Distributive locative insertion (specific) U

Description

The specified distributive locative alternation relates monovalent <SUB V1 > to bivalent <SUB V1 o vbi+LOC>; or bivalent <SUB V1 DOB> to trivalent <SUB V1 DOB V2 o vbi+LOC>, where V2 is fi or ku preceding change of location particle o and its vbi+LOC complement and where monovalent SUB or bivalent DOB, respectively, releases and projects onto a specified locative referent (i.e. vbi+LOC argument) or undergoes a change of state relative to an specified locative referent.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
RUN la N
(119)
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
run
‘Oje is running.’
BOIL tin R
(175)
ọ́lì
the
òmì
soup
tín-ì
boil-F
‘The soup boiled.’
JUMP vbọọ R
(122)
ọ́lì
the
ẹ̀kpẹ̀n
leopard
vbọ́ọ́-ì
jump-F
‘The leopard jumped.’
JUMP san R
(123)
ọ́lí
the
ẹ́kèé
frog
sán-ì
jump-F
‘The frog jumped. / The frog leapt.’
FALL de R
(181)
òjè
Oje
dé-ì
fall-F
‘Oje fell.’
DIE u R
(136)
àlèkè
Aleke
ú-ì
die-F
‘Aleke died.’
GRIND lọ R
(152)
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
lọ̀
grind
ìsíẹ́ìn
pepper
‘Oje is grinding pepper.’
BURN (tr) too N
(147)
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
tòò
burn
ébè
leaf
‘Oje is burning leaves.’
TEAR nya a N
(76)
òjè
Oje
nyá
tear
úsúọ́kà
maize.ear
á
CS
‘Oje tore off an ear of maize. / Oje ripped an ear of maize off.’
CUT hian R
(71)
òjè
Oje
híán
cut
ọ́lí
the
úì
rope
‘Oje cut the rope. / Oje severed the rope.’
PEEL bolo R
(78)
òjè
Oje
bóló
peel
ọ́lì
the
ọ̀gẹ̀dẹ̀
plantain
‘Oje peeled the plantain.’
BREAK gboo ku a M
(58)
òjè
Oje
gbóó
break
élí
the
ékhè
pots
spread
à
CS
‘Oje broke the pots into pieces. / Oje broke the pots into smithereens.’
BUILD zẹ(2) R
(46)
òjè
Oje
zẹ́
build
óà
home
‘Oje built a home.’
EAT e N
(1)
òjè
Oje
é
eat
émà
yam
‘Oje ate pounded yam.’
HUG tutu nwu N
(2)
òjè
Oje
tútú
cling
nwú
catch
òhí
Ohi
‘Oje hugged Ohi. / Oje embraced Ohi.’
LOOK AT ghoo N
(3)
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
ghòò
look.at
àlèkè
Aleke
‘Oje is watching/looking at Aleke.’
SMELL yaa N
(5)
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
yàà
smell
ọ̀lí
the
éànmì
meat
‘Oje is smelling the meat.’
SEE miẹ N
(4)
òjè
Oje
míẹ́
see
àlèkè
Aleke
‘Oje saw Aleke.’
FEAR ófẹ̀n nwu N
(7)
ófẹ̀n
fear
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
nwù
catch
òjè
Oje
‘Oje is becoming afraid.’
FRIGHTEN niaa N
(8)
òhí
Ohi
níáá
frighten
òjè
Oje
‘Ohi frightened Oje.’
LIKE ẹghẹn N
(11)
ọ́lí
the
úkpùn
cloth
ẹ́ghẹ́n
please
ọ́lí
the
ọ́mọ̀
child
‘The cloth pleased the child. / The child liked the cloth.’
KNOW ẹẹn N
(13)
òjè
Oje
ẹ́ẹ́n
know
áfúzé'
Afuze
‘Oje knew Afuze.’
KNOW guẹ N
(15)
òjè
Oje
gúẹ́
know
émáì
Emai
‘Oje knew Emai.’
THINK oo N
(16)
ójé
Oje
óó
ponder
ọ́lì
the
ìnyẹ̀mì
matter
‘Oje pondered the matter. / Oje thought about the matter.’
SEARCH FOR hoo (1) N
(17)
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
hòò
search.for
ọ̀lí
the
émà
yam
‘Oje is searching for the yam.’
WASH khọọ N
(18)
àlèkè
Aleke
khọ́ọ́
bathe
ọ́lí
the
ọ́mọ̀
child
‘Aleke bathed the child.’
DRESS ku ọ N
(20)
àlèkè
Aleke
spread
ẹ̀ùn
shirt
ọ́
CL
mẹ́
me
vbí
LOC
égbè
body
‘Aleke put a shirt on my body. / Aleke dressed me with a shirt.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) zẹ (1) N
(21)
òjè
Oje
zẹ́
shave
étò
hair
‘Oje shaved his hair.’
HELP kpayẹ óbọ̀ N
(22)
òjè
Oje
kpáyẹ́
replace
àlèkè
Aleke
óbọ̀
hand
‘Oje helped Aleke. / Oje gave Aleke a helping hand.’
FOLLOW rẹkhaẹn N
(23)
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
rẹ̀khàẹ̀n
follow
òhí
Ohi
‘Oje is following Ohi.’
MEET ga ze N
(24)
òjè
Oje
meet
ọ́lì
the
òkpòsò
woman
move.together
‘Oje has met the woman.’
TALK vbayẹ N
(25)
yàn
they
á
C
vbàyẹ́
talk
‘They are talking. / They are chatting.’
SPEAK ta étà N
(27)
òjè
Oje
speak
étà
words
‘Oje spoke. / Oje spoke his words frankly.’
ASK (a question) miaa étà N
(31)
ójé
Oje
míáá
ask
étá
question
vbí
LOC
óbọ́
hand
ísì
ASS
àlèkè
Aleke
‘Oje asked a question of Aleke.’
SHOUT AT khuee N
(32)
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
khùèè
shout.at
àlèkè
Aleke
‘Oje is shouting at Aleke. / Oje is screaming at Aleke.’
(132)
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
khùèè
shout.at
ọ́lì
the
òkpòsò
woman
‘Oje is screaming at the woman. / Oje is insulting the woman.’
TELL kpe (1) N
(34)
àlèkè
Aleke
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
kpè
narrate
ìtàn
saying
‘Aleke is narrating a saying.’
TELL gue N
(37)
àlèkè
Aleke
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
gùè
disclose
ìnyẹ̀mì
information
‘Aleke is disclosing information. / Aleke is relating information.’
SAY ẹ ọ́í N
(41)
ójé
Oje
rẹ́'
CONC
ẹ́
say
ọ́í
it
ọ́lì
the
òkpòsò
woman
gbé
kill
ọ́lí
the
ófè
rat
‘Oje said, “The woman killed the rat.”’
(42)
ójé
Oje
rẹ́'
CONC
ẹ́
ask
ọ́í
it
ébé'
how
ọ́lí
the
ókpósó
woman
í'
MAN
gbé
kill
ọ́lí
the
ófè
rat
‘Oje asked, “How did the woman kill the rat?”’
ASK (a question) N
(43)
ójé
Oje
rẹ́'
CONC
ẹ́
tell
áléké
Aleke
ọ́lì
the
òkpòsò
woman
gbé
kill
ọ́lí
the
ófè
rat
‘Oje told Aleke, “The woman killed the rat.”’
(44)
ójé
Oje
rẹ́'
CONC
ẹ́
ask
áléké
Aleke
“ébé'
how
ọ́lí
the
ókpósó
woman
í'
MAN
gbé
kill
ọ́lí
the
ófè”
rat
‘Oje asked Aleke, “How did the woman kill the rat?”’
NAME no direct counterpart N
(45)
è
they
nwú
take.hold.SG
énì
name
APP
áìn
her
‘They gave a name to her. / They named her.’
BUILD hu N
(49)
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
build
ọ́lì
the
àsẹ̀
hut
‘Oje is building the hut.’
BREAK gbe a N
(55)
òjè
Oje
gbé
break
ọ́lí
the
ákhè
pot
á
CS
‘Oje broke the pot.’
KILL gbe (1) N
(61)
ójé
Oje
gbé
kill
ẹ́mìẹ́mì
lizard
‘Oje killed a lizard.’
BEAT gbe (2) N
(65)
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
gbè
beat
ọ̀lí
the
ọ́vbèkhàn
youth
‘Oje is beating the youth.’
HIT fi (1) N
(68)
òhí
Ohi
hit
ójé
Oje
úkpórán
stick
vbì
LOC
ùòkhò
back
‘Ohi hit Oje on his back with a stick. / Ohi hit a stick on Oje's back.’
TOUCH rẹ óbọ̀ so N
(70)
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
rẹ̀
take
òbọ́
hand
touch
ọ́pìà
cutlass
‘Oje is touching the cutlass with his hand. / Oje is touching the cutlass.’
TAKE miẹẹ (1) N
(255)
òjè
Oje
míẹ́ẹ́
seize
òhí
Ohi
ọ́píá
cutlass
vbí
LOC
óbọ̀
hand
‘Oje seized a cutlass from Ohi's hand.’
PEEL fọlọ N
(80)
òjè
Oje
fọ́lọ́
peel
ọ́lí
the
émà
yam
‘Oje peeled the yam.’
HIDE V hee N
(82)
òjè
Oje
nwú
take.hold.SG
ọ́lì
the
ọ̀gọ́
bottle
héé
hide
‘Oje hid the bottle.’
SHOW rẹ vbiẹẹ N
(86)
ójé
Oje
rẹ́
take
úháóbì
poison.arrow
vbíẹ́ẹ́
show
àlèkè
Aleke
‘Oje showed Aleke the poison arrow.’
GIVE V li N
(87)
òjè
Oje
nwú
take.hold.SG
ọ́lí
the
émà
yam
APP
òhí
Ohi
‘Oje has given the yam to Ohi.’
(88)
élí
the
ívbèkhàn
youths
húá
take.hold.PL
élí
the
émà
yam
APP
égbè
REC
‘The youths gave the yams to one another.’
SEND ye N
(90)
òjè
Oje
send
òhí
Ohi
‘Oje sent Ohi.’
CARRY nwu N
(94)
àlèkè
Aleke
nwú
carry.SG
ọ́lí
the
émà
yam
‘Aleke carried the yam.’
(95)
àlèkè
Aleke
húá
carry.PL
élí
the
émà
yam
‘Aleke carried the yams.’
TIE din N
(99)
òjè
Oje
dín
tie
úkpúì
piece.rope
‘Oje tied a piece of rope. / Oje tied a rope.’
TIE gba N
(102)
òjè
Oje
gbá
tie
àlèkè
Aleke
‘Oje has tied Aleke. / Oje has bound Aleke.’
PUT V ọ N
(104)
òjè
Oje
nwú
take.hold.SG
ọ̀gẹ̀dẹ̀
plantain
ọ́
CL
vbì
LOC
ìtébù
table
‘Oje put plantain onto the table.’
(262)
òjè
Oje
húá
take.hold.PL
élì
the
ọ̀gẹ̀dẹ̀
plantain
ọ́
CL
vbì
LOC
ìtébù
table
‘Oje put the plantains onto the table.’
POUR ọọn ọ́ N
(105)
òjè
Oje
ọ́ọ́n
pour
àmẹ̀
water
ọ́
CL
vbì
LOC
ọ̀gọ́
bottle
‘Oje poured water into the bottle.’
COVER voo N
(107)
òjè
Oje
vóó
cover
ọ́lí
the
ékpà
vomit
‘Oje covered the vomit.’
FILL vọọn N
(109)
éànmì
meat
vọ́ọ́n
fill
úwáwá
pot
ísì
ASS
òjè
Oje
‘Meat filled the pot of Oje. / Meat filled Oje's pot.’
FILL khaan N
(111)
òjè
Oje
kháán
fill
ọ́lì
the
òísí'
gun
‘Oje filled the gun (with gunpowder). / Oje loaded the gun (with gunpowder).’
LOAD maa N
(112)
òjè
Oje
máá
load
élí
the
ékẹ́ín
eggs
ọ́ọ́khọ̀
chicken
‘Oje loaded the chicken eggs. / Oje arranged the chicken eggs (on a load).’
(114)
òjè
Oje
máá
load
íhùà
burden
‘Oje loaded his burden. / Oje arranged his load.’
LOAD hee N
(115)
òjè
Oje
héé
load
òhí
Ohi
‘Oje loaded up Ohi.’
BLINK gbe ẹ̀ò N
(116)
òjè
Oje
gbé
reposition
ẹ̀ò
eye
‘Oje blinked.’
CLIMB hẹẹn N
(117)
òjè
Oje
hẹ́ẹ́n
climb
óràn
tree
‘Oje climbed a tree. / Oje ascended a tree.’
(118)
òjè
Oje
hẹ́ẹ́n
climb
ùdékẹ̀n
wall
‘Oje climbed a wall.’
SIT dia (1) N
(120)
òjè
Oje
díá
sit
vbì
LOC
àgá
chair
‘Oje sat in a chair.’
SING so N
(124)
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
sing
íòò
song
‘Oje is singing a song.’
GO lodẹ N
(125)
òjè
Oje
lódẹ̀
go
vbì
LOC
ìwè
house
‘Oje is going to the house.’
LEAVE zá raalẹ N
(127)
òjè
Oje
be.at
vbì
LOC
ìwè
house
ráálẹ̀
move.away
‘Oje has left the house. / Oje has moved away from the house.’
LEAVE shọọ re N
(128)
òjè
Oje
shọ́ọ́
exit
vbí
LOC
ẹ́kọ́à
room
arrive
‘Oje left the room. / Oje exited the room.’
LIVE dia (2) N
(129)
ójé
Oje
díá
live
vbí
LOC
áfúzé'
Afuze
‘Oje lived in Afuze.’
LAUGH jẹ N
(131)
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
jẹ̀
laugh
àlèkè
Aleke
‘Oje is laughing at Aleke.’
FEEL PAIN to (1) N
(133)
ékùn
waist
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
pain
òjè
Oje
‘Oje's waist is paining him. / Oje has a pain at his waist.’
FEEL COLD úììn gbe N
(135)
úììn
fever
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
gbè
catch
àlèkè
Aleke
‘Aleke has the chills. / Aleke is feverish.’
PLAY sie N
(137)
ọ́lí
the
ọ́mọ̀
child
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
sìé
play
‘The child is playing.’
PLAY doo N
(138)
ọ́lí
the
ọ́mọ̀
child
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
dòó
fantasize
‘The child is fantasizing. / The child is at play in his fantasy.’
BE SAD no direct counterpart N
(139)
òjè
Oje
í
SC
ì
NEG
ghọ̀nghọ́n
be.happy
‘Oje is sad. / Oje is not happy.’
BE HUNGRY òhànmì gbe N
(140)
òhànmì
hunger
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
gbé
catch
òjè
Oje
‘Oje is hungry.’
ROLL (tr) gbulu N
(141)
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
gbùlù
roll
ọ̀lí
the
íkẹ̀kẹ́
bicycle
‘Oje is rolling the bicycle.’
SINK (tr) ha o N
(144)
òtọ̀ì
ground
squeeze
òjè
Oje
ó
enter
‘Oje sunk into the ground. / The ground swallowed up Oje.’
SINK de o N
(145)
ùkìn
moon
fall
ó
enter
‘The moon has sunk. / The moon had gone down.’
(270)
ọ́lí
the
ókọ̀
canoe
fall
ó
enter
vbí
LOC
ẹ́kẹ́ín
inside
ẹ́dà
river
‘The canoe sank into the river.’
BE DRY ka N
(148)
ọ́lí
the
úkpùn
cloth
ká-ì
dry-F
‘The cloth is dry.’
RAIN àmẹ̀ rọọn N
(149)
àmẹ̀
water
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
rọ̀ọ́n
rain
‘It is raining. / Rain is falling.’
BE A HUNTER no verbal counterpart N
(150)
òjè
Oje
í
SC
ì
NEG
vbì
be
óhùà
hunter
‘Oje is not a hunter.’
(151)
óhùà
hunter
ọ́ọ̀
COP
‘He’s a hunter.’
WIPE kalọ N
(156)
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
kàlọ̀
wipe
ìtébù
table
‘Oje is wiping the table.’
DIG tọn N
(158)
òjè
Oje
tọ́n
dig.for
émà
yam
‘Oje dug for yam. / Oje harvested yam.’
DIG vun N
(160)
òjè
Oje
vún
dig.for
ìbọ̀bọ̀dí
cassava
‘Oje dug up cassava. / Oje uprooted cassava.’
BRING V re N
(163)
òjè
Oje
nwú
take.hold.SG
émà
yam
arrive
‘Oje brought yam.’
(245)
òjè
Oje
zẹ́
scoop
èkẹ̀n
sand
arrive
‘Oje brought sand.’
STEAL do V N
(164)
òjè
Oje
engage.in.stealth
ọ́lí
the
úkpùn
cloth
nwú
take.hold.SG
‘Oje stole the cloth.’
(165)
òjè
Oje
engage.in.stealth
élí
the
éwè
goats
húá
take.hold.PL
‘Oje stole the goats.’
TEACH vbiẹẹ N
(167)
òjè
Oje
vbíẹ́ẹ́
teach
òhí
Ohi
ìsọ́ọ̀mù
arithmetic
‘Oje taught Ohi arithmetic.’
HEAR họn N
(170)
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
H
họ̀n
perceive
ìkhúéé
sound
àlèkè
Aleke
‘Oje is hearing Aleke.’
COOK vbie N
(171)
ọ́lì
the
èràìn
fire
í
SC
khà
PROSNEG
vbìè
cook
émàè
food
‘The fire will not cook food.’
COOK nyẹ N
(173)
àlèkè
Aleke
nyẹ́
cook
òmì
soup
‘Aleke cooked soup. / Aleke prepared soup.’
APPEAR rẹ égbè vbiẹẹ N
(177)
àlèkè
Aleke
rẹ́
take
égbè
body
vbíẹ́ẹ́
become.apparent
ívbíá
children
ọ́ì
her
‘Aleke appeared to her children. / Aleke made herself apparent to her children.’
BE ILL to (2) N
(178)
ọ́
SC
ọ̀
H
pain
òjè
Oje
‘Oje is ill. / Something is paining Oje.’
CRY viẹ N
(180)
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
vìẹ̀
cry.for
èrá
father
ọ́ì
his
‘Oje is crying for his father. / Oje is mourning his father.’
MAKE ẹhẹn N
(182)
òjè
Oje
ẹ́hẹ́n
build
àkpótì
box
‘Oje made a box (of wood). / Oje built a box.’
GET miẹẹ (2) N
(183)
òjè
Oje
míẹ́ẹ́
receive
éghó'
money
‘Oje received money. / Oje accepted money.’
(184)
òjè
Oje
míẹ́ẹ́
receive
áléké
Aleke
éghó'
money
‘Oje received money from Aleke. / Oje accepted money from Aleke.’
WANT hoo (2) N
(185)
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
hòò
want
SUBJ
áléké
Aleke
drink
ẹ́nyọ̀
wine
‘Oje wants Aleke to drink wine. / Oje intends that Aleke should drink wine.’
SEND ye úhùnmì N
(92)
òjè
Oje
send
òhí
Ohi
úhùnmì
message
‘Oje sent Ohi with a message. / Oje sent Ohi on an errand.’
TIE gba íì N
(103)
è
they
gbá
tie
ójé
Oje
íì
ropes
‘They tied Oje with ropes. / They bound Oje with ropes.’
PUSH sua R
(162)
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
sùà
push
ẹ̀kpètè
stool
‘Oje is pushing a stool.’
BREAK guọghọ R
(52)
ójé
Oje
gúọ́ghọ́'
break
ọ́lí
the
úkpóràn
stick
‘Oje broke the stick.’
KILL gboo R
(63)
òjè
Oje
gbóó
kill
élí
the
ívbèkhàn
youths
‘Oje killed the youths.’
CUT bẹnnọ R
(73)
òjè
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
bẹ̀n-nọ̀
cut-DS
éràn
wood
‘Oje is cutting wood. / Oje is chopping wood.’
THROW fi (2) R
(96)
àlèkè
Aleke
throw
úkpóràn
stick
‘Aleke threw a stick.’
COUGH kẹnhẹn R
(212)
òjè
Oje
kẹ́nhẹ́n-i
cough-F
‘Oje coughed.’
BE COLD fọ N
(267)
ámẹ́
water
ísì
ASS
ìfííjí
refrigerator
ọ́
SC
ọ̀
H
fọ́
be.cool
‘Refrigerator water is cool.’
WASH kpe (2) R
(272)
òjè
Oje
kpé
wash
ọ́lì
the
òkpàn
gourd
‘Oje washed the gourd.’