Examples of Emai

Example Verb meaning Example of...
(1)
Òjè é émà.
òjè
Oje
é
eat
émà
yam
‘Oje ate pounded yam.’
EAT a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(2)
Òjè tútú nwú òhí.
òjè
Oje
tútú
cling
nwú
catch
òhí
Ohi
‘Oje hugged Ohi. / Oje embraced Ohi.’
HUG a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(3)
Òjè ọ̀ ọ́ ghòò àlèkè.
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
ghòò
look.at
àlèkè
Aleke
‘Oje is watching/looking at Aleke.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(4)
Òjè míẹ́ àlèkè.
òjè
Oje
míẹ́
see
àlèkè
Aleke
‘Oje saw Aleke.’
SEE a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(5)
Òjè ọ̀ ọ́ yàà ọ̀lí éànmì.
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
yàà
smell
ọ̀lí
the
éànmì
meat
‘Oje is smelling the meat.’
SMELL a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(6)
Ọ́lì àtàlàkpà rẹ́ ófẹ̀n nwú òjè.
ọ́lì
the
àtàlàkpà
lion
rẹ́
take
ófẹ̀n
fear
nwú
catch
òjè
Oje
‘Oje feared the lion.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Causative insertion
(7)
Ófẹ̀n ọ̀ ọ́ nwù òjè.
ófẹ̀n
fear
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
nwù
catch
òjè
Oje
‘Oje is becoming afraid.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
V > 1
(8)
Òhí níáá òjè.
òhí
Ohi
níáá
frighten
òjè
Oje
‘Ohi frightened Oje.’
FRIGHTEN a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(9)
Òjè níááì.
òjè
Oje
níáá-ì
frighten-F
‘Oje got startled/frightened.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Ambitransitive
(10)
Ọ́lí éànmì ọ̀ ọ́ yàá.
ọ́lí
the
éànmì
meat
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
yàá
smell
‘The meat smells.’
SMELL an Alternation:
Ambitransitive
(11)
Ọ́lí úkpùn ẹ́ghẹ́n ọ́lí ọ́mọ̀.
ọ́lí
the
úkpùn
cloth
ẹ́ghẹ́n
please
ọ́lí
the
ọ́mọ̀
child
‘The cloth pleased the child. / The child liked the cloth.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(12)
Ọ̣́lí úkpùn ẹ́ghẹ́nì.
ọ́lí
the
úkpùn
cloth
ẹ́ghẹ́n-ì
be.pleasant-F
‘The cloth is liked. / The cloth is pleasant.’
LIKE an Alternation:
Object omission
(13)
Òjè ẹ́ẹ́n áfúzé'.
òjè
Oje
ẹ́ẹ́n
know
áfúzé'
Afuze
‘Oje knew Afuze.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(14)
Òjè ẹ́ẹ́nì.
òjè
Oje
ẹ́ẹ́n-ì
know-F
‘Oje knew.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Object omission
(15)
Òjè gúẹ́ émáì.
òjè
Oje
gúẹ́
know
émáì
Emai
‘Oje knew Emai.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(16)
Ójé óó ọ́lì ìnyẹ̀mì.
ójé
Oje
óó
ponder
ọ́lì
the
ìnyẹ̀mì
matter
‘Oje pondered the matter. / Oje thought about the matter.’
THINK a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(17)
Òjè ọ̀ ọ́ hòò ọ̀lí émà.
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
hòò
search.for
ọ̀lí
the
émà
yam
‘Oje is searching for the yam.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(18)
Àlèkè khọ́ọ́ ọ́lí ọ́mọ̀.
àlèkè
Aleke
khọ́ọ́
bathe
ọ́lí
the
ọ́mọ̀
child
‘Aleke bathed the child.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(19)
Àlèkè ọ̀ ọ́ khọ̀ọ́.
àlèkè
Aleke
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
khọ̀ọ́
bathe
‘Aleke is bathing.’
WASH an Alternation:
Object omission
(20)
Àlèkè kú ẹ̀ùn ọ́ mẹ́ vbí égbè.
àlèkè
Aleke
spread
ẹ̀ùn
shirt
ọ́
CL
mẹ́
me
vbí
LOC
égbè
body
‘Aleke put a shirt on my body. / Aleke dressed me with a shirt.’
DRESS a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2 > vbi+3
(21)
Òjè zẹ́ étò.
òjè
Oje
zẹ́
shave
étò
hair
‘Oje shaved his hair.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(22)
Òjè kpáyẹ́ àlèkè óbọ̀.
òjè
Oje
kpáyẹ́
replace
àlèkè
Aleke
óbọ̀
hand
‘Oje helped Aleke. / Oje gave Aleke a helping hand.’
HELP a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(23)
Òjè ọ̀ ọ́ rẹ̀khàẹ̀n òhí.
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
rẹ̀khàẹ̀n
follow
òhí
Ohi
‘Oje is following Ohi.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(24)
Òjè gá ọ́lì òkpòsò zé.
òjè
Oje
meet
ọ́lì
the
òkpòsò
woman
move.together
‘Oje has met the woman.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(25)
Yàn á vbàyẹ́.
yàn
they
á
C
vbàyẹ́
talk
‘They are talking. / They are chatting.’
TALK a Coding frame:
1 > V
(26)
Òjè tá lí áléké họ̀n.
òjè
Oje
speak
APP
áléké
Aleke
họ̀n
hear
‘Oje spoke to Aleke.’
SPEAK an Alternation:
Object omission
(27)
Òjè tá étà.
òjè
Oje
speak
étà
words
‘Oje spoke. / Oje spoke his words frankly.’
SPEAK a Coding frame:
1 > V
(28)
Òjè tá étà lí áléké họ̀n.
òjè
Oje
speak
étà
words
APP
áléké
Aleke
họ̀n
hear
‘Oje spoke frankly to Aleke. / Oje told the hard truth to Aleke.’
SPEAK an Alternation:
Addressee li + hon insertion
(29)
Òjè míáá étà.
òjè
Oje
míáá
ask
étà
question
‘Oje asked a question.’
ASK (a question) an Alternation:
Locative omission
(30)
Òjè míáá áléké étà.
òjè
Oje
míáá
ask
áléké
Aleke
étà
question
‘Oje asked Aleke a question./ Oje asked a question of Aleke.’
ASK (a question) an Alternation:
External possessor alternation
(31)
Ójé míáá étá vbí óbọ́ ísì àlèkè.
ójé
Oje
míáá
ask
étá
question
vbí
LOC
óbọ́
hand
ísì
ASS
àlèkè
Aleke
‘Oje asked a question of Aleke.’
ASK (a question) a Coding frame:
1 > V > vbi+2
(32)
Òjè ọ̀ ọ́ khùèè àlèkè.
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
khùèè
shout.at
àlèkè
Aleke
‘Oje is shouting at Aleke. / Oje is screaming at Aleke.’
SHOUT AT a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(33)
Òjè ọ̀ ọ́ khùèé.
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
khùèé
shout
‘Oje is shouting. / Oje is screaming.’
SHOUT AT an Alternation:
Object omission
(34)
Àlèkè ọ̀ ọ́ kpè ìtàn.
àlèkè
Aleke
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
kpè
narrate
ìtàn
saying
‘Aleke is narrating a saying.’
TELL a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(35)
Àlèkè kpé ìtàn lí ójé họ̀n.
àlèkè
Aleke
kpé
narrate
ìtàn
saying
APP
ójé
Oje
họ̀n
hear
‘Aleke narrated a saying to Oje.’
TELL an Alternation:
Addressee li + hon insertion
(36)
Àlèkè kpé ìtàn vbíẹ́ẹ́ òjè.
àlèkè
Aleke
kpé
narrate
ìtàn
saying
vbíẹ́ẹ́
show
òjè
Oje
‘Aleke narrated a saying to Oje.’
TELL an Alternation:
Addressee vbiee insertion
(37)
Àlèkè ọ̀ ọ́ gùè ìnyẹ̀mì.
àlèkè
Aleke
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
gùè
disclose
ìnyẹ̀mì
information
‘Aleke is disclosing information. / Aleke is relating information.’
TELL a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(38)
Àlèkè gúé ìnyẹ̀mì lí ójé họ̀n.
àlèkè
Aleke
gúé
disclose
ìnyẹ̀mì
information
APP
ójé
Oje
họ̀n
hear
‘Aleke disclosed the matter to Oje. / Aleke informed Oje about the matter.’
TELL an Alternation:
Addressee li + hon insertion
(39)
Áléké gúé ìnyẹ̀mì vbíẹ́ẹ́ òjè.
áléké
Aleke
gúé
disclose
ìnyẹ̀mì
information
vbíẹ́ẹ́
show
òjè
Oje
‘Aleke disclose information to Oje.’
TELL an Alternation:
Addressee vbiee insertion
(40)
Àlèkè gúé lí ójé họ̀n.
àlèkè
Aleke
gúé
disclose
APP
ójé
Oje
họ̀n
hear
‘Aleke informed Oje.’
TELL an Alternation:
Object omission
(41)
Ójé rẹ́' ẹ́ ọ́í “ọ́lì òkpòsò gbé ọ́lí ófè.”
ójé
Oje
rẹ́'
CONC
ẹ́
say
ọ́í
it
ọ́lì
the
òkpòsò
woman
gbé
kill
ọ́lí
the
ófè
rat
‘Oje said, “The woman killed the rat.”’
SAY a Coding frame:
1 > V > UTT2
(42)
Ójé rẹ́' ẹ́ ọ́í “ébé' ọ́lí ókpósó í' gbé ọ́lí ófè?”
ójé
Oje
rẹ́'
CONC
ẹ́
ask
ọ́í
it
ébé'
how
ọ́lí
the
ókpósó
woman
í'
MAN
gbé
kill
ọ́lí
the
ófè
rat
‘Oje asked, “How did the woman kill the rat?”’
SAY a Coding frame:
1 > V > UTT2
(43)
Ójé rẹ́' ẹ́ áléké “ọ́lì òkpòsò gbé ọ́lí ófè.”
ójé
Oje
rẹ́'
CONC
ẹ́
tell
áléké
Aleke
ọ́lì
the
òkpòsò
woman
gbé
kill
ọ́lí
the
ófè
rat
‘Oje told Aleke, “The woman killed the rat.”’
ASK (a question) a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2 UTT3
(44)
Ójé rẹ́' ẹ́ áléké “ébé' ọ́lí ókpósó í' gbé ọ́lí ófè?”
ójé
Oje
rẹ́'
CONC
ẹ́
ask
áléké
Aleke
“ébé'
how
ọ́lí
the
ókpósó
woman
í'
MAN
gbé
kill
ọ́lí
the
ófè”
rat
‘Oje asked Aleke, “How did the woman kill the rat?”’
ASK (a question) a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2 UTT3
(45)
È nwú énì ní áìn.
è
they
nwú
take.hold.SG
énì
name
APP
áìn
her
‘They gave a name to her. / They named her.’
NAME a Coding frame:
N/A
(46)
Òjè zẹ́ óà.
òjè
Oje
zẹ́
build
óà
home
‘Oje built a home.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(47)
Òjè rẹ́ èkẹ̀n zẹ́ óà.
òjè
Oje
rẹ́
take
èkẹ̀n
mud.brick
zẹ́
build
óà
home
‘Oje used mud brick to build a home. / Oje built a home with mud brick.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Instrument insertion
(48)
Òjè zẹ́ óà ọ́ vbì èkó.
òjè
Oje
zẹ́
build
óà
home
ọ́
CL
vbì
LOC
èkó
Lagos
‘Oje built a home in Lagos.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Locative change of state
(49)
Òjè ọ̀ ọ́ hù ọ́lì àsẹ̀.
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
build
ọ́lì
the
àsẹ̀
hut
‘Oje is building the hut.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(50)
Òjè rẹ́ ébé ọ̀gẹ̀dẹ̀ hú àsẹ̀.
òjè
Oje
rẹ́
take
ébé
leaf
ọ̀gẹ̀dẹ̀
banana
build
àsẹ̀
hut
‘Oje used banana leaves to build a hut.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Instrument insertion
(51)
Òjè hú àsẹ̀ ọ́ vbí ímè.
òjè
Oje
build
àsẹ̀
hut
ọ́
CL
vbí
LOC
ímè
farm
‘Oje built a hut on the farm.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Locative change of state
(52)
Ójé gúọ́ghọ́' ọ́lí úkpóràn.
ójé
Oje
gúọ́ghọ́'
break
ọ́lí
the
úkpóràn
stick
‘Oje broke the stick.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(53)
Ọ́lí úkpóràn gúọ́ghọ́ì.
ọ́lí
the
úkpóràn
stick
gúọ́ghọ́-ì
break-F
‘The stick broke.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Ambitransitive
(54)
Òjè rẹ́ údò gúọ́ghọ́ ọ́lí úkpóràn.
òjè
Oje
rẹ́
take
údò
stone
gúọ́ghọ́
break
ọ́lí
the
úkpóràn
stick
‘Oje used a stone to break the stick. / Oje broke the stick with a stone.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Instrument insertion
(55)
Òjè gbé ọ́lí ákhè á.
òjè
Oje
gbé
break
ọ́lí
the
ákhè
pot
á
CS
‘Oje broke the pot.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(56)
Ọ́lí ákhè gbé á'.
ọ́lí
the
ákhè
pot
gbé
break
á'
CS
‘The pot broke.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Ambitransitive
(57)
Òjè rẹ́ údò gbé ọ́lí ákhè á.
òjè
Oje
rẹ́
take
údò
stone
gbé
break
ọ́lí
the
ákhè
pot
á
CS
‘Oje used a stone to break the pot. / Oje broke the pot with a stone.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Instrument insertion
(58)
Òjè gbóó élí ékhè kú à.
òjè
Oje
gbóó
break
élí
the
ékhè
pots
spread
à
CS
‘Oje broke the pots into pieces. / Oje broke the pots into smithereens.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(59)
Élí ékhè gbóó kù á.
élí
the
ékhè
pots
gbóó
break
spread
á
CS
‘The pots broke into smithereens. / The pots broke into pieces.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Ambitransitive
(60)
Òjè rẹ́ údò gbóó élí ékhè kú à.
òjè
Oje
rẹ́
take
údò
stone
gbóó
break
élí
the
ékhè
pots
spread
à
CS
‘Oje used a stone to break the pots into smithereens. / Oje broke the pots into pieces with a stone.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Instrument insertion
(61)
Ójé gbé ẹ́mìẹ́mì.
ójé
Oje
gbé
kill
ẹ́mìẹ́mì
lizard
‘Oje killed a lizard.’
KILL a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(62)
Ójé rẹ́ ààbà gbé ẹ́mìẹ́mì.
ójé
Oje
rẹ́
take
ààbà
slingshot
gbé
kill
ẹ́mìẹ́mì
lizard
‘Oje used a slingshot to kill a lizard.’
KILL an Alternation:
Instrument insertion
(63)
Òjè gbóó élí ívbèkhàn.
òjè
Oje
gbóó
kill
élí
the
ívbèkhàn
youths
‘Oje killed the youths.’
KILL a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(64)
Òjè rẹ́ údò gbóó élí ívbèkhàn.
òjè
Oje
rẹ́
take
údò
stone
gbóó
kill
élí
the
ívbèkhàn
youths
‘Oje used a stone to kill the youths. / Oje killed the youths with a stone.’
KILL an Alternation:
Instrument insertion
(65)
Òjè ọ̀ ọ́ gbè ọ̀lí ọ́vbèkhàn.
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
gbè
beat
ọ̀lí
the
ọ́vbèkhàn
youth
‘Oje is beating the youth.’
BEAT a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(66)
Òjè rẹ́ úkpóràn gbé ọ́lí ọ́vbèkhàn.
òjè
Oje
rẹ́
take
úkpóràn
stick
gbé
beat
ọ́lí
the
ọ́vbèkhàn
youth
‘Oje used a stick to beat the youth. / Oje beat the youth with a stick.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Instrument insertion
(67)
Òhí fí ójé úkpóràn.
òhí
Ohi
hit
ójé
Oje
úkpóràn
stick
‘Ohi hit Oje with a stick. / Ohi hit a stick on Oje.’
HIT an Alternation:
Locative omission
(68)
Òhí fí ójé úkpórán vbì ùòkhò.
òhí
Ohi
hit
ójé
Oje
úkpórán
stick
vbì
LOC
ùòkhò
back
‘Ohi hit Oje on his back with a stick. / Ohi hit a stick on Oje's back.’
HIT a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2 > 3 > vbi+4
(69)
Úkpóràn fí ójé vbì ùòkhò.
úkpóràn
stick
hit
ójé
Oje
vbì
LOC
ùòkhò
back
‘A stick hit Oje on his back. / A stick hit Oje’s back.’
HIT an Alternation:
Ambitransitive
(70)
Òjè ọ̀ ọ́ rẹ̀ òbọ́ sò ọ́pìà.
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
rẹ̀
take
òbọ́
hand
touch
ọ́pìà
cutlass
‘Oje is touching the cutlass with his hand. / Oje is touching the cutlass.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(71)
Òjè híán ọ́lí úì.
òjè
Oje
híán
cut
ọ́lí
the
úì
rope
‘Oje cut the rope. / Oje severed the rope.’
CUT a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(72)
Òjè rẹ́ úvbíághàè híán ọ́lí úì.
òjè
Oje
rẹ́
take
úvbíághàè
knife
híán
cut
ọ́lí
the
úì
rope
‘Oje used a knife to cut the rope. / Oje cut the rope with a knife.’
CUT an Alternation:
Instrument insertion
(73)
Òjè ọ̀ ọ́ bẹ̀nnọ̀ éràn.
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
bẹ̀n-nọ̀
cut-DS
éràn
wood
‘Oje is cutting wood. / Oje is chopping wood.’
CUT a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(74)
Òjè ọ̀ ọ́ rẹ̀ ùghámá bẹ̀nnọ̀ éràn.
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
rẹ̀
take
ùghámá
ax
bẹ̀n-nọ̀
cut-DS
éràn
wood
‘Oje is using an axe to cut wood. / Oje is cutting wood with an axe.’
CUT an Alternation:
Instrument insertion
(75)
Òjè míẹ́ẹ́ òhí ọ́pìà.
òjè
Oje
míẹ́ẹ́
seize
òhí
Ohi
ọ́pìà
cutlass
‘Oje seized a cutlass from Ohi.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Locative omission
(76)
Òjè nyá úsúọ́kà á.
òjè
Oje
nyá
tear
úsúọ́kà
maize.ear
á
CS
‘Oje tore off an ear of maize. / Oje ripped an ear of maize off.’
TEAR a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(77)
Ọ́lí úsúọ́kà nyá á'.
ọ́lí
the
úsúọ́kà
maize.ear
nyá
tear
á'
CS
‘The ear of maize got torn off. / The ear of maize got ripped off.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Ambitransitive
(78)
Òjè bóló ọ́lì ọ̀gẹ̀dẹ̀.
òjè
Oje
bóló
peel
ọ́lì
the
ọ̀gẹ̀dẹ̀
plantain
‘Oje peeled the plantain.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(79)
Òjè rẹ́ éhìẹ́n bóló ọ́lì ọ̀gẹ̀dẹ̀.
òjè
Oje
rẹ́
take
éhìẹ́n
fingernail
bóló
peel
ọ́lì
the
ọ̀gẹ̀dẹ̀
plantain
‘Oje used his fingernail to peel the plantain. / Oje peeled the plantain with his fingernail.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Instrument insertion
(80)
Òjè fọ́lọ́ ọ́lí émà.
òjè
Oje
fọ́lọ́
peel
ọ́lí
the
émà
yam
‘Oje peeled the yam.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(81)
Òjè rẹ́ ọ́pìà fọ́lọ́ émà.
òjè
Oje
rẹ́
take
ọ́pìà
cutlass
fọ́lọ́
peel
émà
yam
‘Oje used a cutlass to peel yam. / Oje peeled yam with a cutlass.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Instrument insertion
(82)
Òjè nwú ọ́lì ọ̀gọ́ héé.
òjè
Oje
nwú
take.hold.SG
ọ́lì
the
ọ̀gọ́
bottle
héé
hide
‘Oje hid the bottle.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(83)
Òjè nwú ọ́lì ọ̀gọ́ héé lí òhí.
òjè
Oje
nwú
take.hold.SG
ọ́lì
the
ọ̀gọ́
bottle
héé
hide
APP
òhí
Ohi
‘Oje hid the bottle from Ohi.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Applicative li insertion
(84)
Òjè ọ̀ ọ́ làhèè.
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
làhèè
hide
‘Oje is hiding.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Ambitransitive
(85)
Ójé lọ́ làhéé lí ọ̀nwìmè.
ójé
Oje
lọ́
PRED
làhéé
hide
APP
ọ̀nwìmè
farmer
‘Oje will hide from the farmer.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Applicative li insertion
(86)
Ójé rẹ́ úháóbì vbíẹ́ẹ́ àlèkè.
ójé
Oje
rẹ́
take
úháóbì
poison.arrow
vbíẹ́ẹ́
show
àlèkè
Aleke
‘Oje showed Aleke the poison arrow.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2 > 3
(87)
Òjè nwú ọ́lí émà lí òhí.
òjè
Oje
nwú
take.hold.SG
ọ́lí
the
émà
yam
APP
òhí
Ohi
‘Oje has given the yam to Ohi.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2 > lí+3
(88)
Élí ívbèkhàn húá élí émà lí égbè.
élí
the
ívbèkhàn
youths
húá
take.hold.PL
élí
the
émà
yam
APP
égbè
REC
‘The youths gave the yams to one another.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2 > lí+3
(89)
Òjè yè úhùnmì yé áfúzé'.
òjè
Oje
send
úhùnmì
message
ALL
áfúzé'
Afuze
‘Oje sent a message to Afuze.’
SEND an Alternation:
Allative insertion
(90)
Òjè yé òhí.
òjè
Oje
send
òhí
Ohi
‘Oje sent Ohi.’
SEND a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(91)
Òjè yé òhí yé áfúzé'.
òjè
Oje
send
òhí
Ohi
ALL
áfúzé'
Afuze
‘Oje sent Ohi to Afuze.’
SEND an Alternation:
Allative insertion
(92)
Òjè yé òhí úhùnmì.
òjè
Oje
send
òhí
Ohi
úhùnmì
message
‘Oje sent Ohi with a message. / Oje sent Ohi on an errand.’
SEND a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(93)
Òjè yé òhí úhùnmì yé áfúzé'.
òjè
Oje
send
òhí
Ohi
úhùnmì
message
ALL
áfúzé'
Afuze
‘Oje sent Ohi on an errand to Afuze. / Oje sent Ohi with a message to Afuze.’
SEND an Alternation:
Allative insertion
(94)
Àlèkè nwú ọ́lí émà.
àlèkè
Aleke
nwú
carry.SG
ọ́lí
the
émà
yam
‘Aleke carried the yam.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(95)
Àlèkè húá élí émà.
àlèkè
Aleke
húá
carry.PL
élí
the
émà
yam
‘Aleke carried the yams.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(96)
Àlèkè fí úkpóràn.
àlèkè
Aleke
throw
úkpóràn
stick
‘Aleke threw a stick.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(97)
Àlèkè fí úkpóràn yé òjè.
àlèkè
Aleke
throw
úkpóràn
stick
ALL
òjè
Oje
‘Aleke threw a stick to Oje.’
THROW an Alternation:
Allative insertion
(98)
Òjè rẹ́ ọ́lí úì dín ọ́lí ẹ́wè.
òjè
Oje
rẹ́
take
ọ́lí
the
úì
rope
dín
tie
ọ́lí
the
ẹ́wè
goat
‘Oje used the rope to tie the goat. / Oje tied the goat with a rope. / Oje tethered the goat with a rope.’
TIE an Alternation:
Instrument insertion
(99)
Òjè dín úkpúì.
òjè
Oje
dín
tie
úkpúì
piece.rope
‘Oje tied a piece of rope. / Oje tied a rope.’
TIE a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(100)
Òjè rẹ́ ẹ̀wàìn dín ọ́lí úì.
òjè
Oje
rẹ́
take
ẹ̀wàìn
wisdom
dín
tie
ọ́lí
the
úì
rope
‘Oje used his intelligence to tie the rope. / Oje tied the rope with intelligence.’
TIE an Alternation:
Instrument insertion
(101)
Òjè dín úkpúì ọ́ mẹ́ vbí óbọ̀.
òjè
Oje
dín
tie
úkpúì
piece.rope
ọ́
CL
mẹ́
me
vbí
LOC
óbọ̀
arm
‘Oje tied a piece of rope onto my arm. / Oje tied a rope onto my arm.’
TIE an Alternation:
Locative change of state
(102)
Òjè gbá àlèkè.
òjè
Oje
gbá
tie
àlèkè
Aleke
‘Oje has tied Aleke. / Oje has bound Aleke.’
TIE a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(103)
È gbá ójé íì.
è
they
gbá
tie
ójé
Oje
íì
ropes
‘They tied Oje with ropes. / They bound Oje with ropes.’
TIE a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(104)
Òjè nwú ọ̀gẹ̀dẹ̀ ọ́ vbì ìtébù.
òjè
Oje
nwú
take.hold.SG
ọ̀gẹ̀dẹ̀
plantain
ọ́
CL
vbì
LOC
ìtébù
table
‘Oje put plantain onto the table.’
PUT a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2 > vbi+3
(105)
Òjè ọ́ọ́n àmẹ̀ ọ́ vbì ọ̀gọ́.
òjè
Oje
ọ́ọ́n
pour
àmẹ̀
water
ọ́
CL
vbì
LOC
ọ̀gọ́
bottle
‘Oje poured water into the bottle.’
POUR a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2 > vbi+3
(106)
Òjè rẹ́ àtìró ọ́ọ́n àmẹ̀ ọ́ vbì ọ̀gọ́.
òjè
Oje
rẹ́
take
àtìró
funnel
ọ́ọ́n
pour
àmẹ̀
water
ọ́
CL
vbì
LOC
ọ̀gọ́
bottle
‘Oje used a funnel to pour water into a bottle. / Oje poured water into a bottle with a funnel.’
POUR an Alternation:
Instrument insertion
(107)
Òjè vóó ọ́lí ékpà.
òjè
Oje
vóó
cover
ọ́lí
the
ékpà
vomit
‘Oje covered the vomit.’
COVER a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(108)
Òjè rẹ́ ìsọ́bìlì vóó ọ́lí ékpà.
òjè
Oje
rẹ́
take
ìsọ́bìlì
shovel
vóó
cover
ọ́lí
the
ékpà
vomit
‘Oje used a shovel to cover the vomit. / Oje covered the vomit with a shovel.’
COVER an Alternation:
Instrument insertion
(109)
Éànmì vọ́ọ́n úwáwá ísì òjè.
éànmì
meat
vọ́ọ́n
fill
úwáwá
pot
ísì
ASS
òjè
Oje
‘Meat filled the pot of Oje. / Meat filled Oje's pot.’
FILL a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(110)
Úwáwá mẹ̀ vọ́ọ́nì.
úwáwá
pot
mẹ̀
my
vọ́ọ́n-ì
fill-F
‘My pot is full.’
FILL an Alternation:
Ambitransitive
(111)
Òjè kháán ọ́lì òísí'.
òjè
Oje
kháán
fill
ọ́lì
the
òísí'
gun
‘Oje filled the gun (with gunpowder). / Oje loaded the gun (with gunpowder).’
FILL a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(112)
Òjè máá élí ékẹ́ín ọ́ọ́khọ̀.
òjè
Oje
máá
load
élí
the
ékẹ́ín
eggs
ọ́ọ́khọ̀
chicken
‘Oje loaded the chicken eggs. / Oje arranged the chicken eggs (on a load).’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(113)
Òjè máá élí ékẹ́ín ọ́ọ́khọ̀ ọ́ vbí íhùà.
òjè
Oje
máá
load
élí
the
ékẹ́ín
eggs
ọ́ọ́khọ̀
chicken
ọ́
CL
vbí
LOC
íhùà
burden
‘Oje loaded the chicken eggs onto his burden. / Oje arranged the chicken eggs onto his load.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Locative change of state
(114)
Òjè máá íhùà.
òjè
Oje
máá
load
íhùà
burden
‘Oje loaded his burden. / Oje arranged his load.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(115)
Òjè héé òhí.
òjè
Oje
héé
load
òhí
Ohi
‘Oje loaded up Ohi.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(116)
Òjè gbé ẹ̀ò.
òjè
Oje
gbé
reposition
ẹ̀ò
eye
‘Oje blinked.’
BLINK a Coding frame:
1 > V
(117)
Òjè hẹ́ẹ́n óràn.
òjè
Oje
hẹ́ẹ́n
climb
óràn
tree
‘Oje climbed a tree. / Oje ascended a tree.’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(118)
Òjè hẹ́ẹ́n ùdékẹ̀n.
òjè
Oje
hẹ́ẹ́n
climb
ùdékẹ̀n
wall
‘Oje climbed a wall.’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(119)
Òjè ọ̀ ọ́ lá.
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
run
‘Oje is running.’
RUN a Coding frame:
1 > V
(120)
Òjè díá vbì àgá.
òjè
Oje
díá
sit
vbì
LOC
àgá
chair
‘Oje sat in a chair.’
SIT a Coding frame:
1 > V > vbi+2
(121)
Òjè rẹ́ àgá díá.
òjè
Oje
rẹ́
take
àgá
chair
díá
sit
‘Oje sat down in a chair.’
SIT an Alternation:
Instrument insertion
(122)
Ọ̣́lì ẹ̀kpẹ̀n vbọ́ọ́ì.
ọ́lì
the
ẹ̀kpẹ̀n
leopard
vbọ́ọ́-ì
jump-F
‘The leopard jumped.’
JUMP a Coding frame:
1 > V
(123)
Ọ́lí ẹ́kèé sánì.
ọ́lí
the
ẹ́kèé
frog
sán-ì
jump-F
‘The frog jumped. / The frog leapt.’
JUMP a Coding frame:
1 > V
(124)
Òjè ọ̀ ọ́ sò íòò.
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
sing
íòò
song
‘Oje is singing a song.’
SING a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(125)
Òjè lódẹ̀ vbì ìwè.
òjè
Oje
lódẹ̀
go
vbì
LOC
ìwè
house
‘Oje is going to the house.’
GO a Coding frame:
1 > V > vbi+2
(126)
Òjè ráálẹ̀.
òjè
Oje
ráálẹ̀
move.away
‘Oje has moved away. / Oje has left.’
LEAVE an Alternation:
Locative omission
(127)
Òjè zá vbì ìwè ráálẹ̀.
òjè
Oje
be.at
vbì
LOC
ìwè
house
ráálẹ̀
move.away
‘Oje has left the house. / Oje has moved away from the house.’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
1 > V > vbi+2
(128)
Òjè shọ́ọ́ vbí ẹ́kọ́à ré.
òjè
Oje
shọ́ọ́
exit
vbí
LOC
ẹ́kọ́à
room
arrive
‘Oje left the room. / Oje exited the room.’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
1 > V > vbi+2
(129)
Ójé díá vbí áfúzé'.
ójé
Oje
díá
live
vbí
LOC
áfúzé'
Afuze
‘Oje lived in Afuze.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1 > V > vbi+2
(130)
Ójé jẹ́ì.
ójé
Oje
jẹ́-ì
laugh-F
‘Oje laughed.’
LAUGH an Alternation:
Object omission
(131)
Òjè ọ̀ ọ́ jẹ̀ àlèkè.
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
jẹ̀
laugh
àlèkè
Aleke
‘Oje is laughing at Aleke.’
LAUGH a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(132)
Òjè ọ̀ ọ́ khùèè ọ́lì òkpòsò.
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
khùèè
shout.at
ọ́lì
the
òkpòsò
woman
‘Oje is screaming at the woman. / Oje is insulting the woman.’
SHOUT AT a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(133)
Ékùn ọ̀ ọ́ tò òjè.
ékùn
waist
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
pain
òjè
Oje
‘Oje's waist is paining him. / Oje has a pain at his waist.’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(134)
Ọ́lì èmàì ọ̀ ọ́ rẹ̀ ùíín gbè àlèkè.
ọ́lì
the
èmàì
wound
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
rẹ̀
take
ùíín
fever
gbè
catch
àlèkè
Aleke
‘The wound is making Aleke feverish.’
FEEL COLD an Alternation:
Causative insertion
(135)
Úììn ọ̀ ọ́ gbè àlèkè.
úììn
fever
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
gbè
catch
àlèkè
Aleke
‘Aleke has the chills. / Aleke is feverish.’
FEEL COLD a Coding frame:
V > 1
(136)
Àlèkè úì.
àlèkè
Aleke
ú-ì
die-F
‘Aleke died.’
DIE a Coding frame:
1 > V
(137)
Ọ̣́lí ọ́mọ̀ ọ̀ ọ́ sìé.
ọ́lí
the
ọ́mọ̀
child
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
sìé
play
‘The child is playing.’
PLAY a Coding frame:
1 > V
(138)
Ọ́lí ọ́mọ̀ ọ̀ ọ́ dòó.
ọ́lí
the
ọ́mọ̀
child
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
dòó
fantasize
‘The child is fantasizing. / The child is at play in his fantasy.’
PLAY a Coding frame:
1 > V
(139)
Òjè í ì ghọ̀nghọ́n.
òjè
Oje
í
SC
ì
NEG
ghọ̀nghọ́n
be.happy
‘Oje is sad. / Oje is not happy.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
N/A
(140)
Òhànmì ọ̀ ọ́ gbé òjè.
òhànmì
hunger
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
gbé
catch
òjè
Oje
‘Oje is hungry.’
BE HUNGRY a Coding frame:
V > 1
(141)
Òjè ọ̀ ọ́ gbùlù ọ̀lí íkẹ̀kẹ́.
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
gbùlù
roll
ọ̀lí
the
íkẹ̀kẹ́
bicycle
‘Oje is rolling the bicycle.’
ROLL (tr) a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(142)
Ọ́lì ùgbòfì ọ̀ ọ́ gbùlú.
ọ́lì
the
ùgbòfì
orange
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
gbùlú
roll
‘The orange is rolling.’
ROLL (tr) an Alternation:
Ambitransitive
(143)
Òtọ̀ì há ó.
òtọ̀ì
ground
squeeze
ó
enter
‘The ground sunk.’
SINK (tr) an Alternation:
Object omission
(144)
Òtọ̀ì há òjè ó.
òtọ̀ì
ground
squeeze
òjè
Oje
ó
enter
‘Oje sunk into the ground. / The ground swallowed up Oje.’
SINK (tr) a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(145)
Ùkìn dé ó.
ùkìn
moon
fall
ó
enter
‘The moon has sunk. / The moon had gone down.’
SINK a Coding frame:
1 > V
(146)
Élí ébè ọ̀ ọ́ tóó.
élí
the
ébè
leaf
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
tóó
burn
‘The leaves are burning.’
BURN (tr) an Alternation:
Ambitransitive
(147)
Òjè ọ̀ ọ́ tòò ébè.
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
tòò
burn
ébè
leaf
‘Oje is burning leaves.’
BURN (tr) a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(148)
Ọ́lí úkpùn káì.
ọ́lí
the
úkpùn
cloth
ká-ì
dry-F
‘The cloth is dry.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
1 > V
(149)
Àmẹ̀ ọ̀ ọ́ rọ̀ọ́n.
àmẹ̀
water
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
rọ̀ọ́n
rain
‘It is raining. / Rain is falling.’
RAIN a Coding frame:
V
(150)
Òjè í ì vbì óhùà.
òjè
Oje
í
SC
ì
NEG
vbì
be
óhùà
hunter
‘Oje is not a hunter.’
BE A HUNTER a Coding frame:
N/A
(151)
Óhùà ọ́ọ̀.
óhùà
hunter
ọ́ọ̀
COP
‘He’s a hunter.’
BE A HUNTER a Coding frame:
N/A
(152)
Òjè ọ̀ ọ́ lọ̀ ìsíẹ́ìn.
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
lọ̀
grind
ìsíẹ́ìn
pepper
‘Oje is grinding pepper.’
GRIND a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(153)
Òjè ọ̀ ọ́ rẹ̀ ùdó lọ̀ ìsíẹ́ìn.
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
rẹ̀
take
ùdó
stone
lọ̀
grind
ìsíẹ́ìn
pepper
‘Oje is using a stone to grind pepper. / Oje is grinding pepper with a stone.’
GRIND an Alternation:
Instrument insertion
(154)
Òjè kálọ́ évbíí shọ́ọ́ vbì ìtébù ré.
òjè
Oje
kálọ́
wipe
évbíí
oil
shọ́ọ́
exit
vbì
LOC
ìtébù
table
arrive
‘Oje wiped oil way off the table. / Oje rubbed oil way off the table.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Elative insertion
(155)
Òjè kálọ́ évbíí vbì ìtébù ré.
òjè
Oje
kálọ́
wipe
évbíí
oil
vbì
LOC
ìtébù
table
arrive
‘Oje wiped oil from the table. / Oje rubbed oil from the table.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Elative insertion
(156)
Òjè ọ̀ ọ́ kàlọ̀ ìtébù.
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
kàlọ̀
wipe
ìtébù
table
‘Oje is wiping the table.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(157)
Òjè ọ̀ ọ́ rẹ̀ èsọ́nkpún kàlọ̀ ìtébù.
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
rẹ̀
take
èsọ́nkpún
rag
kàlọ̀
wipe
ìtébù
table
‘Oje is using a rag to wipe the table. / Oje wiped the table with a rag.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Instrument insertion
(158)
Òjè tọ́n émà.
òjè
Oje
tọ́n
dig.for
émà
yam
‘Oje dug for yam. / Oje harvested yam.’
DIG a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(159)
Òjè rẹ́ ọ́píá mẹ̀ tọ́n émà.
òjè
Oje
rẹ́
take
ọ́píá
cutlass
mẹ̀
my
tọ́n
dig.for
émà
yam
‘Oje used my cutlass to dig for yam. / Oje dug for yam with my cutlass.’
DIG an Alternation:
Instrument insertion
(160)
Òjè vún ìbọ̀bọ̀dí.
òjè
Oje
vún
dig.for
ìbọ̀bọ̀dí
cassava
‘Oje dug up cassava. / Oje uprooted cassava.’
DIG a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(161)
Òjè rẹ́ ọ́pìà vún ìbọ̀bọ̀dí.
òjè
Oje
rẹ́
take
ọ́pìà
cutlass
vún
dig.for
ìbọ̀bọ̀dí
cassava
‘Oje used a cutlass to uproot cassava. / Oje uprooted cassava with a cutlass.’
DIG an Alternation:
Instrument insertion
(162)
Òjè ọ̀ ọ́ sùà ẹ̀kpètè.
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
sùà
push
ẹ̀kpètè
stool
‘Oje is pushing a stool.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(163)
Òjè nwú émà ré.
òjè
Oje
nwú
take.hold.SG
émà
yam
arrive
‘Oje brought yam.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(164)
Òjè dó ọ́lí úkpùn nwú.
òjè
Oje
engage.in.stealth
ọ́lí
the
úkpùn
cloth
nwú
take.hold.SG
‘Oje stole the cloth.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(165)
Òjè dó élí éwè húá.
òjè
Oje
engage.in.stealth
élí
the
éwè
goats
húá
take.hold.PL
‘Oje stole the goats.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(166)
Òjè rẹ́ ìsọ́ọ̀mù vbíẹ́ẹ́ òhí.
òjè
Oje
rẹ́
take
ìsọ́ọ̀mù
arithmetic
vbíẹ́ẹ́
teach
òhí
Ohi
‘Oje taught arithmetic to Ohi. / Oje showed arithmetic to Ohi.’
TEACH the Verb form vbiẹẹ
(167)
Òjè vbíẹ́ẹ́ òhí ìsọ́ọ̀mù.
òjè
Oje
vbíẹ́ẹ́
teach
òhí
Ohi
ìsọ́ọ̀mù
arithmetic
‘Oje taught Ohi arithmetic.’
TEACH a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2 > 3
(168)
Ójé ọ́ ọ̀ họ̀n éhọ̀n.
ójé
Oje
ọ́
SC
ọ̀
H
họ̀n
perceive.with
éhọ̀n
ear
‘Oje hears. / Oje perceives with his ear.’
HEAR the Verb form họn
(169)
ójé ọ́ ọ̀ họ̀n íhùè.
ójé
Oje
ọ́
SC
ọ̀
H
họ̀n
perceive.with
íhùè
nose
‘Oje perceives with his nose. / Oje smells (something).’
HEAR the Verb form họn
(170)
òjè ọ̀ ọ́ họ̀n ìkhúéé àlèkè.
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
H
họ̀n
perceive
ìkhúéé
sound
àlèkè
Aleke
‘Oje is hearing Aleke.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(171)
Ọ̣́lì èràìn í khà vbìè émàè.
ọ́lì
the
èràìn
fire
í
SC
khà
PROSNEG
vbìè
cook
émàè
food
‘The fire will not cook food.’
COOK a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(172)
Ọ́lí émàè vbíéì.
ọ́lí
the
émàè
food
vbíé-ì
cook-F
‘The food got cooked.’
COOK an Alternation:
Ambitransitive
(173)
Àlèkè nyẹ́ òmì.
àlèkè
Aleke
nyẹ́
cook
òmì
soup
‘Aleke cooked soup. / Aleke prepared soup.’
COOK a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(174)
Àlèkè rẹ́ ùwàwà nyẹ́ òmì.
àlèkè
Aleke
rẹ́
take
ùwàwà
pot
nyẹ́
cook
òmì
soup
‘Aleke used a pot to cook soup. / Aleke cooked soup with a pot.’
COOK an Alternation:
Instrument insertion
(175)
Ọ́lì òmì tínì.
ọ́lì
the
òmì
soup
tín-ì
boil-F
‘The soup boiled.’
BOIL a Coding frame:
1 > V
(176)
Àlèkè rẹ́ égbè vbíẹ́ẹ́.
àlèkè
Aleke
rẹ́
take
égbè
body
vbíẹ́ẹ́
become.apparent
‘Aleke appeared. / Aleke made her body apparent.’
APPEAR an Alternation:
Object omission
(177)
Àlèkè rẹ́ égbè vbíẹ́ẹ́ ívbíá ọ́ì.
àlèkè
Aleke
rẹ́
take
égbè
body
vbíẹ́ẹ́
become.apparent
ívbíá
children
ọ́ì
her
‘Aleke appeared to her children. / Aleke made herself apparent to her children.’
APPEAR a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(178)
Ọ̣́ ọ̀ tò òjè.
ọ́
SC
ọ̀
H
pain
òjè
Oje
‘Oje is ill. / Something is paining Oje.’
BE ILL a Coding frame:
V > 1
(179)
Ójé víẹ́ì.
ójé
Oje
víẹ́-ì
cry.for-F
‘Oje cried.’
CRY an Alternation:
Object omission
(180)
Òjè ọ̀ ọ́ vìẹ̀ èrá ọ́ì.
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
vìẹ̀
cry.for
èrá
father
ọ́ì
his
‘Oje is crying for his father. / Oje is mourning his father.’
CRY a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(181)
Òjè déì.
òjè
Oje
dé-ì
fall-F
‘Oje fell.’
FALL a Coding frame:
1 > V
(182)
Òjè ẹ́hẹ́n àkpótì.
òjè
Oje
ẹ́hẹ́n
build
àkpótì
box
‘Oje made a box (of wood). / Oje built a box.’
MAKE a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(183)
Òjè míẹ́ẹ́ éghó'.
òjè
Oje
míẹ́ẹ́
receive
éghó'
money
‘Oje received money. / Oje accepted money.’
GET a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2 > 3
(184)
Òjè míẹ́ẹ́ áléké éghó'.
òjè
Oje
míẹ́ẹ́
receive
áléké
Aleke
éghó'
money
‘Oje received money from Aleke. / Oje accepted money from Aleke.’
GET a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2 > 3
(185)
Òjè ọ̀ ọ́ hòò lí áléké dà ẹ́nyọ̀.
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
hòò
want
SUBJ
áléké
Aleke
drink
ẹ́nyọ̀
wine
‘Oje wants Aleke to drink wine. / Oje intends that Aleke should drink wine.’
WANT a Coding frame:
1 > V > li+CC2
(186)
Ójé lọ́ hòò émà lí ọ́lì ọ̀nwìmè.
ójé
Oje
lọ́
PRED
hòò
search.for
émà
yam
APP
ọ́lì
the
ọ̀nwìmè
farmer
‘Oje will search for yam for the farmer.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Applicative li insertion
(187)
Òjè ọ̀ ọ́ rẹ̀ ùrúkpá mẹ́ hòò ákhè.
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
rẹ̀
take
ùrúkpá
lantern
mẹ́
my
hòò
search.for
ákhè
pot
‘Oje is using my lantern to search for a pot. / Oje is searching for a pot with my lantern.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Instrument insertion
(188)
Àlèkè rẹ́ íhìọ̀n khọ́ọ́ ọ́lí ọ́mọ̀.
àlèkè
Aleke
rẹ́
take
íhìọ̀n
sponge
khọ́ọ́
wash
ọ́lí
the
ọ́mọ̀
child
‘Aleke used a sponge to bathe the child.’
WASH an Alternation:
Instrument insertion
(189)
Àlèkè khọ́ọ́ lí òjè.
àlèkè
Aleke
khọ́ọ́
bathe
APP
òjè
Oje
‘Aleke bathed Oje. / Aleke gave a bath to Oje.’
WASH an Alternation:
Applicative li insertion
(190)
Òjè zẹ́ étò lí ínyọ́ ọ́ì.
òjè
Oje
zẹ́
shave
étò
hair
APP
ínyọ́
mother
ọ́ì
his
‘Oje shaved his hair for his mother. / Oje shaved in honor of his mother.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
Applicative li insertion
(191)
Òjè zẹ́ óà lí òhí.
òjè
Oje
zẹ́
build
óà
home
APP
òhí
Ohi
‘Oje built a house for Ohi.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Applicative li insertion
(192)
Òjè gúọ́ghọ́ úkpàsánmì kú ọ́ vbí úkpódẹ̀.
òjè
Oje
gúọ́ghọ́
break
úkpàsánmì
cane
spread
ọ́
CL
vbí
LOC
úkpódẹ̀
road
‘Oje broke his cane all over the road.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Distributive locative insertion (specific)
(193)
Òjè gbóó élí ékhè kú ọ́ vbí úkpódẹ̀.
òjè
Oje
gbóó
break
élí
the
ékhè
pots
spread
ọ́
CL
vbí
LOC
úkpódẹ̀
road
‘Oje broke the pots all over the road.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Distributive locative insertion (specific)
(194)
Òjè gbóó élí ívbèkhàn kú ọ́ vbí úkpódẹ̀.
òjè
Oje
gbóó
kill
élí
the
ívbèkhàn
youths
spread
ọ́
CL
vbí
LOC
úkpódẹ̀
road
‘Oje killed the youths all over the road.’
KILL an Alternation:
Distributive locative insertion (specific)
(195)
Òjè ọ̀ ọ́ gbè ọ̀lí ọ́vbékhán lì ọ̀há ọ́ì.
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
gbè
beat
ọ̀lí
the
ọ́vbékhán
youth
APP
ọ̀há
wife
ọ́ì
his
‘Oje is beating the youth for his wife.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Applicative li insertion
(196)
Ọ̣́lí úì híán á'.
ọ́lí
the
úì
rope
híán
cut
á'
CS
‘The rope got cut off.’
CUT an Alternation:
Ambitransitive
(197)
Òjè híán ọ́lí úì lí òhí.
òjè
Oje
híán
cut
ọ́lí
the
úì
rope
APP
òhí
Ohi
‘Oje cut the rope for Ohi.’
CUT an Alternation:
Applicative li insertion
(198)
Òjè híán ọ́lí úì ọ́ vbì èvá.
òjè
Oje
híán
cut
ọ́lí
the
úì
rope
ọ́
CL
vbì
LOC
èvá
two
‘Oje cut the rope into two.’
CUT an Alternation:
Locative change of state
(199)
Òjè híán émà yé òhí.
òjè
Oje
híán
cut
émà
yam
ALL
òhí
Ohi
‘Oje took yam to Ohi.’
CUT an Alternation:
Allative insertion
(200)
Élí ímọ̀hè híán ọ́lí úgbó' kú ọ́ vbì òtọ̀ì.
élí
the
ímọ̀hè
men
híán
cut
ọ́lí
the
úgbó'
forest
spread
ọ́
CL
vbì
LOC
òtọ̀ì
ground
‘The men cut the forest all the way to the ground.’
CUT an Alternation:
Distributive locative insertion (specific)
(201)
Òjè bẹ́nnọ́ éràn kú ọ́ vbí úkpódẹ̀.
òjè
Oje
bẹ́n-nọ́
cut-DS
éràn
wood
spread
ọ́
CL
vbí
LOC
úkpódẹ̀
road
‘Oje cut wood all over the road. / Oje chopped wood all over the road.’
CUT an Alternation:
Distributive locative insertion (specific)
(202)
Òjè bẹ́nnọ́ ùkèlè lí élí ívbèkhàn.
òjè
Oje
bẹ́n-nọ́
cut-DS
ùkèlè
morsel
APP
élí
the
ívbèkhàn
youths
‘Oje cut morsels for the children. / Oje chopped morsels for the children.’
CUT an Alternation:
Applicative li insertion
(203)
Òjè nyá úsúọ́ká vbí óràn ré.
òjè
Oje
nyá
tear
úsúọ́ká
maize.ear
vbí
LOC
óràn
stalk
arrive
‘Oje tore an ear of maize from the stalk. / Oje ripped an ear of maize from the stalk.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Elative insertion
(204)
Òjè bóló ọ̀gẹ̀dẹ̀ lí òhí.
òjè
Oje
bóló
peel
ọ̀gẹ̀dẹ̀
plantain
APP
òhí
Ohi
‘Oje peeled plantain for Ohi.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Applicative li insertion
(205)
Òjè bóló ọ̀gẹ̀dẹ̀ fí ọ́ vbí úkpódẹ̀.
òjè
Oje
bóló
peel
ọ̀gẹ̀dẹ̀
plantain
propel
ọ́
CL
vbí
LOC
úkpódẹ̀
road
‘Oje peeled plantain all over the road. / Oje tossed plantain peelings all over the road.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Distributive locative insertion (specific)
(206)
Òjè fọ́lọ́ émà lí àlèkè.
òjè
Oje
fọ́lọ́
peel
émà
yam
APP
àlèkè
Aleke
‘Oje peeled yam for Aleke.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Applicative li insertion
(207)
Òjè rẹ́ ẹ̀kpà nwú émà.
òjè
Oje
rẹ́
take
ẹ̀kpà
bag
nwú
carry.SG
émà
yam
‘Oje carried yam with a bag. / Oje used a bag to carry yam.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Instrument insertion
(208)
Àlèkè fí èkhọ̀ì fí ẹ́ òhí.
àlèkè
Aleke
throw
èkhọ̀ì
worm
propel
ẹ́
PA
òhí
Ohi
‘Aleke threw a worm onto Ohi.’
THROW an Alternation:
Projected adherence insertion
(209)
Àlèkè fí éànmì fí ọ́ vbì òkpàn.
àlèkè
Aleke
throw
éànmì
meat
propel
ọ́
CL
vbì
LOC
òkpàn
gourd
‘Aleke threw meat into the gourd.’
THROW an Alternation:
Distributive locative insertion (specific)
(210)
Àlèkè gbá ọ̀gbẹ̀lẹ̀ lí òjè.
àlèkè
Aleke
gbá
tie
ọ̀gbẹ̀lẹ̀
baby.sash
APP
òjè
Oje
‘Aleke tied the baby sash for Oje.’
TIE an Alternation:
Applicative li insertion
(211)
Àlèkè gbá ìsávbẹ̀ẹ́ ọ́ vbì àwẹ̀.
àlèkè
Aleke
gbá
tie
ìsávbẹ̀ẹ́
dika.nut.anklet
ọ́
CL
vbì
LOC
àwẹ̀
feet
‘Aleke tied dika nut anklets onto her feet.’
TIE an Alternation:
Locative change of state
(212)
Òjè kẹ́nhẹ́ni.
òjè
Oje
kẹ́nhẹ́n-i
cough-F
‘Oje coughed.’
COUGH a Coding frame:
1 > V
(213)
Òjè kẹ́nhẹ́n kú ọ́ vbí émàè.
òjè
Oje
kẹ́nhẹ́n
cough
spread
ọ́
CL
vbí
LOC
émàè
food
‘Oje coughed all over the food.’
COUGH an Alternation:
Distributive locative insertion (specific)
(214)
Òjè rẹ́ úì hẹ́ẹ́n ọ́lí údìn.
òjè
Oje
rẹ́
take
úì
rope
hẹ́ẹ́n
climb
ọ́lí
the
údìn
palm.tree
‘Oje climbed the palm tree with a rope. / Oje used a rope to climb the palm tree.’
CLIMB an Alternation:
Instrument insertion
(215)
Ójé ọ̀ ọ́ lá lí ọ̀nwìmè.
ójé
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
run
APP
ọ̀nwìmè
farmer
‘Oje is running from the farmer.’
RUN an Alternation:
Applicative li insertion
(216)
Òjè lá fì á.
òjè
Oje
run
propel
á
CS
‘Oje ran off. / Oje ran away.’
RUN an Alternation:
Distributive locative insertion (unspecific)
(217)
Ọ̣́lì ẹ̀kpẹ̀n vbọ́ọ́ fì ọ́ vbì òtọ̀ì.
ọ́lì
the
ẹ̀kpẹ̀n
leopard
vbọ́ọ́
jump
propel
ọ́
CL
vbì
LOC
òtọ̀ì
ground
‘The leopard jumped onto the ground.’
JUMP an Alternation:
Distributive locative insertion (specific)
(218)
Ọ̣́lì ẹ̀kpẹ̀n vbọ́ọ́ fì á.
ọ́lì
the
ẹ̀kpẹ̀n
leopard
vbọ́ọ́
jump
propel
á
CS
‘The leopard jumped away.’
JUMP an Alternation:
Distributive locative insertion (unspecific)
(219)
Ọ̣́lí ẹ́kèé sán fì ọ́ vbí úkpódẹ̀.
ọ́lí
the
ẹ́kèé
frog
sán
jump
propel
ọ́
CL
vbí
LOC
úkpódẹ̀
road
‘The frog jumped onto the road. / The frog leaped onto the road.’
JUMP an Alternation:
Distributive locative insertion (specific)
(220)
Ọ̣́lí ẹ́kèé sán fì á.
ọ́lí
the
ẹ́kèé
frog
sán
jump
propel
á
CS
‘The frog jumped away. / The frog leaped away.’
JUMP an Alternation:
Distributive locative insertion (unspecific)
(221)
Òjè só íòò vbíẹ́ẹ́ àlèkè.
òjè
Oje
sing
íòò
song
vbíẹ́ẹ́
show
àlèkè
Aleke
‘Oje sang a song to Aleke.’
SING an Alternation:
Addressee vbiee insertion
(222)
Òjè shọ́ọ́ ré.
òjè
Oje
shọ́ọ́
exit
arrive
‘Oje left. / Oje exited.’
LEAVE an Alternation:
Locative omission
(223)
Áléké ú fì ọ́ vbí ídámí úkpódẹ̀.
áléké
Aleke
ú
die
propel
ọ́
CL
vbí
LOC
ídámí
forward
úkpódẹ̀
road
‘Aleke dropped dead up ahead on the road.’
DIE an Alternation:
Distributive locative insertion (specific)
(224)
Àlèkè ú fí à.
àlèkè
Aleke
ú
die
propel
à
CS
‘Aleke died off. / Aleke dropped dead.’
DIE an Alternation:
Distributive locative insertion (unspecific)
(225)
Áléké ú ọ́ vbí ídámí úkpódẹ̀.
áléké
Aleke
ú
die
ọ́
CL
vbí
LOC
ídámí
forward
úkpódẹ̀
road
‘Aleke died up ahead on the road.’
DIE an Alternation:
Locative change of state
(226)
Ọ̣̣́́lí ọ́mọ̀ ọ̀ ọ́ rẹ̀ èkẹ́n dòó.
ọ́lí
the
ọ́mọ̀
child
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
rẹ̀
take
èkẹ́n
sand
dòó
fantasize
‘The child is fantasizing with sand. / The child is playing with sand.’
PLAY an Alternation:
Instrument insertion
(227)
Ọ́lì ìkhùnmì ọ̀ ọ́ rẹ̀ òhánmí gbè òjè.
ọ́lì
the
ìkhùnmì
medicine
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
rẹ̀
take
òhánmí
hunger
gbè
catch
òjè
Oje
‘The medicine is making Oje hungry.’
BE HUNGRY an Alternation:
Causative insertion
(228)
Òjè ọ̀ ọ́ rẹ̀ ègbé gbùlù èkẹ̀n.
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
rẹ̀
take
ègbé
body
gbùlù
roll
èkẹ̀n
sand
‘Oje is rolling in the sand with his body. / Oje is rolling his body in the sand.’
ROLL (tr) an Alternation:
Instrument insertion
(229)
Òjè rẹ́ èràìn tóó ọ́lí ébè á.
òjè
Oje
rẹ́
take
èràìn
fire
tóó
burn
ọ́lí
the
ébè
leaf
á
CS
‘Oje used a fire to burn up the leaves. / Oje burned up the leaves with a fire.’
BURN (tr) an Alternation:
Instrument insertion
(230)
Òjè tóó ọ́lí ébè kú à.
òjè
Oje
tóó
burn
ọ́lí
the
ébè
leaf
spread
à
CS
‘Oje burned the leaves away entirely. / Oje burned up all the leaves.’
BURN (tr) an Alternation:
Distributive locative insertion (unspecific)
(231)
Òjè nwú ọ́lí úkpùn ká.
òjè
Oje
nwú
take.hold.SG
ọ́lí
the
úkpùn
cloth
dry
‘Oje put the cloth to dry. / Oje dried the cloth.’
BE DRY an Alternation:
Causative insertion
(232)
Òjè lọ́ ísíẹ́ìn ọ́ vbì ìtásà.
òjè
Oje
lọ́
grind
ísíẹ́ìn
pepper
ọ́
CL
vbì
LOC
ìtásà
plate
‘Oje ground pepper onto the plate.’
GRIND an Alternation:
Locative change of state
(233)
Òjè lọ́ ísíẹ́ìn lí òhí.
òjè
Oje
lọ́
grind
ísíẹ́ìn
pepper
APP
òhí
Ohi
‘Oje ground pepper for Ohi.’
GRIND an Alternation:
Applicative li insertion
(234)
Òjè lọ́ ísíẹ́ìn kú ọ́ vbì ìtásà.
òjè
Oje
lọ́
grind
ísíẹ́ìn
pepper
spread
ọ́
CL
vbì
LOC
ìtásà
plate
‘Oje ground pepper all over the plate.’
GRIND an Alternation:
Distributive locative insertion (specific)
(235)
Àlèkè ọ̀ ọ́ kàlọ̀ ìtébú lì òhí.
àlèkè
Aleke
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
kàlọ̀
wipe
ìtébú
table
APP
òhí
Ohi
‘Aleke is wiping the table for Ohi. / Aleke is wiping the table for Ohi's benefit.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Applicative li insertion
(236)
Òjè kálọ́ évbìì ọ́ vbì ìtébù.
òjè
Oje
kálọ́
wipe
évbìì
oil
ọ́
CL
vbì
LOC
ìtébù
table
‘Oje wiped oil onto the table. / Oje rubbed oil onto the table.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Locative change of state
(237)
Òjè tọ́n émà lí òhí.
òjè
Oje
tọ́n
dig.for
émà
yam
APP
òhí
Ohi
‘Oje dug yam for Ohi. / Oje harvested yam for Ohi.’
DIG an Alternation:
Applicative li insertion
(238)
Òjè tọ́n émà yé òhí.
òjè
Oje
tọ́n
dig.for
émà
yam
ALL
òhí
Ohi
‘Oje took yam to Ohi.’
DIG an Alternation:
Allative insertion
(239)
Òjè vún ìbọ̀bọ̀dí yé òhí.
òjè
Oje
vún
dig.for
ìbọ̀bọ̀dí
cassava
ALL
òhí
Ohi
‘Oje took cassava to Ohi.’
DIG an Alternation:
Allative insertion
(240)
Òjè vún ìbọ̀bọ̀dí lí òhí.
òjè
Oje
vún
dig.for
ìbọ̀bọ̀dí
cassava
APP
òhí
Ohi
‘Oje dug up cassava for Ohi.’
DIG an Alternation:
Applicative li insertion
(241)
Òjè ọ̀ ọ́ sùà ẹ̀kpètè lí àlèkè.
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
sùà
push
ẹ̀kpètè
stool
APP
àlèkè
Aleke
‘Oje is pushing a stool for Aleke.’
PUSH an Alternation:
Applicative li insertion
(242)
Òjè súá ọ́lí údò yé òhí.
òjè
Oje
súá
push
ọ́lí
the
údò
stone
ALL
òhí
Ohi
‘Oje pushed the stone to Ohi.’
PUSH an Alternation:
Allative insertion
(243)
Òjè súá údò fí ọ́ vbí ẹ́dà.
òjè
Oje
súá
push
údò
rock
propel
ọ́
CL
vbí
LOC
ẹ́dà
river
‘Oje pushed a rock into the river.’
PUSH an Alternation:
Distributive locative insertion (specific)
(244)
Òjè súá údò fí à.
òjè
Oje
súá
push
údò
rock
propel
à
CS
‘Oje pushed a rock away.’
PUSH an Alternation:
Distributive locative insertion (unspecific)
(245)
Òjè zẹ́ èkẹ̀n ré.
òjè
Oje
zẹ́
scoop
èkẹ̀n
sand
arrive
‘Oje brought sand.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(246)
Àlèkè nyẹ́ òmì lí òjè.
àlèkè
Aleke
nyẹ́
cook
òmì
soup
APP
òjè
Oje
‘Aleke cooked soup for Oje. / Aleke gave soup to Oje.’
COOK an Alternation:
Applicative li insertion
(247)
Àlèkè nyẹ́ òmì yé òjè.
àlèkè
Aleke
nyẹ́
cook
òmì
soup
ALL
òjè
Oje
‘Aleke took soup to Oje.’
COOK an Alternation:
Allative insertion
(248)
Ọ́lì òmì ọ̀ ọ́ tín kù ọ̀ vbí èràìn.
ọ́lì
the
òmì
soup
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
tín
boil
spread
ọ̀
CL
vbí
LOC
èràìn
fire
‘The soup is boiling over into the fire.’
BOIL an Alternation:
Distributive locative insertion (specific)
(249)
Ọ̣́lì òmì ọ̀ ọ́ tín kú à.
ọ́lì
the
òmì
soup
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
tín
boil
spread
à
CS
‘The soup is boiling over.’
BOIL an Alternation:
Distributive locative insertion (unspecific)
(250)
Údúkpù dé fì ọ́ vbì òtọ̀ì.
údúkpù
coconut
fall
propel
ọ́
CL
vbì
LOC
òtọ̀ì
ground
‘A coconut fell onto the ground.’
FALL an Alternation:
Distributive locative insertion (specific)
(251)
Údúkpù dé fì á.
údúkpù
coconut
fall
propel
á
CS
‘A coconut fell off.’
FALL an Alternation:
Distributive locative insertion (unspecific)
(252)
Òjè rẹ́ ìbàbó ẹ́hẹ́n ígbàlàkà.
òjè
Oje
rẹ́
take
ìbàbó
bamboo
ẹ́hẹ́n
make
ígbàlàkà
ladder
‘Oje made a ladder with bamboo. / Oje used bamboo to make a ladder.’
MAKE an Alternation:
Instrument insertion
(253)
Òjè ẹ́hẹ́n àkpótì lì òhí.
òjè
Oje
ẹ́hẹ́n
build
àkpótì
box
APP
òhí
Ohi
‘Oje built a box for Ohi.’
MAKE an Alternation:
Applicative li insertion
(254)
Òjè ẹ́hẹ́n ígbàlàkà yé òhí.
òjè
Oje
ẹ́hẹ́n
make
ígbàlàkà
ladder
ALL
òhí
Ohi
‘Oje took a ladder to Ohi.’
MAKE an Alternation:
Allative insertion
(255)
Òjè míẹ́ẹ́ òhí ọ́píá vbí óbọ̀.
òjè
Oje
míẹ́ẹ́
seize
òhí
Ohi
ọ́píá
cutlass
vbí
LOC
óbọ̀
hand
‘Oje seized a cutlass from Ohi's hand.’
TAKE a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2 > 3 > vbi+4
(256)
Òjè ghóó ùòkhò lí òhí.
òjè
Oje
ghóó
look.at
ùòkhò
back
APP
òhí
Ohi
‘Oje watched the back for Ohi. / Oje looked for Ohi at the back.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Applicative li insertion
(257)
Òjè rẹ́ àgbòí mẹ̀ zẹ́ étò.
òjè
Oje
rẹ́
take
àgbòí
jackknife
mẹ̀
my
zẹ́
shave
étò
hair
‘Oje shaved his hair with my jackknife. / Oje used my jackknife to shave his hair.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
Instrument insertion
(258)
Òjè gúọ́ghọ́ úkpàsánmì kú à.
òjè
Oje
gúọ́ghọ́
break
úkpàsánmì
cane
spread
à
CS
‘Oje broke his cane into smithereens. / Oje broke his cane all over the place.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Distributive locative insertion (unspecific)
(259)
Òjè gbóó élí ívbèkhàn kú à.
òjè
Oje
gbóó
kill
élí
the
ívbèkhàn
youths
spread
à
CS
‘Oje killed off the youths.’
KILL an Alternation:
Distributive locative insertion (unspecific)
(260)
Òjè bẹ́nnọ́ éràn kú à.
òjè
Oje
bẹ́n-nọ́
cut-DS
éràn
wood
spread
à
CS
‘Oje chopped wood to a rubble. / Oje cut the wood away.’
CUT an Alternation:
Distributive locative insertion (unspecific)
(261)
Àlèkè fí ọ́lí ọ́pìà fí à.
àlèkè
Aleke
throw
ọ́lí
the
ọ́pìà
cutlass
propel
à
CS
‘Aleke threw the cutlass away.’
THROW an Alternation:
Distributive locative insertion (unspecific)
(262)
Òjè húá élì ọ̀gẹ̀dẹ̀ ọ́ vbì ìtébù.
òjè
Oje
húá
take.hold.PL
élì
the
ọ̀gẹ̀dẹ̀
plantain
ọ́
CL
vbì
LOC
ìtébù
table
‘Oje put the plantains onto the table.’
PUT a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2 > vbi+3
(263)
Òjè kẹ́nhẹ́n kù á.
òjè
Oje
kẹ́nhẹ́n
cough
spread
á
CS
‘Oje coughed all over. / Oje coughed away.’
COUGH an Alternation:
Distributive locative insertion (unspecific)
(264)
Ọ́lì ùgbòfì gbúlú ọ́ vbí ẹ́kọ́à.
ọ́lì
the
ùgbòfì
orange
gbúlú
roll
ọ́
CL
vbí
LOC
ẹ́kọ́à
room
‘The orange rolled into the room.’
ROLL (tr) an Alternation:
Locative change of state
(265)
Òjè rẹ́ ósìí é émà.
òjè
Oje
rẹ́
take
ósìí
stew
é
eat
émà
yam
‘Oje used stew to eat pounded yam. / Oje ate pounded yam with stew.’
EAT an Alternation:
Instrument insertion
(266)
Òjè zẹ́lọ́ ìwè kú ọ́ vbì èkó.
òjè
Oje
zẹ́-lọ́
build-DS
ìwè
house
spread
ọ́
CL
vbì
LOC
èkó
Lagos
‘Oje built houses all over Lagos.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Distributive locative insertion (specific)
(267)
Ámẹ́ ísì ìfííjí ọ́ ọ̀ fọ́.
ámẹ́
water
ísì
ASS
ìfííjí
refrigerator
ọ́
SC
ọ̀
H
fọ́
be.cool
‘Refrigerator water is cool.’
BE COLD a Coding frame:
1 > V
(268)
Òjè gbúlú ọ́lí íkẹ̀kẹ́ yé òhí.
òjè
Oje
gbúlú
roll
ọ́lí
the
íkẹ̀kẹ́
bicycle
ALL
òhí
Ohi
‘Oje rolled the bicycle to Ohi.’
ROLL (tr) an Alternation:
Allative insertion
(269)
Òjè gbúlú ọ́lí íkẹ̀kẹ́ shọ́ọ́ vbí úkpódẹ̀ ré.
òjè
Oje
gbúlú
roll
ọ́lí
the
íkẹ̀kẹ́
bicycle
shọ́ọ́
exit
vbí
LOC
úkpódẹ̀
road
arrive
‘Oje rolled the bicycle way off the road.’
ROLL (tr) an Alternation:
Elative insertion
(270)
Ọ́lí ókọ̀ dé ó vbí ẹ́kẹ́ín ẹ́dà.
ọ́lí
the
ókọ̀
canoe
fall
ó
enter
vbí
LOC
ẹ́kẹ́ín
inside
ẹ́dà
river
‘The canoe sank into the river.’
SINK a Coding frame:
1 > V
(271)
Òjè nwú íhùà héé òhí.
òjè
Oje
nwú
take.hold.SG
íhùà
burden
héé
load
òhí
Ohi
‘Oje put a burden on Ohi's head. / Oje loaded Ohi with a burden.’
LOAD the Verb form hee
(272)
Òjè kpé ọ́lì òkpàn.
òjè
Oje
kpé
wash
ọ́lì
the
òkpàn
gourd
‘Oje washed the gourd.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1 > V > 2
(273)
Òjè kpé ọ́lì ìtásà lí àlèkè.
òjè
Oje
kpé
wash
ọ́lì
the
ìtásà
plate
APP
àlèkè
Aleke
‘Oje washed the plate for Aleke.’
WASH an Alternation:
Applicative li insertion
(274)
Òjè rẹ́ ósá lí óbí'n kpé ìtásà.
òjè
Oje
rẹ́
take
ósá
soap
R
óbí'n
black
kpé
wash
ìtásà
plate
‘Oje used black soap to wash plates. / Oje washed plates with black soap.’
WASH an Alternation:
Instrument insertion
(275)
Òjè kpé ọ́lì òmì kú ọ́ vbì ìtébù.
òjè
Oje
kpé
wash
ọ́lì
the
òmì
soup
spread
ọ́
CL
vbì
LOC
ìtébù
table
‘Oje splattered the soup all over the table. / Oje washed the soup around all over the table.’
WASH an Alternation:
Distributive locative insertion (specific)
(276)
Òjè kpé ọ́lì òmì kú à.
òjè
Oje
kpé
wash
ọ́lì
the
òmì
soup
spread
à
CS
‘Oje washed the soup away.’
WASH an Alternation:
Distributive locative insertion (unspecific)