Alternations of Emai

Alternations
Alternation name Description Examples Verbs
U
n The ambitransitive alternation relates bivalent <SUB V1 DOB> to monovalent
<SUB V1>; bivalent <SUB V1 DOB a> to monovalent <SUB V1
a>; or bivalent <SUB V1 DOB V2 a> to monovalent <SUB V1 V2 a>, where V2 is ku. In each instance monovalent SUB is indexed to bivalent DOB.
(110)
Úwáwá mẹ̀ vọ́ọ́nì.
úwáwá
pot
mẹ̀
my
vọ́ọ́n-ì
fill-F
‘My pot is full.’
12
U
n The object omission alternation relates bivalent <SUB V1 DOB> to monovalent <SUB V1>; or bivalent <SUB V1 DOB V2> to monovalent <SUB V1 V2>, where DOB is omitted.
(143)
Òtọ̀ì há ó.
òtọ̀ì
ground
squeeze
ó
enter
‘The ground sunk.’
7
U
n The locative omission alternation relates bivalent <SUB V1 vbi+LOC V2> to monovalent <SUB V1 V2>; bivalent <SUB V2 vbi+LOC V1> to monovalent <SUB V1>; trivalent <SUB V1 DOB vbi+LOC > to bivalent <SUB V1 DOB>; or quadravalent <SUB V1 DOB OBL vbi+LOC> to trivalent <SUB V1 DOB OBL>, where in each instance the vbi+LOC argument is omitted.
(222)
Òjè shọ́ọ́ ré.
òjè
Oje
shọ́ọ́
exit
arrive
‘Oje left. / Oje exited.’
5
U
n The applicative alternation relates monovalent <SUB V1> to bivalent <SUB V1 li+APP>; bivalent <SUB V1 DOB> to trivalent <SUB V1 DOB li+APP>; bivalent <SUB V1 DOB V2> to trivalent <SUB V1 DOB V2 li+APP>. The applicative marked argument expresses a recipient, beneficiary, aversive or locative role.
(215)
Ójé ọ̀ ọ́ lá lí ọ̀nwìmè.
ójé
Oje
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
run
APP
ọ̀nwìmè
farmer
‘Oje is running from the farmer.’
19
U
n The bidirectional addressee alternation relates bivalent <SUB V1 DOB> to trivalent <SUB V1 DOB li+APP V2>, V2 being hon ‘hear’, for events that convey speaker-to-addressee communication that assumes an addressee response.
(28)
Òjè tá étà lí áléké họ̀n.
òjè
Oje
speak
étà
words
APP
áléké
Aleke
họ̀n
hear
‘Oje spoke frankly to Aleke. / Oje told the hard truth to Aleke.’
3
U
n The unidirectional addressee alternation relates bivalent <SUB V1 DOB> to trivalent <SUB V1 DOB V2 DOB>, V2 articulated as vbiee ‘become apparent to / show’, for events that convey speaker-to-addressee communication that assumes no addressee response.

(221)
Òjè só íòò vbíẹ́ẹ́ àlèkè.
òjè
Oje
sing
íòò
song
vbíẹ́ẹ́
show
àlèkè
Aleke
‘Oje sang a song to Aleke.’
3
U
n The change of location alternation relates monovalent <SUB V1 > to bivalent <SUB V1 o vbi+LOC>; or bivalent <SUB V1 DOB> to trivalent <SUB V1 DOB o vbi+LOC>, where monovalent SUB or bivalent DOB, respectively, come into a locative relation vis-à-vis the vbi+LOC argument.
(113)
Òjè máá élí ékẹ́ín ọ́ọ́khọ̀ ọ́ vbí íhùà.
òjè
Oje
máá
load
élí
the
ékẹ́ín
eggs
ọ́ọ́khọ̀
chicken
ọ́
CL
vbí
LOC
íhùà
burden
‘Oje loaded the chicken eggs onto his burden. / Oje arranged the chicken eggs onto his load.’
9
U
n The specified distributive locative alternation relates monovalent <SUB V1 > to bivalent <SUB V1 o vbi+LOC>; or bivalent <SUB V1 DOB> to trivalent <SUB V1 DOB V2 o vbi+LOC>, where V2 is fi or ku preceding change of location particle o and its vbi+LOC complement and where monovalent SUB or bivalent DOB, respectively, releases and projects onto a specified locative referent (i.e. vbi+LOC argument) or undergoes a change of state relative to an specified locative referent.
(248)
Ọ́lì òmì ọ̀ ọ́ tín kù ọ̀ vbí èràìn.
ọ́lì
the
òmì
soup
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
tín
boil
spread
ọ̀
CL
vbí
LOC
èràìn
fire
‘The soup is boiling over into the fire.’
16
U
n The projected adherence alternation relates monovalent <SUB V1 > to bivalent <SUB V1 V2 e DOB >; or bivalent <SUB V1 DOB> to trivalent <SUB V1 DOB V2 e DOB>, where V2 is fi or ku preceding postverbal projected adherence particle e and where monovalent SUB or bivalent DOB, respectively, project and adhere to DOB of e.

(208)
Àlèkè fí èkhọ̀ì fí ẹ́ òhí.
àlèkè
Aleke
throw
èkhọ̀ì
worm
propel
ẹ́
PA
òhí
Ohi
‘Aleke threw a worm onto Ohi.’
1
U
n The causative alternation relates monovalent <SUB V1> to bivalent <SUB V2 DOB V1>; or bivalent <SUB V1 DOB> to trivalent <SUB V2 DOB V1 DOB>, where erstwhile monovalent or bivalent SUB occurs as DOB of V2. V2 is nwu ‘take hold of a singleton’, hua ‘take hold of a plurality’ or re ‘take a mass’, depending on count/mass property of bivalent V2 DOB.
(231)
Òjè nwú ọ́lí úkpùn ká.
òjè
Oje
nwú
take.hold.SG
ọ́lí
the
úkpùn
cloth
dry
‘Oje put the cloth to dry. / Oje dried the cloth.’
4
U
n The instrument alternation relates monovalent <SUB V1> to bivalent <SUB V2 DOB V1>; bivalent <SUB V1 DOB> to trivalent <SUB V2 DOB V1 DOB>; or trivalent <SUB V1 DOB o vbi+LOC> to quadravalent <SUB V2 DOB V1 DOB o vbi+LOC>. V2 is re ‘take / engage with’ and erstwhile monovalent, bivalent or trivalent SUB retains its position as SUB.
(226)
Ọ̣̣́́lí ọ́mọ̀ ọ̀ ọ́ rẹ̀ èkẹ́n dòó.
ọ́lí
the
ọ́mọ̀
child
ọ̀
SC
ọ́
C
rẹ̀
take
èkẹ́n
sand
dòó
fantasize
‘The child is fantasizing with sand. / The child is playing with sand.’
30
U
n The allative alternation relates bivalent <SUB V1 DOB> to trivalent <SUB V1 DOB V2 DOB>, where V2 is ye ‘move to’ and where V1 DOB undergoes a temporary transfer of possession to V2 DOB.
(254)
Òjè ẹ́hẹ́n ígbàlàkà yé òhí.
òjè
Oje
ẹ́hẹ́n
make
ígbàlàkà
ladder
ALL
òhí
Ohi
‘Oje took a ladder to Ohi.’
7
U
n The elative alternation relates bivalent <SUB V1 DOB> to either trivalent <SUB V1 DOB V2 vbi+LOC V3> or trivalent <SUB V1 DOB vbi+LOC V3>, where V2 is shoo and V3 is re and where a V1 DOB is depositioned from a locative relation (i.e. the vbi+LOC argument).
(203)
Òjè nyá úsúọ́ká vbí óràn ré.
òjè
Oje
nyá
tear
úsúọ́ká
maize.ear
vbí
LOC
óràn
stalk
arrive
‘Oje tore an ear of maize from the stalk. / Oje ripped an ear of maize from the stalk.’
3
U
n The external possessor alternation relates bivalent <SUB V1 PUM ísì POR> to bivalent <SUB V1 POR PUM>; bivalent <SUB V1 vbi+PUM ísì POR> to trivalent <SUB V1 POR vbi+PUM>; or trivalent <SUB V1 DOB vbi+PUM ísì POR> to quadravalent <SUB V1 POR DOB vbi+PUM, thus shifting a possessor internal to a genitive phrase marked by ísì to a position immediately following clausal verb.

(30)
Òjè míáá áléké étà.
òjè
Oje
míáá
ask
áléké
Aleke
étà
question
‘Oje asked Aleke a question./ Oje asked a question of Aleke.’
14
U
n The unspecified distributive locative alternation relates monovalent <SUB V1 > to <SUB V1 V2 a>; or bivalent <SUB V1 DOB> to <SUB V1 DOB V2 a>, where V2 is fi or ku preceding change of state particle a and where monovalent SUB or bivalent DOB, respectively, releases and projects onto an unspecified locative referent or undergoes a change of state relative to an unspecified locative referent.
(258)
Òjè gúọ́ghọ́ úkpàsánmì kú à.
òjè
Oje
gúọ́ghọ́
break
úkpàsánmì
cane
spread
à
CS
‘Oje broke his cane into smithereens. / Oje broke his cane all over the place.’
15