:
Understood Reflexive Object
(120)
He shaved his beard.
he
he
shaved
shaved
his
his
beard
beard
‘He shaved his beard.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc
(121)
He shaved with a cut thoat razor for the first time that day.
he
he
shaved
shaved
with
with
a
a
cut
cut
thoat
thoat
razor
razor
for
for
the
the
first
first
time
time
that
that
day
day
‘He shaved with a cut thoat razor for the first time that day.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
Understood Reflexive Object
(122)
He had a shave.
he
he
had
had
a
a
shave
shave
‘He had a shave.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
Have-a-VP(nominal)
(123)
The boy sang a song.
the
the
boy
boy
sang
sang
a
a
song
song
‘The boy sang a song.’
SING an Alternation:
Cognate Object
(124)
She sings beautifully.
she
she
sings
sings
beautifully
beautifully
‘She sings beautifully.’
SING a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1]
(125)
The boy touched the snake with a stick.
the
the
boy
boy
touched
touched
the
the
snake
snake
with
with
a
a
stick
stick
‘The boy touched the snake with a stick.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc ( > with+3)
(126)
She touched him on the shoulder.
she
she
touched
touched
him
him
on
on
the
the
shoulder
shoulder
‘She touched him on the shoulder.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
Locus of personal contact
(127)
The curtains were touching the floor.
the
the
curtains
curtains
were
were
touching
touching
the
the
floor
floor
‘The curtains were touching the floor.’
TOUCH the Verb form touch
(128)
The curtains and floor were touching.
the
the
curtains
curtains
and
and
floor
floor
were
were
touching
touching
‘The curtains and floor were touching.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(129)
The boy hit the snake with a stick.
the
the
boy
boy
hit
hit
the
the
snake
snake
with
with
a
a
stick
stick
‘The boy hit the snake with a stick.’
HIT a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc ( > with+3)
(130)
He hit him in the face.
he
he
hit
hit
him
him
in
in
the
the
face
face
‘He hit him in the face.’
HIT an Alternation:
Locus of personal contact
(131)
I hit myself on the head.
I
I
hit
hit
myself
myself
on
on
the
the
head
head
‘I hit myself on the head.’
HIT an Alternation:
Accidental Reflexive
(132)
I hit my head on the roof.
I
I
hit
hit
my
my
head
head
on
on
the
the
roof
roof
‘I hit my head on the roof.’
HIT an Alternation:
Accidental Body-part
(133)
He hit wildly at the snake.
he
he
hit
hit
wildly
wildly
at
at
the
the
snake
snake
‘He hit wildly at the snake.’
HIT an Alternation:
Conative
(134)
He hit the stick against the fence.
he
he
hit
hit
the
the
stick
stick
against
against
the
the
fence
fence
‘He hit the stick against the fence.’
HIT an Alternation:
With/against alternation
(135)
This racquet doesn't hit properly. If you tighten the strings it will hit better.
this
this
racquet
racquet
does
does
not
not
hit
hit
properly
properly
if
if
you
you
tighten
tighten
the
the
strings
strings
it
it
will
will
hit
hit
better
better
‘This racquet doesn't hit properly. If you tighten the strings it will hit better.’
HIT an Alternation:
Middle
(136)
He beat the poor dog with a stick.
he
he
beat
beat
the
the
poor
poor
dog
dog
with
with
a
a
stick
stick
‘He beat the poor dog with a stick.’
BEAT a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc ( > with+3)
(137)
He beat his fists against the wall.
he
he
beat
beat
his
his
fists
fists
against
against
the
the
wall
wall
‘He beat his fists against the wall.’
BEAT an Alternation:
With/against alternation
(138)
He broke the glass with a hammer.
he
he
broke
broke
the
the
glass
glass
with
with
a
a
hammer
hammer
‘He broke the glass with a hammer.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc ( > with+3)
(139)
I accidentally broke the knob off.
I
I
accidentally
accidentally
broke
broke
the
the
knob
knob
off
off
‘I accidentally broke the knob off.’
BREAK the Verb form break
(140)
He broke the twig off the branch.
he
he
broke
broke
the
the
twig
twig
off
off
the
the
branch
branch
‘He broke the twig off the branch.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Source-of-part
(141)
He broke the chocolate into several pieces.
he
he
broke
broke
the
the
chocolate
chocolate
into
into
several
several
pieces
pieces
‘He broke the chocolate into several pieces.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Into-Resultative
(142)
The window broke.
the
the
window
window
broke
broke
‘The window broke.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Causative-Inchoative
(143)
The hammer broke the window.
the
the
hammer
hammer
broke
broke
the
the
window
window
‘The hammer broke the window.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Instrumental Subject
(144)
Glass breaks easily.
glass
glass
breaks
breaks
easily
easily
‘Glass breaks easily.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Middle
(145)
He broke his arm playing football.
he
he
broke
broke
his
his
arm
arm
playing
playing
football
football
‘He broke his arm playing football.’
BREAK the Verb form break
(146)
They built the model out of plywood and plastic.
they
they
built
built
the
the
model
model
out
out
of
of
plywood
plywood
and
and
plastic
plastic
‘They built the model out of plywood and plastic.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc ( > from+3)
(147)
The team built the old lady a new house.
the
the
team
team
built
built
the
the
old
old
lady
lady
a
a
new
new
house
house
‘The team built the old lady a new house.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Benefactive
(148)
She cut the meat into three pieces.
she
she
cut
cut
the
the
meat
meat
into
into
three
three
pieces
pieces
‘She cut the meat into three pieces.’
CUT an Alternation:
Into-Resultative
(149)
I peeled the potatoes with that new Swiss vegetable peeler.
I
I
peeled
peeled
the
the
potatoes
potatoes
with
with
that
that
new
new
Swiss
Swiss
vegetable
vegetable
peeler
peeler
‘I peeled the potatoes with that new Swiss vegetable peeler.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc ( > with+3)
(150)
He peeled the bark off the stick.
he
he
peeled
peeled
the
the
bark
bark
off
off
the
the
stick
stick
‘He peeled the bark off the stick.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Source-of-part
(151)
Her skin was peeling.
her
her
skin
skin
was
was
peeling
peeling
‘Her skin was peeling.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Causative-Inchoative
(152)
The skin on my hands is peeling off.
the
the
skin
skin
on
on
my
my
hands
hands
is
is
peeling
peeling
off
off
‘The skin on my hands is peeling off.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Causative-Inchoative
(153)
My hands peeled.
my
my
hands
hands
peeled
peeled
‘My hands peeled.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Causative-Inchoative
(154)
He poured the water into the glass.
he
he
poured
poured
the
the
water
water
into
into
the
the
glass
glass
‘He poured the water into the glass.’
POUR a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc > LOC3
(155)
He could pour a perfect beer.
he
he
could
could
pour
pour
a
a
perfect
perfect
beer
beer
‘He could pour a perfect beer.’
POUR an Alternation:
Cognate Object
(156)
He tied the horse to the tree with a rope.
he
he
tied
tied
the
the
horse
horse
to
to
the
the
tree
tree
with
with
a
a
rope
rope
‘He tied the horse to the tree with a rope.’
TIE a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc > LOC3 ( > with+4)
(157)
He tied a reef knot.
he
he
tied
tied
a
a
reef
reef
knot
knot
‘He tied a reef knot.’
TIE an Alternation:
Cognate Object
(158)
They tied him down.
they
they
tied
tied
him
him
down
down
‘They tied him down.’
TIE the Verb form tie
(159)
He tied the rope around the tree.
he
he
tied
tied
the
the
rope
rope
around
around
the
the
tree
tree
‘He tied the rope around the tree.’
TIE an Alternation:
Instrumental Object
(160)
He tied the rope onto the branch.
he
he
tied
tied
the
the
rope
rope
onto
onto
the
the
branch
branch
‘He tied the rope onto the branch.’
TIE an Alternation:
Instrumental Object
(161)
I tied the ribbon into a bow.
I
I
tied
tied
the
the
ribbon
ribbon
into
into
a
a
bow
bow
‘I tied the ribbon into a bow.’
TIE an Alternation:
Into-Resultative
(162)
She filled the glass with water.
she
she
filled
filled
the
the
glass
glass
with
with
water
water
‘She filled the glass with water.’
FILL a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc ( > with+3)
(163)
The water filled the glass.
the
the
water
water
filled
filled
the
the
glass
glass
‘The water filled the glass.’
FILL an Alternation:
Instrumental Subject
(164)
The farmer loaded the hay onto the truck.
the
the
farmer
farmer
loaded
loaded
the
the
hay
hay
onto
onto
the
the
truck
truck
‘The farmer loaded the hay onto the truck.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc > LOC3
(165)
He loaded the truck with hay.
he
he
loaded
loaded
the
the
truck
truck
with
with
hay
hay
‘He loaded the truck with hay.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Locative
(166)
They loaded her into the ambulance.
they
they
loaded
loaded
her
her
into
into
the
the
ambulance
ambulance
‘They loaded her into the ambulance.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc > LOC3
(167)
The woman covered her son with a blanket.
the
the
woman
woman
covered
covered
her
her
son
son
with
with
a
a
blanket
blanket
‘The woman covered her son with a blanket.’
COVER a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc ( > with+3)
(168)
Snow covered the ground.
snow
snow
covered
covered
the
the
ground
ground
‘Snow covered the ground.’
COVER an Alternation:
Causative-Inchoative
(169)
Her face was covered with freckles.
her
her
face
face
was
was
covered
covered
with
with
freckles
freckles
‘Her face was covered with freckles.’
COVER an Alternation:
Causative-Inchoative
(170)
I covered my eyes with my hands.
I
I
covered
covered
my
my
eyes
eyes
with
with
my
my
hands
hands
‘I covered my eyes with my hands.’
COVER a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc ( > with+3)
(171)
She wiped the crumbs off the table.
she
she
wiped
wiped
the
the
crumbs
crumbs
off
off
the
the
table
table
‘She wiped the crumbs off the table.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc > LOC3
(172)
She wiped the table.
she
she
wiped
wiped
the
the
table
table
‘She wiped the table.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Locative
(173)
He wiped his {eyes/face/hands}.
he
he
wiped
wiped
his
his
{eyes/face/hands}
{eyes/face/hands}
‘He wiped his eyes/face/hands.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Locative
(174)
He wiped the tears from his eyes.
he
he
wiped
wiped
the
the
tears
tears
from
from
his
his
eyes
eyes
‘He wiped the tears from his eyes.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc > LOC3
(175)
She was digging in the garden.
she
she
was
was
digging
digging
in
in
the
the
garden
garden
‘She was digging in the garden.’
DIG a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1]
(176)
She was digging for potatoes.
she
she
was
was
digging
digging
for
for
potatoes
potatoes
‘She was digging for potatoes.’
DIG the Verb form dig
(177)
He dug a hole.
he
he
dug
dug
a
a
hole
hole
‘He dug a hole.’
DIG an Alternation:
Cognate Object
(178)
She's digging a new garden bed.
she
she
is
is
digging
digging
a
a
new
new
garden
garden
bed
bed
‘She's digging a new garden bed.’
DIG an Alternation:
Cognate Object
(179)
They dug through the top layer of sediment.
they
they
dug
dug
through
through
the
the
top
top
layer
layer
of
of
sediment
sediment
‘They dug through the top layer of sediment.’
DIG the Verb form dig
(180)
They dug their way out (of the wreckage).
they
they
dug
dug
their
their
way
way
out
out
(of
(of
the
the
wreckage)
wreckage)
‘They dug their way out (of the wreckage).’
DIG an Alternation:
Way-construction
(181)
She dug a lot of potatoes yesterday.
she
she
dug
dug
a
a
lot
lot
of
of
potatoes
potatoes
yesterday
yesterday
‘She dug a lot of potatoes yesterday.’
DIG the Verb form dig
(182)
He pushed her into the water.
he
he
pushed
pushed
her
her
into
into
the
the
water
water
‘He pushed her into the water.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc > LOC3
(183)
They managed to push it down the driveway and onto the street.
they
they
managed
managed
to
to
push
push
it
it
down
down
the
the
driveway
driveway
and
and
onto
onto
the
the
street
street
‘They managed to push it down the driveway and onto the street.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc > LOC3
(184)
I tried to push him over but he was too strong.
I
I
tried
tried
to
to
push
push
him
him
over
over
but
but
he
he
was
was
too
too
strong
strong
‘I tried to push him over but he was too strong.’
PUSH the Verb form push
(185)
I pushed against the door.
I
I
pushed
pushed
against
against
the
the
door
door
‘I pushed against the door.’
PUSH the Verb form push
(186)
I pushed through the crowd.
I
I
pushed
pushed
through
through
the
the
crowd
crowd
‘I pushed through the crowd.’
PUSH the Verb form push
(187)
I pushed my way through the crowd.
I
I
pushed
pushed
my
my
way
way
through
through
the
the
crowd
crowd
‘I pushed my way through the crowd.’
PUSH an Alternation:
Way-construction
(188)
The women ground the seeds with a mortar and pestle.
the
the
women
women
ground
ground
the
the
seeds
seeds
with
with
a
a
mortar
mortar
and
and
pestle
pestle
‘The women ground the seeds with a mortar and pestle.’
GRIND a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc ( > with+3)
(189)
He ground it into flour.
he
he
ground
ground
it
it
into
into
flour
flour
‘He ground it into flour.’
GRIND an Alternation:
Into-Resultative
(190)
She ground her hips against him.
she
she
ground
ground
her
her
hips
hips
against
against
him
him
‘She ground her hips against him.’
GRIND the Verb form grind
(191)
He ground his knee into my back.
he
he
ground
ground
his
his
knee
knee
into
into
my
my
back
back
‘He ground his knee into my back.’
GRIND the Verb form grind
(192)
The men cooked the meat.
the
the
men
men
cooked
cooked
the
the
meat
meat
‘The men cooked the meat.’
COOK a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc
(193)
She walked in while I was cooking.
she
she
walked
walked
in
in
while
while
I
I
was
was
cooking
cooking
‘She walked in while I was cooking.’
COOK an Alternation:
Understood Omitted Object
(194)
She cooked him a meal.
she
she
cooked
cooked
him
him
a
a
meal
meal
‘She cooked him a meal.’
COOK an Alternation:
Benefactive
(195)
The soup is still cooking.
the
the
soup
soup
is
is
still
still
cooking
cooking
‘The soup is still cooking.’
COOK an Alternation:
Causative-Inchoative
(196)
The boy hid the frog from his mother.
the
the
boy
boy
hid
hid
the
the
frog
frog
from
from
his
his
mother
mother
‘The boy hid the frog from his mother.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc ( > from+3)
(197)
He hid it under the bed.
he
he
hid
hid
it
it
under
under
the
the
bed
bed
‘He hid it under the bed.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc ( > from+3)
(198)
The child hid from his mother.
the
the
child
child
hid
hid
from
from
his
his
mother
mother
‘The child hid from his mother.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Causative-Inchoative
(199)
She hid her face.
she
she
hid
hid
her
her
face
face
‘She hid her face.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc ( > from+3)
(200)
He took the money from the drawer.
he
he
took
took
the
the
money
money
from
from
the
the
drawer
drawer
‘He took the money from the drawer.’
TAKE a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc ( > from+3)
(201)
I took the parcel over to him.
I
I
took
took
the
the
parcel
parcel
over
over
to
to
him
him
‘I took the parcel over to him.’
TAKE the Verb form take
(202)
He took her the money.
he
he
took
took
her
her
the
the
money
money
‘He took her the money.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Dative
(203)
He took it with him.
he
he
took
took
it
it
with
with
him
him
‘He took it with him.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Quasi-benefactive-accompaniment with
(204)
The girls showed the pictures to their teacher.
the
the
girls
girls
showed
showed
the
the
pictures
pictures
to
to
their
their
teacher
teacher
‘The girls showed the pictures to their teacher.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc ( > to+3)
(205)
The girls showed their teacher the pictures.
the
the
girls
girls
showed
showed
their
their
teacher
teacher
the
the
pictures
pictures
‘The girls showed their teacher the pictures.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Dative
(206)
She showed me where it was.
she
she
showed
showed
me
me
where
where
it
it
was
was
‘She showed me where it was.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Wh-complement
(207)
Her bra strap was showing.
her
her
bra
bra
strap
strap
was
was
showing
showing
‘Her bra strap was showing.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Causative-Inchoative
(208)
His bum was showing.
his
his
bum
bum
was
was
showing
showing
‘His bum was showing.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Causative-Inchoative
(209)
My grandmother taught me this song.
my
my
grandmother
grandmother
taught
taught
me
me
this
this
song
song
‘My grandmother taught me this song.’
TEACH a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc > 3
(210)
Every day the old lady taught a new song to one of the girls.
every
every
day
day
the
the
old
old
lady
lady
taught
taught
a
a
new
new
song
song
to
to
one
one
of
of
the
the
girls
girls
‘Every day the old lady taught a new song to one of the girls.’
TEACH the Verb form teach
(211)
She taught him how to swim.
she
she
taught
taught
him
him
how
how
to
to
swim
swim
‘She taught him how to swim.’
TEACH an Alternation:
Wh-complement
(212)
She taught me about business.
she
she
taught
taught
me
me
about
about
business
business
‘She taught me about business.’
TEACH an Alternation:
Topic-about
(213)
He was teaching a class on semantics.
he
he
was
was
teaching
teaching
a
a
class
class
on
on
semantics
semantics
‘He was teaching a class on semantics.’
TEACH an Alternation:
Cognate Object
(214)
He taught geography and science.
he
he
taught
taught
geography
geography
and
and
science
science
‘He taught geography and science.’
TEACH an Alternation:
Cognate Object
(215)
The children were playing in the garden.
the
the
children
children
were
were
playing
playing
in
in
the
the
garden
garden
‘The children were playing in the garden.’
PLAY a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1]
(216)
The children were playing nicely together.
the
the
children
children
were
were
playing
playing
nicely
nicely
together
together
‘The children were playing nicely together.’
PLAY an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(217)
They were playing tennis.
they
they
were
were
playing
playing
tennis
tennis
‘They were playing tennis.’
PLAY an Alternation:
Cognate Object
(218)
She plays the guitar.
she
she
plays
plays
the
the
guitar
guitar
‘She plays the guitar.’
PLAY the Verb form play
(219)
She played a sonata.
she
she
played
played
a
a
sonata
sonata
‘She played a sonata.’
PLAY an Alternation:
Cognate Object
(220)
She played me a sonata.
she
she
played
played
me
me
a
a
sonata
sonata
‘She played me a sonata.’
PLAY the Verb form play
(221)
They live in town.
they
they
live
live
in
in
town
town
‘They live in town.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > LOC2
(222)
They live near the river.
they
they
live
live
near
near
the
the
river
river
‘They live near the river.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > LOC2
(223)
At the time I was living in Armidale.
at
at
the
the
time
time
I
I
was
was
living
living
in
in
Armidale
Armidale
‘At the time I was living in Armidale.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > LOC2
(224)
I couldn't sleep, I was coughing all night.
I
I
could
could
not
not
sleep
sleep
I
I
was
was
coughing
coughing
all
all
night
night
‘I couldn't sleep, I was coughing all night.’
COUGH a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1]
(225)
I coughed up blood.
I
I
coughed
coughed
up
up
blood
blood
‘I coughed up blood.’
COUGH the Verb form cough
(226)
She had a nasty cough.
she
she
had
had
a
a
nasty
nasty
cough
cough
‘She had a nasty cough.’
COUGH the Verb form cough
(227)
Coughing, sneezing and wheezing all symptoms of several dog diseases.
coughing
coughing
sneezing
sneezing
and
and
wheezing
wheezing
all
all
symptoms
symptoms
of
of
several
several
dog
dog
diseases
diseases
‘Coughing, sneezing and wheezing all symptoms of several dog diseases.’
COUGH the Verb form cough
(228)
Coming out into the sunshine, I blinked a few times before I could see properly.
coming
coming
out
out
into
into
the
the
sunshine
sunshine
I
I
blinked
blinked
a
a
few
few
times
times
before
before
I
I
could
could
see
see
properly
properly
‘Coming out into the sunshine, I blinked a few times before I could see properly.’
BLINK a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1]
(229)
His eyes blinked involuntarily.
his
his
eyes
eyes
blinked
blinked
involuntarily
involuntarily
‘His eyes blinked involuntarily.’
BLINK a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1]
(230)
Americans generally fear the Muslim Brotherhood.
Americans
Americans
generally
generally
fear
fear
the
the
Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood
Brotherhood
‘Americans generally fear the Muslim Brotherhood.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc
(231)
He feared for her safety.
he
he
feared
feared
for
for
her
her
safety
safety
‘He feared for her safety.’
FEAR the Verb form fear
(232)
He feared for his life.
he
he
feared
feared
for
for
his
his
life
life
‘He feared for his life.’
FEAR the Verb form fear
(233)
I'm afraid of spiders.
I
I
am
am
afraid
afraid
of
of
spiders
spiders
‘I'm afraid of spiders.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > of+2
(234)
It turned out he was afraid of heights.
it
it
turned
turned
out
out
he
he
was
was
afraid
afraid
of
of
heights
heights
‘It turned out he was afraid of heights.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > of+2
(235)
Oh my God, don't do that, you frightened me!
oh
oh
my
my
God
God
do
do
not
not
do
do
that
that
you
you
frightened
frightened
me
me
‘Oh my God, don't do that, you frightened me!’
FRIGHTEN a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc
(236)
He was frightened of snakes.
he
he
was
was
frightened
frightened
of
of
snakes
snakes
‘He was frightened of snakes.’
FRIGHTEN the Verb form frighten
(237)
His temper frightens me.
his
his
temper
temper
frightens
frightens
me
me
‘His temper frightens me.’
FRIGHTEN a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc
(238)
He scares me sometimes.
he
he
scares
scares
me
me
sometimes
sometimes
‘He scares me sometimes.’
FRIGHTEN a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc
(239)
I'm scared of him.
I
I
am
am
scared
scared
of
of
him
him
‘I'm scared of him.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Experiencer Passive with of-Stimulus
(240)
Pete really likes his PS3.
Pete
Pete
really
really
likes
likes
his
his
PS3
PS3
‘Pete really likes his PS3.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc
(241)
Roger likes playing tennis.
Roger
Roger
likes
likes
playing
playing
tennis
tennis
‘Roger likes playing tennis.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc
(242)
I liked her for her sense of humour.
I
I
liked
liked
her
her
for
for
her
her
sense
sense
of
of
humour
humour
‘I liked her for her sense of humour.’
LIKE the Verb form like
(243)
I like that you can get a refund if you're not satisfied.
I
I
like
like
that
that
you
you
can
can
get
get
a
a
refund
refund
if
if
you
you
are
are
not
not
satisfied
satisfied
‘I like that you can get a refund if you're not satisfied.’
LIKE an Alternation:
That-complement
(244)
They called the baby Anna.
they
they
called
called
the
the
baby
baby
Anna
Anna
‘They called the baby Anna.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc > 3
(245)
They called him a fool.
they
they
called
called
him
him
a
a
fool
fool
‘They called him a fool.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc > 3
(246)
The children used to call me Uncle.
the
the
children
children
used
used
to
to
call
call
me
me
Uncle
Uncle
‘The children used to call me Uncle.’
NAME the Verb form call
(247)
This place is called Armidale.
this
this
place
place
is
is
called
called
Armidale
Armidale
‘This place is called Armidale.’
NAME the Verb form call
(248)
In German it's called 'das Auto', in English it's a 'car'.
in
in
German
German
it
it
is
is
called
called
das
das
Auto
Auto
in
in
English
English
it
it
is
is
a
a
car
car
‘In German it's called 'das Auto', in English it's a 'car'.’
NAME the Verb form call
(249)
Some call it ganja, some call it weed, some call it marijuana.
some
some
call
call
it
it
ganja
ganja
some
some
call
call
it
it
weed
weed
some
some
call
call
it
it
marijuana
marijuana
‘Some call it ganja, some call it weed, some call it marijuana.’
NAME the Verb form call
(250)
The children named their new puppies Bonnie, Mitzy, and Ben.
the
the
children
children
named
named
their
their
new
new
puppies
puppies
Bonnie
Bonnie
Mitzy
Mitzy
and
and
Ben
Ben
‘The children named their new puppies Bonnie, Mitzy, and Ben.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc > 3
(251)
She told me a funny story.
she
she
told
told
me
me
a
a
funny
funny
story
story
‘She told me a funny story.’
TELL a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc > 3
(252)
He could never tell a joke properly, the timing was always wrong.
he
he
could
could
never
never
tell
tell
a
a
joke
joke
properly
properly
the
the
timing
timing
was
was
always
always
wrong
wrong
‘He could never tell a joke properly, the timing was always wrong.’
TELL an Alternation:
Cognate Object
(253)
She told me to go.
she
she
told
told
me
me
to
to
go
go
‘She told me to go.’
TELL an Alternation:
To-complement
(254)
He told me about it.
he
he
told
told
me
me
about
about
it
it
‘He told me about it.’
TELL an Alternation:
Topic-about
(255)
My little sister told on me.
my
my
little
little
sister
sister
told
told
on
on
me
me
‘My little sister told on me.’
TELL an Alternation:
Malefactive
(256)
The boy asked his parents for money.
the
the
boy
boy
asked
asked
his
his
parents
parents
for
for
money
money
‘The boy asked his parents for money.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] ( > 2-acc) > for+3
(257)
I asked for help with filling out the form.
I
I
asked
asked
for
for
help
help
with
with
filling
filling
out
out
the
the
form
form
‘I asked for help with filling out the form.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] ( > 2-acc) > for+3
(258)
I asked him to help me fill out the form.
I
I
asked
asked
him
him
to
to
help
help
me
me
fill
fill
out
out
the
the
form
form
‘I asked him to help me fill out the form.’
ASK FOR the Verb form ask
(259)
The ball rolled across the floor.
the
the
ball
ball
rolled
rolled
across
across
the
the
floor
floor
‘The ball rolled across the floor.’
ROLL a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > LOC2
(260)
The child rolled the ball down the hill.
the
the
child
child
rolled
rolled
the
the
ball
ball
down
down
the
the
hill
hill
‘The child rolled the ball down the hill.’
ROLL an Alternation:
Inchoative-Causative
(261)
I rolled up the sleeping bag.
I
I
rolled
rolled
up
up
the
the
sleeping
sleeping
bag
bag
‘I rolled up the sleeping bag.’
ROLL the Verb form roll
(262)
I rolled a smoke.
I
I
rolled
rolled
a
a
smoke
smoke
‘I rolled a smoke.’
ROLL the Verb form roll
(263)
The boat sank.
the
the
boat
boat
sank
sank
‘The boat sank.’
SINK a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1]
(264)
We sank their boat.
we
we
sank
sank
their
their
boat
boat
‘We sank their boat.’
SINK an Alternation:
Inchoative-Causative
(265)
Their boat sunk on them.
their
their
boat
boat
sunk
sunk
on
on
them
them
‘Their boat sunk on them.’
SINK an Alternation:
Malefactive
(266)
This man is a hunter.
this
this
man
man
is
is
a
a
hunter
hunter
‘This man is a hunter.’
BE A HUNTER a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1]
(267)
She screamed in fear.
she
she
screamed
screamed
in
in
fear
fear
‘She screamed in fear.’
SCREAM a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1]
(268)
She screamed at me.
she
she
screamed
screamed
at
at
me
me
‘She screamed at me.’
SCREAM an Alternation:
Directed Nonverbal Expression
(269)
She screamed at him to get out of her room.
she
she
screamed
screamed
at
at
him
him
to
to
get
get
out
out
of
of
her
her
room
room
‘She screamed at him to get out of her room.’
SCREAM an Alternation:
Directed Nonverbal Expression
(270)
The kids were screaming for icecream.
the
the
kids
kids
were
were
screaming
screaming
for
for
icecream
icecream
‘The kids were screaming for icecream.’
SCREAM the Verb form scream
(271)
The children sat on the floor.
the
the
children
children
sat
sat
on
on
the
the
floor
floor
‘The children sat on the floor.’
SIT a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > LOC2
(272)
I sat the baby up.
I
I
sat
sat
the
the
baby
baby
up
up
‘I sat the baby up.’
SIT an Alternation:
Inchoative-Causative
(273)
The boy left the village.
the
the
boy
boy
left
left
the
the
village
village
‘The boy left the village.’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc
(274)
They left me there.
they
they
left
left
me
me
there
there
‘They left me there.’
LEAVE the Verb form leave
(275)
My wife left me for another man.
my
my
wife
wife
left
left
me
me
for
for
another
another
man
man
‘My wife left me for another man.’
LEAVE the Verb form leave
(276)
When did you leave?
when
when
did
did
you
you
leave
leave
‘When did you leave?’
LEAVE an Alternation:
Understood Omitted Object
(277)
The horse is running.
the
the
horse
horse
is
is
running
running
‘The horse is running.’
RUN a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1]
(278)
Phil used to run to and from work.
Phil
Phil
used
used
to
to
run
run
to
to
and
and
from
from
work
work
‘Phil used to run to and from work.’
RUN the Verb form run
(279)
I ran ten kilometres yesterday.
I
I
ran
ran
ten
ten
kilometres
kilometres
yesterday
yesterday
‘I ran ten kilometres yesterday.’
RUN the Verb form run
(280)
He ran a marathon.
he
he
ran
ran
a
a
marathon
marathon
‘He ran a marathon.’
RUN an Alternation:
Cognate Object
(281)
The children sat down on the bench and waited.
the
the
children
children
sat
sat
down
down
on
on
the
the
bench
bench
and
and
waited
waited
‘The children sat down on the bench and waited.’
SIT DOWN a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1]
(282)
I want you to sit down with him and talk it through.
I
I
want
want
you
you
to
to
sit
sit
down
down
with
with
him
him
and
and
talk
talk
it
it
through
through
‘I want you to sit down with him and talk it through.’
SIT DOWN the Verb form sit down
(283)
The women went to the market every day.
the
the
women
women
went
went
to
to
the
the
market
market
every
every
day
day
‘The women went to the market every day.’
GO a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > LOC2
(284)
We went three kilometres.
we
we
went
went
three
three
kilometres
kilometres
‘We went three kilometres.’
GO the Verb form go
(285)
Go home!
go
go
home
home
‘Go home!’
GO the Verb form go
(286)
The road went through the forest.
the
the
road
road
went
went
through
through
the
the
forest
forest
‘The road went through the forest.’
GO an Alternation:
Path subject
(287)
I'm cold.
I
I
am
am
cold
cold
‘I'm cold.’
BE COLD a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1]
(288)
It was cold outside.
it
it
was
was
cold
cold
outside
outside
‘It was cold outside.’
BE COLD the Verb form be cold
(289)
My main meal was cold.
my
my
main
main
meal
meal
was
was
cold
cold
‘My main meal was cold.’
BE COLD a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1]
(290)
I feel cold.
I
I
feel
feel
cold
cold
‘I feel cold.’
FEEL COLD a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1]
(291)
The little girl was sad because she'd lost her kitten.
the
the
little
little
girl
girl
was
was
sad
sad
because
because
she
she
had
had
lost
lost
her
her
kitten
kitten
‘The little girl was sad because she'd lost her kitten.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1]
(292)
I felt sad for some reason.
I
I
felt
felt
sad
sad
for
for
some
some
reason
reason
‘I felt sad for some reason.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1]
(293)
I was too sick to go to work all last week.
I
I
was
was
too
too
sick
sick
to
to
go
go
to
to
work
work
all
all
last
last
week
week
‘I was too sick to go to work all last week.’
BE ILL a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1]
(294)
I felt sick after lunch and wondered if the food was OK.
I
I
felt
felt
sick
sick
after
after
lunch
lunch
and
and
wondered
wondered
if
if
the
the
food
food
was
was
OK
OK
‘I felt sick after lunch and wondered if the food was OK.’
BE ILL a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1]
(295)
I feel sick when I think about it.
I
I
feel
feel
sick
sick
when
when
I
I
think
think
about
about
it
it
‘I feel sick when I think about it.’
BE ILL a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1]
(296)
It made me feel sick.
it
it
made
made
me
me
feel
feel
sick
sick
‘It made me feel sick.’
BE ILL the Verb form feel sick
(297)
The clothes are dry.
the
the
clothes
clothes
are
are
dry
dry
‘The clothes are dry.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1]
(298)
The ground dried out after a day or so.
the
the
ground
ground
dried
dried
out
out
after
after
a
a
day
day
or
or
so
so
‘The ground dried out after a day or so.’
BE DRY an Alternation:
Causative-Inchoative
(299)
I dried the clothes in the clothes-drier.
I
I
dried
dried
the
the
clothes
clothes
in
in
the
the
clothes-drier
clothes-drier
‘I dried the clothes in the clothes-drier.’
BE DRY an Alternation:
Inchoative-Causative
(300)
The sun dried out the ground.
the
the
sun
sun
dried
dried
out
out
the
the
ground
ground
‘The sun dried out the ground.’
BE DRY an Alternation:
Inchoative-Causative
(301)
The baby is hungry.
the
the
baby
baby
is
is
hungry
hungry
‘The baby is hungry.’
BE HUNGRY a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1]
(302)
I wasn't hungry but I ate anyway.
I
I
was
was
not
not
hungry
hungry
but
but
I
I
ate
ate
anyway
anyway
‘I wasn't hungry but I ate anyway.’
BE HUNGRY a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1]
(303)
I felt hungry all the time.
I
I
felt
felt
hungry
hungry
all
all
the
the
time
time
‘I felt hungry all the time.’
BE HUNGRY a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1]
(304)
She fell down and hurt herself.
she
she
fell
fell
down
down
and
and
hurt
hurt
herself
herself
‘She fell down and hurt herself.’
FALL a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > LOC2
(305)
He slipped and fell into the pool.
he
he
slipped
slipped
and
and
fell
fell
into
into
the
the
pool
pool
‘He slipped and fell into the pool.’
FALL a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > LOC2
(306)
Apprarently the child fell from the balcony.
apprarently
apprarently
the
the
child
child
fell
fell
from
from
the
the
balcony
balcony
‘Apprarently the child fell from the balcony.’
FALL a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > LOC2
(307)
My i-pod fell into the water.
my
my
i-pod
i-pod
fell
fell
into
into
the
the
water
water
‘My i-pod fell into the water.’
FALL a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > LOC2
(308)
It must have fallen out of my pocket.
it
it
must
must
have
have
fallen
fallen
out
out
of
of
my
my
pocket
pocket
‘It must have fallen out of my pocket.’
FALL a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > LOC2
(309)
My neck hurts when I turn my head.
my
my
neck
neck
hurts
hurts
when
when
I
I
turn
turn
my
my
head
head
‘My neck hurts when I turn my head.’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1]
(310)
It hurts!
it
it
hurts
hurts
‘It hurts!’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1]
(311)
She hurt her foot.
she
she
hurt
hurt
her
her
foot
foot
‘She hurt her foot.’
FEEL PAIN an Alternation:
Accidental Body-part
(312)
She hurt herself.
she
she
hurt
hurt
herself
herself
‘She hurt herself.’
FEEL PAIN an Alternation:
Accidental Reflexive
(313)
I had a pain in my back.
I
I
had
had
a
a
pain
pain
in
in
my
my
back
back
‘I had a pain in my back.’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > LOC2
(314)
She had a stabbing pain in her back.
she
she
had
had
a
a
stabbing
stabbing
pain
pain
in
in
her
her
back
back
‘She had a stabbing pain in her back.’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > LOC2
(315)
I have a burning pain when I urinate.
I
I
have
have
a
a
burning
burning
pain
pain
when
when
I
I
urinate
urinate
‘I have a burning pain when I urinate.’
FEEL PAIN the Verb form have (a) pain
(316)
I heard shouting outside.
I
I
heard
heard
shouting
shouting
outside
outside
‘I heard shouting outside.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc
(317)
I heard a loud bang in the car park.
I
I
heard
heard
a
a
loud
loud
bang
bang
in
in
the
the
car
car
park
park
‘I heard a loud bang in the car park.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc
(318)
I heard her snoring.
I
I
heard
heard
her
her
snoring
snoring
‘I heard her snoring.’
HEAR an Alternation:
Gerundive complement
(319)
I heard that you got a new job.
I
I
heard
heard
that
that
you
you
got
got
a
a
new
new
job
job
‘I heard that you got a new job.’
HEAR an Alternation:
That-complement
(320)
I didn't hear about it till yesterday.
I
I
did
did
not
not
hear
hear
about
about
it
it
till
till
yesterday
yesterday
‘I didn't hear about it till yesterday.’
HEAR an Alternation:
Topic-about
(321)
Listen to me carefully.
listen
listen
to
to
me
me
carefully
carefully
‘Listen to me carefully.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > to+2
(322)
They listened patiently to the opening speeches.
they
they
listened
listened
patiently
patiently
to
to
the
the
opening
opening
speeches
speeches
‘They listened patiently to the opening speeches.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > to+2
(323)
Listen! Can you hear it?
listen
listen
Can
Can
you
you
hear
hear
it
it
‘Listen! Can you hear it?’
HEAR an Alternation:
Understood Omitted Object
(324)
Your problem is that you never listen.
your
your
problem
problem
is
is
that
that
you
you
never
never
listen
listen
‘Your problem is that you never listen.’
HEAR the Verb form listen (to)
(325)
Look at me.
look
look
at
at
me
me
‘Look at me.’
LOOK AT the Verb form look
(326)
I looked at her again but I still didn't recognise her.
I
I
looked
looked
at
at
her
her
again
again
but
but
I
I
still
still
did
did
not
not
recognise
recognise
her
her
‘I looked at her again but I still didn't recognise her.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > at+2
(327)
He fell to his knees and wept.
he
he
fell
fell
to
to
his
his
knees
knees
and
and
wept
wept
‘He fell to his knees and wept.’
FALL a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > LOC2
(328)
I couldn't sleep because the baby was crying.
I
I
could
could
not
not
sleep
sleep
because
because
the
the
baby
baby
was
was
crying
crying
‘I couldn't sleep because the baby was crying.’
CRY a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1]
(329)
She cried like a baby.
she
she
cried
cried
like
like
a
a
baby
baby
‘She cried like a baby.’
CRY the Verb form cry
(330)
The first day he left home I cried my eyes out.
the
the
first
first
day
day
he
he
left
left
home
home
I
I
cried
cried
my
my
eyes
eyes
out
out
‘The first day he left home I cried my eyes out.’
CRY the Verb form cry
(331)
He abused my wife and made her cry.
he
he
abused
abused
my
my
wife
wife
and
and
made
made
her
her
cry
cry
‘He abused my wife and made her cry.’
CRY the Verb form cry
(332)
Tony Blair said he cried for the victims of the Iraq war.
Tony
Tony
Blair
Blair
said
said
he
he
cried
cried
for
for
the
the
victims
victims
of
of
the
the
Iraq
Iraq
war
war
‘Tony Blair said he cried for the victims of the Iraq war.’
CRY an Alternation:
Stimulus prepositional object
(333)
"Get out now!", he cried.
get
get
out
out
now
now
he
he
cried
cried
‘"Get out now!", he cried.’
CRY an Alternation:
Direct Quotation
(334)
There's no point crying about it.
there
there
is
is
no
no
point
point
crying
crying
about
about
it
it
‘There's no point crying about it.’
CRY an Alternation:
Stimulus prepositional object
(335)
Don't cry for me Argentina.
do
do
not
not
cry
cry
for
for
me
me
Argentina
Argentina
‘Don't cry for me Argentina.’
CRY an Alternation:
Stimulus prepositional object
(336)
All of a sudden her fairy Godmother appeared in front of her.
all
all
of
of
a
a
sudden
sudden
her
her
fairy
fairy
Godmother
Godmother
appeared
appeared
in
in
front
front
of
of
her
her
‘All of a sudden her fairy Godmother appeared in front of her.’
APPEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > LOC2
(337)
This story first appeared in Le Monde.
this
this
story
story
first
first
appeared
appeared
in
in
Le
Le
Monde
Monde
‘This story first appeared in Le Monde.’
APPEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > LOC2
(338)
Modern humans first appeared in Africa.
modern
modern
humans
humans
first
first
appeared
appeared
in
in
Africa
Africa
‘Modern humans first appeared in Africa.’
APPEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > LOC2
(339)
The water's boiling.
the
the
water
water
is
is
boiling
boiling
‘The water's boiling.’
BOIL a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1]
(340)
She boiled the water.
she
she
boiled
boiled
the
the
water
water
‘She boiled the water.’
BOIL an Alternation:
Inchoative-Causative
(341)
She boiled the pot dry.
she
she
boiled
boiled
the
the
pot
pot
dry
dry
‘She boiled the pot dry.’
BOIL an Alternation:
Resultative complement
(342)
I want to go home.
I
I
want
want
to
to
go
go
home
home
‘I want to go home.’
WANT the Verb form want
(343)
I want you to wait here.
I
I
want
want
you
you
to
to
wait
wait
here
here
‘I want you to wait here.’
WANT the Verb form want
(344)
She wants to know what you think about it.
she
she
wants
wants
to
to
know
know
what
what
you
you
think
think
about
about
it
it
‘She wants to know what you think about it.’
WANT the Verb form want
(345)
I want an icecream.
I
I
want
want
an
an
icecream
icecream
‘I want an icecream.’
WANT a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc
(346)
I want a lift into town.
I
I
want
want
a
a
lift
lift
into
into
town
town
‘I want a lift into town.’
WANT the Verb form want
(347)
I want you.
I
I
want
want
you
you
‘I want you.’
WANT a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc
(348)
He ran at me with his fists raised.
he
he
ran
ran
at
at
me
me
with
with
his
his
fists
fists
raised
raised
‘He ran at me with his fists raised.’
RUN the Verb form run
(349)
She brought them to me.
she
she
brought
brought
them
them
to
to
me
me
‘She brought them to me.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc ( > to+3)
(350)
The child brought the money to me.
the
the
child
child
brought
brought
the
the
money
money
to
to
me
me
‘The child brought the money to me.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc ( > to+3)
(351)
The girl brought me flowers.
the
the
girl
girl
brought
brought
me
me
flowers
flowers
‘The girl brought me flowers.’
BRING an Alternation:
Dative
(352)
In the morning they brought him fresh clothes and a hearty breakfast.
in
in
the
the
morning
morning
they
they
brought
brought
him
him
fresh
fresh
clothes
clothes
and
and
a
a
hearty
hearty
breakfast
breakfast
‘In the morning they brought him fresh clothes and a hearty breakfast.’
BRING an Alternation:
Dative
(353)
He brought his brother with him.
he
he
brought
brought
his
his
brother
brother
with
with
him
him
‘He brought his brother with him.’
BRING an Alternation:
Quasi-benefactive-accompaniment with
(354)
He brought his racquet and sports shoes with him.
he
he
brought
brought
his
his
racquet
racquet
and
and
sports
sports
shoes
shoes
with
with
him
him
‘He brought his racquet and sports shoes with him.’
BRING an Alternation:
Quasi-benefactive-accompaniment with
(355)
A taxi can take four passengers at a time.
a
a
taxi
taxi
can
can
take
take
four
four
passengers
passengers
at
at
a
a
time
time
‘A taxi can take four passengers at a time.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Location-capacity subject
(356)
He made a shelter out of branches and leaves.
he
he
made
made
a
a
shelter
shelter
out
out
of
of
branches
branches
and
and
leaves
leaves
‘He made a shelter out of branches and leaves.’
MAKE a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc ( > from+3)
(357)
She made biscuits out of rice flour.
she
she
made
made
biscuits
biscuits
out
out
of
of
rice
rice
flour
flour
‘She made biscuits out of rice flour.’
MAKE a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc ( > from+3)
(358)
She made the flour, eggs and milk into biscuits.
she
she
made
made
the
the
flour
flour
eggs
eggs
and
and
milk
milk
into
into
biscuits
biscuits
‘She made the flour, eggs and milk into biscuits.’
MAKE an Alternation:
Into-Resultative
(359)
You can easily make old jeans into shorts.
you
you
can
can
easily
easily
make
make
old
old
jeans
jeans
into
into
shorts
shorts
‘You can easily make old jeans into shorts.’
MAKE an Alternation:
Into-Resultative
(360)
How to make old bottles into lamps and vases.
how
how
to
to
make
make
old
old
bottles
bottles
into
into
lamps
lamps
and
and
vases
vases
‘How to make old bottles into lamps and vases.’
MAKE an Alternation:
Into-Resultative
(361)
In America they make ethanol from corn, in Brazil they make it from sugarcane.
in
in
America
America
they
they
make
make
ethanol
ethanol
from
from
corn
corn
in
in
Brazil
Brazil
they
they
make
make
it
it
from
from
sugarcane
sugarcane
‘In America they make ethanol from corn, in Brazil they make it from sugarcane.’
MAKE a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc ( > from+3)
(362)
Will you make me a cup of coffee sweetheart?
will
will
you
you
make
make
me
me
a
a
cup
cup
of
of
coffee
coffee
sweetheart
sweetheart
‘Will you make me a cup of coffee sweetheart?’
MAKE an Alternation:
Benefactive
(363)
My girlfriend made me a scarf.
my
my
girlfriend
girlfriend
made
made
me
me
a
a
scarf
scarf
‘My girlfriend made me a scarf.’
MAKE an Alternation:
Benefactive
(364)
It's best to get one that's made in Japan, the ones made in China are not as good.
it
it
is
is
best
best
to
to
get
get
one
one
that
that
is
is
made
made
in
in
Japan
Japan
the
the
ones
ones
made
made
in
in
China
China
are
are
not
not
as
as
good
good
‘It's best to get one that's made in Japan, the ones made in China are not as good.’
MAKE the Verb form make
(365)
Did you make it or buy it?
did
did
you
you
make
make
it
it
or
or
buy
buy
it
it
‘Did you make it or buy it?’
MAKE a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc ( > from+3)
(366)
The first thing to do is to make a fire.
the
the
first
first
thing
thing
to
to
do
do
is
is
to
to
make
make
a
a
fire
fire
‘The first thing to do is to make a fire.’
MAKE the Verb form make
(367)
Merino wool makes great socks and stuff.
Merino
Merino
wool
wool
makes
makes
great
great
socks
socks
and
and
stuff
stuff
‘Merino wool makes great socks and stuff.’
MAKE an Alternation:
Middle
(368)
What kind of wood makes the strongest walking stick?
what
what
kind
kind
of
of
wood
wood
makes
makes
the
the
strongest
strongest
walking
walking
stick
stick
‘What kind of wood makes the strongest walking stick?’
MAKE an Alternation:
Middle
(369)
I got a new bike for Christmas.
I
I
got
got
a
a
new
new
bike
bike
for
for
Christmas
Christmas
‘I got a new bike for Christmas.’
GET a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc
(370)
I got an email from Christina today.
I
I
got
got
an
an
email
email
from
from
Christina
Christina
today
today
‘I got an email from Christina today.’
GET a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc
(371)
He got a prize for the best undergraduate essay in his year.
he
he
got
got
a
a
prize
prize
for
for
the
the
best
best
undergraduate
undergraduate
essay
essay
in
in
his
his
year
year
‘He got a prize for the best undergraduate essay in his year.’
GET a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc
(372)
We got a loan from the bank.
we
we
got
got
a
a
loan
loan
from
from
the
the
bank
bank
‘We got a loan from the bank.’
GET a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc
(373)
The thief stole money from the old lady.
the
the
thief
thief
stole
stole
money
money
from
from
the
the
old
old
lady
lady
‘The thief stole money from the old lady.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc ( > from+3)
(374)
He stole the old lady's money.
he
he
stole
stole
the
the
old
old
lady's
lady's
money
money
‘He stole the old lady's money.’
STEAL an Alternation:
Possessor ascension
(375)
The child stole cookies from the cookie jar.
the
the
child
child
stole
stole
cookies
cookies
from
from
the
the
cookie
cookie
jar
jar
‘The child stole cookies from the cookie jar.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc ( > from+3)
(376)
He stole my bike.
he
he
stole
stole
my
my
bike
bike
‘He stole my bike.’
STEAL the Verb form steal
(377)
I was still eating lunch when he arrived.
I
I
was
was
still
still
eating
eating
lunch
lunch
when
when
he
he
arrived
arrived
‘I was still eating lunch when he arrived.’
EAT a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc
(378)
This stuff really smells.
this
this
stuff
stuff
really
really
smells
smells
‘This stuff really smells.’
SMELL an Alternation:
Stimulus Subject
(379)
She feared his temper.
she
she
feared
feared
his
his
temper
temper
‘She feared his temper.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc
(380)
She feared him for his temper.
she
she
feared
feared
him
him
for
for
his
his
temper
temper
‘She feared him for his temper.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc
(381)
He was afraid for his daughter's life.
he
he
was
was
afraid
afraid
for
for
his
his
daughter's
daughter's
life
life
‘He was afraid for his daughter's life.’
FEAR the Verb form be afraid
(382)
I was afraid to mention to him.
I
I
was
was
afraid
afraid
to
to
mention
mention
to
to
him
him
‘I was afraid to mention to him.’
FEAR the Verb form be afraid
(383)
I am afraid for my children.
I
I
am
am
afraid
afraid
for
for
my
my
children
children
‘I am afraid for my children.’
FEAR the Verb form be afraid
(384)
I'm scared of his temper.
I
I
am
am
scared
scared
of
of
his
his
temper
temper
‘I'm scared of his temper.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Experiencer Passive with of-Stimulus
(385)
Cotton/polyester fabric washes well and requires little or no ironing.
cotton/polyester
cotton/polyester
fabric
fabric
washes
washes
well
well
and
and
requires
requires
little
little
or
or
no
no
ironing
ironing
‘Cotton/polyester fabric washes well and requires little or no ironing.’
WASH an Alternation:
Middle
(386)
Persil washes well and it's not too expensive.
Persil
Persil
washes
washes
well
well
and
and
it
it
is
is
not
not
too
too
expensive
expensive
‘Persil washes well and it's not too expensive.’
WASH an Alternation:
Instrumental Subject
(387)
Can you help me with my homework?
can
can
you
you
help
help
me
me
with
with
my
my
homework
homework
‘Can you help me with my homework?’
HELP the Verb form help
(388)
Let me help you with those those bags.
let
let
me
me
help
help
you
you
with
with
those
those
those
those
bags
bags
‘Let me help you with those those bags.’
HELP the Verb form help
(389)
Feeling sorry for yourself won't help.
feeling
feeling
sorry
sorry
for
for
yourself
yourself
will
will
not
not
help
help
‘Feeling sorry for yourself won't help.’
HELP an Alternation:
Abstract subject
(390)
Antibiotics won't help to prevent an ear infection.
antibiotics
antibiotics
will
will
not
not
help
help
to
to
prevent
prevent
an
an
ear
ear
infection
infection
‘Antibiotics won't help to prevent an ear infection.’
HELP an Alternation:
Abstract subject
(391)
It won't help to talk to him when he's drunk.
it
it
will
will
not
not
help
help
to
to
talk
talk
to
to
him
him
when
when
he
he
is
is
drunk
drunk
‘It won't help to talk to him when he's drunk.’
HELP the Verb form help
(392)
The road follows the river for ten kilometers or so.
the
the
road
road
follows
follows
the
the
river
river
for
for
ten
ten
kilometers
kilometers
or
or
so
so
‘The road follows the river for ten kilometers or so.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
Path subject
(393)
She talked at me for hours.
she
she
talked
talked
at
at
me
me
for
for
hours
hours
‘She talked at me for hours.’
TALK the Verb form talk
(394)
We talked for hours.
we
we
talked
talked
for
for
hours
hours
‘We talked for hours.’
TALK an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(395)
We touched.
we
we
touched
touched
‘We touched.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(396)
Have you washed behind your ears?
have
have
you
you
washed
washed
behind
behind
your
your
ears
ears
‘Have you washed behind your ears?’
WASH an Alternation:
Understood Reflexive Object
(397)
I generally wash the delicate items by hand.
I
I
generally
generally
wash
wash
the
the
delicate
delicate
items
items
by
by
hand
hand
‘I generally wash the delicate items by hand.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc
(398)
The rain washed away all the leaves away.
the
the
rain
rain
washed
washed
away
away
all
all
the
the
leaves
leaves
away
away
‘The rain washed away all the leaves away.’
WASH the Verb form wash
(399)
Can you help?
can
can
you
you
help
help
‘Can you help?’
HELP an Alternation:
Understood Omitted Object
(400)
He followed her with his eyes.
he
he
followed
followed
her
her
with
with
his
his
eyes
eyes
‘He followed her with his eyes.’
FOLLOW the Verb form follow
(401)
His eyes followed her every move.
his
his
eyes
eyes
followed
followed
her
her
every
every
move
move
‘His eyes followed her every move.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc
(402)
He's always following me around.
he
he
is
is
always
always
following
following
me
me
around
around
‘He's always following me around.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] > 2-acc
(403)
Don't talk nonsense.
do
do
not
not
talk
talk
nonsense
nonsense
‘Don't talk nonsense.’
TALK the Verb form talk
(404)
They were talking linguistics.
they
they
were
were
talking
talking
linguistics
linguistics
‘They were talking linguistics.’
TALK the Verb form talk
(405)
They are talking Spanish.
they
they
are
are
talking
talking
Spanish
Spanish
‘They are talking Spanish.’
TALK the Verb form talk
(406)
They are talking in Spanish.
they
they
are
are
talking
talking
in
in
Spanish
Spanish
‘They are talking in Spanish.’
TALK the Verb form talk
(407)
It rained on my wedding day.
it
it
rained
rained
on
on
my
my
wedding
wedding
day
day
‘It rained on my wedding day.’
RAIN the Verb form rain
(408)
It rained on my new car yesterday.
it
it
rained
rained
on
on
my
my
new
new
car
car
yesterday
yesterday
‘It rained on my new car yesterday.’
RAIN an Alternation:
Malefactive
(409)
They were talking in a whisper.
they
they
were
were
talking
talking
in
in
a
a
whisper
whisper
‘They were talking in a whisper.’
TALK the Verb form talk
(410)
I can't talk to her. She won't listen.
I
I
can
can
not
not
talk
talk
to
to
her
her
she
she
will
will
not
not
listen
listen
‘I can't talk to her. She won't listen.’
TALK a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1] ( > to+2) ( > about+3)
(411)
I had a long talk with her about it.
I
I
had
had
a
a
long
long
talk
talk
with
with
her
her
about
about
it
it
‘I had a long talk with her about it.’
TALK an Alternation:
Have-a-VP(nominal)
(412)
They asked me to resign.
they
they
asked
asked
me
me
to
to
resign
resign
‘They asked me to resign.’
ASK FOR the Verb form ask
(413)
He climbed the fence.
he
he
climbed
climbed
the
the
fence
fence
‘He climbed the fence.’
CLIMB an Alternation:
Locative promotion
(414)
The fire was burning brightly.
the
the
fire
fire
was
was
burning
burning
brightly
brightly
‘The fire was burning brightly.’
BURN a Coding frame:
1-nom > V.subj[1]
(415)
He expected me to just give and give and get nothing in return.
he
he
expected
expected
me
me
to
to
just
just
give
give
and
and
give
give
and
and
get
get
nothing
nothing
in
in
return
return
‘He expected me to just give and give and get nothing in return.’
GIVE the Verb form give
(416)
She sent him away.
she
she
sent
sent
him
him
away
away
‘She sent him away.’
SEND the Verb form send
(417)
John sent Bill to get newspapers from the store.
John
John
sent
sent
Bill
Bill
to
to
get
get
newspapers
newspapers
from
from
the
the
store
store
‘John sent Bill to get newspapers from the store.’
SEND the Verb form send
(418)
He was dressed as a schoolboy.
he
he
was
was
dressed
dressed
as
as
a
a
schoolboy
schoolboy
‘He was dressed as a schoolboy.’
DRESS the Verb form dress
(419)
It was her birthday party and she was dressed up as a fairy.
it
it
was
was
her
her
birthday
birthday
party
party
and
and
she
she
was
was
dressed
dressed
up
up
as
as
a
a
fairy
fairy
‘It was her birthday party and she was dressed up as a fairy.’
DRESS the Verb form dress
(420)
At the time it was bad, but we laughed about it later.
at
at
the
the
time
time
it
it
was
was
bad
bad
but
but
we
we
laughed
laughed
about
about
it
it
later
later
‘At the time it was bad, but we laughed about it later.’