Contentive U

Description

Verbs of loading and filling may take the filling substance as P and the Goal as an in-lative adjunct or take the Goal as P and the filling substance as an instrument.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
FILL lcʰnel M
(7)
maɾd-ə
man-def
ǯuɾ-ə
water-def
lcʰɾ-ecʰ
fill-aor.3sg
bažak-i
glass-gen
meǯ
inside
‘The man poured the water into the glass.’
(181)
maɾd-ə
man-def
lcʰɾ-ecʰ
fill-aor.3sg
bažak-ə
glass-def
meǯ
inside
ǯuɾ-ə
water-def
‘The man poured water into the glass.’
(196)
maɾd-ə
man-def
lcʰɾ-ecʰ
fill-aor.3sg
bažak-i
glass-gen
meǯ
inside
ǯuɾ-ə
water-def
‘The man poured water into the glass.’
LOAD baɾʒel
(4)
maɾd-ə
man-def
baɾʒ-ecʰ
load-aor.3sg
χot-ə
grass-def
sajl-i-n
cart-dat-def
‘The man loaded the hay on the cart.’
COOK jepʰel N
(108)
kanajkʰ
woman.pl
jepʰ-ecʰ-in
cook-aor-3pl
mis-ə
meat-def
‘The women cooked the meat.’
EAT utel N
(1)
aʁǯik-ə
girl-def
keɾa-v
eat.aor-aor.3sg
hacʰ-ə
bread-def
‘The girl ate the bread.’
FALL ənknel N
(70)
maɾd-n
man-def
ənka-v
fall-aor.3sg
getn-i-n
floor-dat-def
‘The man fell (to the ground).’
(71)
maɾd-n
man-def
ənka-v
fall-aor.3sg
getn-i
floor-gen
vɾa
on
‘The man fell (to the ground).’
FEAR vaχenal N
(45)
tʁa-n
boy-def
vaχen-um
be.afraid-cvb.ipfv
aux.pst.3sg
maɾdu-cʰ
man-abl
‘The boy feared the man.’
(155)
mi
proh
vaχecʰ-iɾ
be.afraid-imp
tʰšnami-neɾ-icʰ
enemy-pl-abl
ənkeɾ-neɾ-icʰ
friend-pl-abl
vaχecʰ-iɾ
be.afraid-imp
‘Do not be afraid of the enemies, be afraid of your friends.’
FEEL COLD sarel N
(72)
tʁa-n
boy-def
sar-el
freeze-cvb.pfv
aux.pst.3sg
‘The boy froze.’
FEEL COLD mɾsel N
(80)
mɾs-um
be.cold-cvb.ipfv
em
aux.1sg
‘I’m cold.’
FEEL PAIN cʰavel N
(67)
ʒerkʰ-s
hand-1sg.poss
cʰav-um
hurt-cvb.ipfv
e
aux.3sg
‘My arm hurts.’
(154)
ʒjun-n
snow-def
ajnkʰan
thus
čeɾmak
white
e
aux.3sg
voɾ
that
ačʰkʰ-eɾ-s
eye-pl-1sg.poss
cʰav-um
hurt-cvb.ipfv
en
aux.3pl
aɾev-icʰ
sun-abl
‘My eyes ache because of the sun, so white is the snow.’
FOLLOW hetevel N
(50)
maɾd-ə
man-def
hetev-ecʰ
follow-aor.3sg
aʁǯka-n
girl.dat-def
‘The man followed the girl.’
FRIGHTEN vaχecʰnel N
(44)
maɾd-ə
man-def
vaχecʰɾ-ecʰ
frighten-aor.3sg
tʁa-ji-n
boy-dat-def
‘The man frightened the boy.’
GIVE tal N
(16)
aʁǯik-ə
girl-def
giɾkʰ-ə
book-def
tv-ecʰ
give-aor.3sg
usucʰčʰ-i-n
teacher-dat-def
‘The girl gave the book to the teacher.’
(140)
jes
I.nom
ʒez
you.pl.dat
tv-ecʰ-i
give-aor-1sg
meɾ
we.gen
astco
lord.gen
astvacašunčʰ-ə
holy.script-def
‘I gave you our Lord’s Holy Script.’
(174)
bajcʰ
but
im
my
kin-ə
woman-def
ajs
this
caʁik-ə
flower-def
tv-ecʰ
give-aor.3sg
maɾd-u-n
man-dat-def
‘But my woman gave this flower to (another) man.’
GO gnal N
(63)
tʁa-n
boy-def
gn-acʰ
go-aor.3sg
gjuʁ-icʰ
village-abl
‘The boy went (from the village).’
(136)
na
3sg.nom
tʰkʰ-ecʰ
spit-aor.3sg
šɾǯ-v-ecʰ
turn-med-aor.3sg
jev
and
gn-acʰ
go-aor.3sg
‘He spat, turned around and left.’
(148)
tʁa-n
boy-def
gn-acʰ
go-aor.3sg
‘The boy left.’
(191)
hagn-v-ecʰ-in
dress-med-aor-3pl
sapʰɾ-v-ecʰ-in
shave-med-aor-3pl
jev
and
gn-acʰ-in
go-aor-3pl
haɾsnaχosutʰjan
wedding.gen
‘They dressed up, shaved themselves and went to the wedding.’
HEAR lsel N
(106)
tʁa-n
boy-def
aɾǯ-i-n
bear-dat-def
ls-ecʰ
hear-aor.3sg
‘The boy heard the bear.’
(107)
tʁa-n
boy-def
aɾǯ-i
bear-gen
ʒajn-ə
sound-def
ls-ecʰ
hear-aor.3sg
‘The boy heard the bear.’
HELP ognel N
(51)
maɾd-n
man-def
ogn-ecʰ
help-aor.3sg
aʁǯka-n
girl.dat-def
‘The man helped the girl.’
HIDE tʰakʰcʰnel N
(20)
aʁǯik-ə
girl-def
giɾkʰ-ə
book-def
tʰakʰcʰɾ-ecʰ
hide-aor.3sg
usucʰčʰ-icʰ
teacher-abl
‘The girl hid the book from the teacher.’
(121)
čʰe
not
voɾ
that
lav
good
e
aux.3sg
čanačʰ-um
know-cvb.ipfv
moɾ-ə
mother.nom-def
na
3sg.nom
amen
all
inčʰ
what
nkat-um
notice-cvb.ipfv
e
aux.3sg
džvaɾ
difficult
e
aux.3sg
nɾan-icʰ
3sg.obl-abl
voɾeve
some
ban
thing
tʰakʰcʰn-el
hide.caus-inf
‘Doesn't the mother knowswell, she notices everything, it's difficult to keep something secret from her.’
HIT haɾvacel N
(28)
tʁa-n
boy-def
օʒ-i-n
snake-dat-def
haɾvac-ecʰ
hit-aor.3sg
pʰajt-ov
stick-instr
‘The boy hit the snake with the stick.’
HUG gɾkel N
(82)
majɾ-ə
mother-def
gɾk-ecʰ
hug-aor.3sg
self.gen
pʰokʰɾik
small
tʁaj-i-n
boy-dat-def
‘The mother hugged her little boy.’
JUMP cʰatkel N
(62)
jeɾeχa-n
child-def
cʰatk-ecʰ
jump-aor.3sg
hatak-i
floor-gen
vɾa
on
‘The child jumped (on the floor).’
KILL spanel N
(30)
tʁa-n
boy-def
օʒ-i-n
snake-dat-def
span-ecʰ
kill-aor.3sg
pʰajt-ov
stick-instr
‘The boy killed the snake with the stick.’
(132)
haǯoɾd
next
oɾ-ə
day-def
jes
I.nom
paɾsatik-ov
catapult-instr
mi
one
agrav
crow
span-ecʰ-i
kill-aor-1sg
u
and
gcʰ-ecʰ-i
drop-aor-1sg
Boʁaɾ-i
Boghar-gen
araǯ
in.front.of
‘The next day I killed a crow with a catapult and threw it in front of Boghar.’
(186)
jev
and
as-v-el
say-med-cvb.pfv
aor.pst.3sg
mi
proh
span-iɾ
kill-imp
‘And it was said: do not kill.’
KILL moɾtʰel N
(125)
uzen-a
want-sbjv.3sg
mi
one
oɾ-um
day-loc
hazaɾ
thousand
vočʰχaɾ
sheep
moɾtʰ-el
slaughter-inf
k-ta
fut-give.sbjv.3sg
‘[If] he’d wanted, he’d have a thousand sheep killed every day.’
KILL mahacʰnel N
(194)
u
and
kʰaʁcʰ-ə
hunger-def
amenazoɾ
incredible
kʰaʁcʰ-ə
hunger-def
lapʰ-um
devour-cvb.ipfv
be.pst.3sg
meɾ
we.gen
neɾs-ə
inside-def
u
and
dandaʁ
slow
mahacʰn-um
kill-cvb.ipfv
mez
we.dat
‘And hunger was devouring our insides and slowly killing us.’
KNOW čanačʰel N
(41)
maɾd-ə
man-def
čanačʰ-um
know-cvb.ipfv
aux.pst.3sg
tʁa-ji-n
boy-dat-def
‘The man knew the boy.’
LAUGH cicaʁel N
(97)
aʁǯnak-ə
little.girl-def
cicaʁ-ecʰ
laugh-aor.3sg
‘The little girl laughed.’
(150)
išχan-neɾ-ə
prince-pl-def
cicaʁ-ecʰ-in
laugh-aor-3pl
‘The princes started to laugh.’
(153)
cnoʁ-neɾ-i-s
parent-pl-gen-1sg.poss
vɾa
on
mi
proh
cicaʁ-iɾ
laugh-imp
‘Don’t laugh at my parents!’
LEAVE meknel N
(96)
tʁa-n
boy-def
mekn-ecʰ
set.off-aor.3sg
gjuʁ-icʰ
village-abl
‘The boy left the village.’
LIKE havanel N
(46)
tʁa-n
boy-def
havan-um
like-cvb.ipfv
aux.pst.3sg
maɾd-u-n
man-dat-def
‘The boy liked the man.’
LIKE dur gal N
(47)
maɾd-ə
man-def
tʁa-ji-n
boy-dat-def
duɾ
prvb
aux.pst.3sg
galis
like.cvb.ipfv
‘The man liked the boy.’
LIKE siɾel N
(115)
jes
I.nom
siɾ-um
love-cvb.ipfv
em
aux.1sg
ajs
this
aʁǯka-n
girl.dat-def
‘I love this girl.’
(123)
rubi-n
rubi-def
siɾ-um
love-cvb.ipfv
aux.pst.3sg
miajn
only
žoʁovɾdakan
folk
jeɾg-eɾ
song-pl
‘Rubi was only fond of folk songs.’
(124)
du
you.sg.nom
siɾ-el
love-cvb.pfv
es
aux.2sg
mek-i-n
one-dat-def
na
3sg.nom
uɾiš-i-n
other-dat-def
‘You loved a girl, she loved someone else...’
LIVE apɾel N
(64)
tʁa-n
boy-def
apɾ-um
live-cvb.ipfv
aux.pst.3sg
gjuʁ-um
village-loc
‘The boy lived in the village.’
LOOK AT najel N
(43)
maɾd-ə
man-def
naj-ecʰ
look-aor.3sg
tʁa-ji-n
boy-dat-def
‘The man looked at the boy.’
MAKE saɾkʰel N
(113)
jeʁbajɾ-s
elder.brother-1sg.poss
navak
boat
saɾkʰ-ecʰ
make-aor.3sg
kaʁn-u
oak.tree-gen
pʰajt-icʰ
wood-abl
‘My brother made a boat out of an oak-tree.’
MAKE steʁcel N
(133)
jetʰe
if
menak
alone
apɾ-v-eɾ
live-med-sbjv.3sg
astvac
God
jeva-ji-n
Eve-dat-def
čʰ-eɾ
neg-aux.pst.3sg
steʁc-i
create-sbjv.3sg
‘If [one could] live alone, God wouldn’t have created Eve...’
(190)
ʒez
you.pl.dat
ms-icʰ
meat-abl
en
aux.3pl
steʁc-el
create-cvb.pfv
dukʰ
you.pl.nom
ekʰ
aux.2pl
ʒez
you.pl.dat
iɾaɾ-icʰ
each.other-abl
steʁc-el
create-cvb.pfv
‘You were made out of meat, you made yourselves from each other.’
MEET handipel N
(49)
maɾd-ə
man-def
handip-ecʰ
meet-aor.3sg
aʁǯka-n
girl.dat-def
‘The man met the girl.’
(157)
jeɾbekʰ
never
nman
such
apuš-i
idiot-dat
čʰ-em
neg-aux.1sg
handip-el
meet-cvb.pfv
‘I have never met such an idiot.’
NAME anvanel N
(33)
aʁǯik-ə
girl-def
tʁa-ji-n
boy-dat-def
himaɾ
fool
anvan-ecʰ
name-aor.3sg
‘The girl called the boy a fool.’
PEEL makʰɾel N
(25)
aʁǯik-ə
girl-def
makʰɾ-ecʰ
remove-aor.3sg
seʁan-icʰ
table-abl
pʰoši-n
dirt-def
‘The girl wiped the dirt from the table.’
(93)
tʁa-n
boy-def
pʰajt-icʰ
stick-abl
keʁev-ə
crust-def
makʰɾ-ecʰ
remove-aor.3sg
‘The boy made the stick clean of the bark.’
(179)
aɾagašaɾž
quick
«makʰɾičʰ-neɾ-ə»
wiper-pl-def
haziv
hardly
en
aux.3pl
hascʰn-um
be.on.time-cvb.ipfv
hoʁmapak-u
windshield-gen
vɾa-jicʰ
on-abl
makʰɾ-el
remove-inf
tʰacʰ
wet
ʒjun-ə
snow-def
‘The quick wipers hardly were in time to take the snow away from the windshield.’
PEEL kʰeɾel N
(94)
tʁa-n
boy-def
pʰajt-icʰ
stick-abl
keʁev-ə
crust-def
kʰeɾ-ecʰ
scrape-aor.3sg
‘The boy peeled the bark off the stick.’
PEEL klpel N
(92)
tʁa-n
boy-def
pʰajt-icʰ
stick-abl
keʁev-ə
crust-def
klp-ecʰ
peel-aor.3sg
‘The boy peeled the bark off the stick.’
PLAY χaʁal N
(99)
jeɾeχa-n
child-def
χaʁ-um
play-cvb.ipfv
e
aux.3sg
gndak-ov
ball-instr
‘The child is playing (with the ball).’
PUSH hɾel N
(104)
tʁa-n
boy-def
hɾ-ecʰ
push-aor.3sg
aʁǯka-n
girl.dat-def
ǯuɾ-ə
water-def
‘The boy pushed the girl (into the water).’
PUT dnel N
(8)
maɾd-ə
man-def
giɾkʰ-ə
book-def
dɾ-ecʰ
put-aor.3sg
seʁan-i-n
table-dat-def
‘The man put the book on the table.’
(10)
maɾd-ə
man-def
giɾkʰ-ə
book-def
dɾ-ecʰ
put-aor.3sg
seʁan-i
table-gen
vɾa
on
‘The man put the book on the table.’
PUT daɾsel N
(171)
bak-um
yard-loc
ʒiapan-ə
coach-def
baɾʒ-um
load-cvb.ipfv
aux.pst.3sg
iɾ-eɾ-s
self.gen-pl-1sg.poss
nani-n
mom-def
pajusak-i
bag-gen
meǯ
inside
daɾs-um
put-cvb.ipfv
aux.pst.3sg
gatʰa
gata
jev
and
čanapaɾh-i
road-gen
pašaɾ-ə
stock-def
‘In the courtyard, the coach was loading my luggage, and Mom was putting gata and food for the travel into a bag.’
RAIN anʒɾevel N
(74)
anʒɾev-um
rain-cvb.ipfv
aux.pst.3sg
‘It rained.’
(75)
anʒɾev
rain
aux.pst.3sg
galis
go.cvb.ipfv
‘It rained.’
(146)
mi
one
angam
time
užeʁ
strong
anʒɾev-um
rain-cvb.ipfv
aux.pst.3sg
arancʰ
without
hovanocʰ-ə
umbrella-def
pʰak-el-u
close-inf-gen
baɾʒɾ-acʰ-a
rise-aor-1sg
jeɾtʰuʁajin
road
takʰsi
taxi
‘One day it rained strongly, and (I) got into a minibus without folding my umbrella.’
GET stanal N
(18)
aʁǯik-ə
girl-def
giɾkʰ-ə
book-def
stacʰa-v
get-aor.3sg
usucʰčʰ-icʰ
teacher-abl
‘The girl got the book from the teacher.’
ROLL gloɾvel N
(77)
gndak-ə
ball-def
gloɾ-v-um
roll-med-cvb.ipfv
e
aux.3sg
‘The ball is rolling.’
(170)
hoʁatʰmb-i
embankment-gen
tak-icʰ
under-abl
ǯɾ-eɾ-ə
water-pl-def
gloɾ-v-um
roll-med-cvb.ipfv
ein
aux.pst.3pl
χrovahujz
agitatedly
jev
and
aʁmk-um
rush-cvb.ipfv
vaz-um
run-cvb.ipfv
araǯ
in.front.of
‘From under the embankment the water was quickly running (=rolling), roaring, running forth.’
RUN vazel N
(60)
jeɾeχa-n
child-def
vaz-ecʰ
run-aor.3sg
hatak-ov
floor-instr
‘The child ran (on the floor).’
(61)
jeɾeχa-n
child-def
vaz-ecʰ
run-aor.3sg
hatak-i
floor-gen
vɾa-jov
on-instr
‘The child ran (on the floor).’
(170)
hoʁatʰmb-i
embankment-gen
tak-icʰ
under-abl
ǯɾ-eɾ-ə
water-pl-def
gloɾ-v-um
roll-med-cvb.ipfv
ein
aux.pst.3pl
χrovahujz
agitatedly
jev
and
aʁmk-um
rush-cvb.ipfv
vaz-um
run-cvb.ipfv
araǯ
in.front.of
‘From under the embankment the water was quickly running (=rolling), roaring, running forth.’
(172)
na
3sg.nom
inʒ
I.dat
net-ecʰ
throw-aor.3sg
banali-neɾ-ə
key-pl-def
jev
and
vaz-ecʰ-gn-acʰ
run-aor.3sg-go-aor.3sg
‘He threw me the keys and ran away.’
SAY asel N
(34)
maɾd-ə
man-def
aʁǯka-n
girl.dat-def
vočʰinčʰ
nothing
čʰ-as-acʰ
neg-say-aor.3sg
‘The man said nothing to the girl.’
(134)
čʰ-em
neg-aux.1sg
kaɾoʁ
able
amusnan-al
marry-inf
nɾa
3sg.gen
het
with
as-acʰ-i
say-aor-1sg
jes
I.nom
tanə
at.home
kin
woman
em
aux.1sg
tʰoʁ-el
leave-cvb.pfv
na
3sg.nom
jeɾbekʰ
never
apaharzan
divorce
čʰi
not
ta
give.sbjv.3sg
‘I can not marry her, I said, I have a wife at home, and she’ll never give me a divorce.’
(159)
jes
I.nom
tʰujn
poison
em
aux.1sg
uz-um
want-cvb.ipfv
as-acʰ
say-aor.3sg
na
3sg.nom
‘I want (to take) poison, he said.’
(184)
k-havata-s
fut-believe-sbjv.2sg
Gɾigoɾi
Grigorij
Pantelevičʰ
Panteleevich
hencʰ
just
voɾ
that
na
3sg.nom
inʒ
I.dat
ajd
this
as-acʰ
say-aor.3sg
vɾa-s
on-1sg.poss
paʁ
cold
kʰɾtinkʰ
sweat
jeka-v
come.aor-aor.3sg
‘Would you believe this, G.P., the moment he told me that I was all covered with cold sweat.’
SEARCH FOR pʰntɾel N
(48)
maɾd-ə
man-def
pʰntɾ-ecʰ
look.for-aor.3sg
tʁa-ji-n
boy-dat-def
‘The man searched for the boy.’
SEE tesnel N
(42)
maɾd-ə
man-def
tesa-v
see.aor-aor.3sg
tʁa-ji-n
boy-dat-def
‘The man saw the boy.’
(165)
jes
I.nom
cʰamakʰ
land
em
aux.1sg
tesn-um
see-cvb.ipfv
‘I see the land.’
SEND uʁaɾkel N
(14)
aʁǯik-ə
girl-def
giɾkʰ-n
book-def
uʁaɾk-ecʰ
send-aor.3sg
usucʰčʰ-i-n
teacher-dat-def
‘The girl sent the book to the teacher.’
(15)
aʁǯik-ə
girl-def
giɾkʰ-n
book-def
uʁaɾk-ecʰ
send-aor.3sg
dpɾocʰ
school
‘The girl sent the book to school.’
(173)
ajnteʁ-icʰ
there-abl
mez
we.dat
namak-neɾ
letter-pl
uʁaɾk-iɾ
send-imp
tun
house
‘Send us the letters from there, back home.’
SHAVE (self) sapʰɾvel N
(191)
hagn-v-ecʰ-in
dress-med-aor-3pl
sapʰɾ-v-ecʰ-in
shave-med-aor-3pl
jev
and
gn-acʰ-in
go-aor-3pl
haɾsnaχosutʰjan
wedding.gen
‘They dressed up, shaved themselves and went to the wedding.’
SHOUT AT kančʰel N
(35)
maɾd-ə
man-def
kančʰ-ecʰ
shout-aor.3sg
aʁǯka-n
girl.dat-def
‘The man shouted to the girl.’
SHOUT AT bacʰakančʰel N
(36)
maɾd-ə
man-def
bacʰakančʰ-ecʰ
shout-aor.3sg
aʁǯka-n
girl.dat-def
‘The man shouted to the girl.’
(185)
jev
and
jes
I.nom
kʰičʰ
a.little
aux.pst.1sg
mn-um
remain-cvb.ipfv
bacʰakančʰ-ei
shout-sbjv.pst.1sg
nɾa-n
3sg.dat-def
‘... and I hardly kept myself from shouting at him...’
SCREAM goral N
(98)
maɾd-ə
man-def
gor-acʰ
shout-aor.3sg
‘The man screamed.’
(111)
vostikan-ə
policeman-def
gor-um
shout-cvb.ipfv
e
aux.3sg
‘The policeman yells.’
SHOUT AT gorgoral N
(152)
cnoʁ-neɾ-ə
parent-pl-def
gorgor-acʰin
yell-aor.3pl
usucʰčʰ-i
teacher-gen
vɾa
on
‘The parents had a fight with (yelled at) the teacher.’
SHOW cʰujcʰ tal N
(17)
aʁǯik-ə
girl-def
giɾkʰ-ə
book-def
cʰujcʰ
show
tv-ecʰ
give-aor.3sg
usucʰčʰ-i-n
teacher-dat-def
‘The girl showed the book to the teacher.’
SING jeɾgel N
(65)
tʁa-n
boy-def
jeɾg
song
jeɾg-ecʰ
sing-aor.3sg
‘The boy sang (a song).’
SINK χoɾtakvel N
(79)
navak-ə
boat-def
χoɾtak-v-ecʰ
sink-med-aor.3sg
‘The boat sank.’
SIT nstel N
(57)
maɾd-ə
man-def
nst-ecʰ
sit-aor.3sg
getn-i-n
floor-dat-def
‘The man sat down (on the floor).’
(58)
maɾd-ə
man-def
nst-ac
sit-ptcp.res
aux.pst.3sg
getn-i-n
floor-dat-def
‘The man sat (on the floor).’
(59)
maɾd-ə
man-def
nst-ac
sit-ptcp.res
aux.pst.3sg
getn-i
floor-gen
vɾa
on
‘The man sat on the floor.’
(143)
tʰom-ə
Tom-def
nst-ecʰ
sit-aor.3sg
cʰankapat-i-n
fence-dat-def
‘Tom sat on the fence.’
(178)
vaɾdan-n
Vartan-def
angoɾ
weak
nst-ecʰ
sit-aor.3sg
calovi
pliable
atʰor-i
chair-gen
vɾa
on
jev
and
ʒerkʰ-ov
hand-instr
makʰɾ-ecʰ
remove-aor.3sg
čavat-i
front-gen
kʰɾtinkʰ-ə
sweat-def
‘Vartan limply sank to a folding chair and wiped sweat off his front with his hand.’
SMELL hototel N
(83)
aɾǯ-ə
bear-def
hotot-ecʰ
smell-aor.3sg
tʁaj-i-n
boy-dat-def
‘The bear nuzzled the boy.’
SMELL hot arnel N
(84)
aɾǯ-ə
bear-def
tʁaj-i
boy-gen
hot-n
smell-def
ara-v
take.aor-aor.3sg
‘The bear smelled the boy.’
(167)
jes
I.nom
maɾdkajin
human
vog-u
soul-gen
hot
smell
em
aux.1sg
arn-um
take-cvb.ipfv
‘I can smell the smell of a human being.’
STEAL goʁanal N
(19)
aʁǯik-ə
girl-def
giɾkʰ-ə
book-def
goʁa-cʰ-av
steal-aor-3sg
usucʰčʰ-icʰ
teacher-abl
‘The girl stole the book from the teacher.’
TAKE veɾcʰnel N
(88)
maɾd-ə
man-def
ənkeɾoǯ-icʰ
friend-abl
pʰoʁ-ə
money-def
veɾcʰɾ-ecʰ
take-aor.3sg
‘The man took the money from his friend.’
(176)
na
3sg.nom
inʒni-cʰ
I-abl
ʒi-n
horse-def
mi
one
oɾ-ov
day-instr
vercʰɾ-ecʰ
take-aor.3sg
‘He borrowed my horse for one day.’
TAKE arnel N
(167)
jes
I.nom
maɾdkajin
human
vog-u
soul-gen
hot
smell
em
aux.1sg
arn-um
take-cvb.ipfv
‘I can smell the smell of a human being.’
TALK χosel N
(40)
maɾd-ə
man-def
tʁa-ji
boy-gen
het
with
aʁǯka
girl.gen
masin
about
χos-ecʰ
talk-aor.3sg
‘The man talked to the boy about the girl.’
TEACH sovoɾecʰnel N
(105)
taɾecʰ
old
kin-ə
woman-def
aʁǯka-n
girl.dat-def
jeɾg
song
sovoɾ-ecʰɾ-ecʰ
learn-caus-aor.3sg
‘The old lady taught the girl a song.’
TEAR patrel N
(23)
aʁǯik-ə
girl-def
gɾkʰ-icʰ
book-abl
eǯ-ə
page-def
patr-ecʰ
tear-aor.3sg
‘The girl tore the page from the book.’
(81)
jes
I.nom
zgest-s
clothes-1sg.poss
patr-ecʰ-i
tear-aor-1sg
‘I tore up my clothes.’
TEAR pokel N
(22)
aʁǯik-ə
girl-def
gɾkʰ-icʰ
book-abl
eǯ-ə
page-def
pok-ecʰ
tear-aor.3sg
‘The girl tore the page from the book.’
(38)
jes
I.nom
caʁik
flower
pok-ecʰ-i
tear-aor-1sg
‘I plucked a flower.’
(138)
jes
I.nom
car-icʰ
tree-abl
χnʒoɾ
apple
pok-ecʰ-i
tear-aor-1sg
‘I plucked an apple from a tree.’
TELL patmel N
(37)
maɾd-ə
man-def
mi
one
patmutʰjun
story.nom
patm-ecʰ
tell-aor.3sg
aʁǯka-n
girl.dat-def
‘The man told a story to the girl.’
THINK mtacel N
(85)
aʁǯik-ə
girl-def
mtac-ecʰ
think-aor.3sg
self.gen
tatik-i
granny-gen
masin
about
jeɾek
yesterday
‘The girl thought about her grandmother yesterday.’
THROW netel N
(9)
tʁa-n
boy-def
kʰaɾ-ə
stone-def
patuhan-i-n
window-dat-def
net-ecʰ
throw-aor.3sg
‘The boy threw the stone into the window.’
(172)
na
3sg.nom
inʒ
I.dat
net-ecʰ
throw-aor.3sg
banali-neɾ-ə
key-pl-def
jev
and
vaz-ecʰ-gn-acʰ
run-aor.3sg-go-aor.3sg
‘He threw me the keys and ran away.’
(182)
jes
I.nom
gndak-ə
ball-def
net-ecʰ
throw-aor.3sg
pat-i-n
wall-gen-def
ajn
that
het
with
tʰr-av
fly-aor.3sg
jev
and
ǯaɾd-ecʰ
break-aor.3sg
patuhan-ə
window-def
‘I throw a ball at the wall, it bounced and broke a window.’
TIE kapel N
(5)
maɾd-ə
man-def
{ʒiu-n/ʒi-n}
{horse.dat-def/horse-def}
kap-ecʰ
tie-aor.3sg
car-icʰ
tree-abl
‘The man tied the horse to the tree.’
(183)
ajc-ə
goat-def
kap-iɾ
tie-imp
cʰcʰ-icʰ
peg-abl
voɾ
that
čʰ-pʰaχčʰ-i
neg-run.away-sbjv.3sg
‘Tie the goat to a peg so it can not run away.’
TOUCH kpčʰel N
(27)
tʁa-n
boy-def
օʒ-i-n
snake-dat-def
kpa-v
touch-aor.3sg
pʰajt-ov
stick-instr
‘The boy touched the snake with the stick.’
TOUCH dipčʰel N
(156)
sɾ-i
sword-gen
sarə
cold
šeʁb-ə
blade-def
dip-av
touch-aor.3sg
nɾa
3sg.gen
vz-i-n
neck-dat-def
‘The cold blade of the sword touched his neck.’
WANT uzel N
(114)
jes
I.nom
uz-um
want-cvb.ipfv
em
aux.1sg
ajs
this
aʁǯka-n
girl.dat-def
‘I want this girl.’
(116)
aɾamjan-ə
Aramyan-def
k-uzen-aɾ
fut-want-sbjv.pst.3sg
inkʰ-n
self-def
el
part
gn-al
go-inf
naj-el
look-inf
bajcʰ
but
culan-um
be.lazy-cvb.ipfv
aux.pst.3sg
hagn-v-el
dress-med-inf
‘Aramian would go to see himself, but he didn't feel like dressing.’
(158)
bajcʰ
but
kʰani
as.much
voɾ
that
jes
I.nom
hivand
sick
čʰ-em
neg-aux.1sg
jev
and
uz-um
want-cvb.ipfv
em
aux.1sg
gn-al
go-inf
inʒ
I.dat
vočʰ
not
mi
one
bžišk
doctor
čʰi
neg.aux.3sg
ogn-i
help-cvb.conneg
‘But as I am not ill and want to leave, there is no doctor who can help me.’
(159)
jes
I.nom
tʰujn
poison
em
aux.1sg
uz-um
want-cvb.ipfv
as-acʰ
say-aor.3sg
na
3sg.nom
‘I want (to take) poison, he said.’
WASH loʁacʰnel N
(53)
aʁǯik-ə
girl-def
loʁacʰɾ-ecʰ
wash-aor.3sg
jeɾeχa-ji-n
child-dat-def
‘The girl washed the child.’
WASH lval N
(192)
de
now
jek
come.imp
u
and
lva
wash.imp
dɾa
this
šoɾ-eɾ-ə
dress-pl-def
‘Now come and wash this dress.’
APPEAR hajtnvel N
(66)
tʁa-n
boy-def
hajtn-v-ecʰ
declare-med-aor.3sg
čanapaɾ-i-n
road-gen-def
‘The boy appeared (on the road).’
ASK FOR χndɾel N
(39)
tʁa-n
boy-def
maɾdu-cʰ
man-abl
pʰoʁ
money
χndɾ-ecʰ
ask-aor.3sg
‘The boy asked the man for money.’
BE HUNGRY sovel N
(73)
tʁa-n
boy-def
sov-ac
starve-ptcp.res
be.pst.3sg
‘The boy was hungry.’
BEAT cecel N
(29)
tʁa-n
boy-def
օʒ-i-n
snake-dat-def
cec-ecʰ
beat-aor.3sg
pʰajt-ov
stick-instr
‘The boy beat the snake with the stick.’
(102)
kanajkʰ
woman.pl
cec-um
beat-cvb.ipfv
ein
aux.pst.3pl
hatik-neɾ-ə
seed-pl-def
sand-ov
mortar-instr
jev
and
vaɾsand-ov
pestle-instr
‘The women were grounding the seeds (with mortar and pestle).’
(163)
mi
one
angam
time
tes-a
see-aor.1sg
voɾ
that
mek-ə
one-def
pʰajt-ov
stick-instr
cec-um
beat-cvb.ipfv
e
aux.3sg
vočʰχaɾ-i-n
sheep-dat-def
‘One day she saw someone beating a ram with a stick.’
BLINK tʰaɾtʰel N
(189)
ačʰkʰ-eɾ-s
eye-pl-1sg.poss
tʰaɾtʰ-ecʰ-i
blink-aor-1sg
‘I blinked.’
BOIL jeral N
(109)
ǯuɾ-ə
water-def
jer-um
boil-cvb.ipfv
e
aux.3sg
‘The water is boiling.’
BREAK ǯaɾdel N
(31)
tʁa-n
boy-def
patuhan-ə
window-def
kʰaɾ-ov
stone-instr
ǯaɾd-ecʰ
break-aor.3sg
‘The boy broke the window with the stone.’
(182)
jes
I.nom
gndak-ə
ball-def
net-ecʰ
throw-aor.3sg
pat-i-n
wall-gen-def
ajn
that
het
with
tʰr-av
fly-aor.3sg
jev
and
ǯaɾd-ecʰ
break-aor.3sg
patuhan-ə
window-def
‘I throw a ball at the wall, it bounced and broke a window.’
BRING beɾel N
(11)
aʁǯik-ə
girl-def
giɾkʰ-ə
book-def
beɾ-ecʰ
bring-aor.3sg
usucʰčʰ-i-n
teacher-dat-def
‘The girl brought the book to the teacher.’
(142)
gomšasajl-eɾ-ə
bull.cart-pl-def
gin-u
wine-gen
takar-neɾ
barrel-pl
ein
aux.pst.3pl
beɾ-um
bring-cvb.ipfv
kʰaʁakʰ-icʰ
town-abl
‘Carts driven by bulls brought wine barrels from the town.’
BUILD karucʰel N
(32)
maɾd-ə
man-def
tun-ə
house-def
kʰaɾ-icʰ
stone-abl
karucʰ-ecʰ
build-aor.3sg
‘The man built the house out of stone.’
BUILD šinel N
(112)
jeʁbajɾ-s
elder.brother-1sg.poss
navak
boat
šin-ecʰ
build-aor.3sg
kaʁn-u
oak.tree-gen
pʰajt-icʰ
wood-abl
‘My brother made a boat out of an oak-tree.’
BURN ajɾvel N
(100)
tun-ə
house-def
ajɾ-v-um
burn-med-cvb.ipfv
e
aux.3sg
‘The house is burning.’
(119)
isk
but
lor-u
Lori-gen
maɾz-i
district-gen
lusaʁbjuɾ
Lusagbyur
gjuʁ-i
village-gen
šɾǯaka
surrounding
dašt-eɾ-um
field-pl-loc
ajɾ-v-el
burn-med-inf
e
aux.3sg
3
3
hektaɾ
hectare
χot
grass
‘And on the fields of the Lusaghbiur village of the Lori district, those that were the closest, three hectars of grass burnt away.’
CARRY tanel N
(12)
aʁǯik-ə
girl-def
giɾkʰ-ə
book-def
taɾa-v
bring.aor-aor.3sg
usucʰčʰ-i-n
teacher-dat-def
‘The girl carried the book to the teacher.’
(13)
aʁǯik-ə
girl-def
giɾkʰ-ə
book-def
taɾa-v
bring.aor-aor.3sg
dpɾocʰ
school
‘The girl carried the book to school.’
CLIMB baɾʒɾanal N
(56)
maɾd-ə
man-def
baɾʒɾacʰa-v
climb-aor.3sg
saɾ-ə
hill-def
‘The man climbed (up) the hill.’
(141)
isk
but
χan-ə
khan-def
čʰi
neg.aux.3sg
el
part
štap-um
hurry-cvb.ipfv
mtn-el
enter-inf
palat
room
baɾʒɾan-um
rise-cvb.ipfv
e
aux.3sg
aštaɾak-neɾ-icʰ
tower-pl-abl
mek-i
one-gen
sanduʁkʰ-neɾ-ov
stairs-pl-instr
veɾ
up
u
and
hasn-el-ov
arrive-inf-instr
veɾǯin-neɾ-i-n
last-pl-dat-def
naj-um
look-cvb.ipfv
neɾkʰev
down
‘But the khan was not even in a hurry to enter the rooms, he goes up one of the stairs of the tower and, after achieving the last steps, looks down.’
(146)
mi
one
angam
time
užeʁ
strong
anʒɾev-um
rain-cvb.ipfv
aux.pst.3sg
arancʰ
without
hovanocʰ-ə
umbrella-def
pʰak-el-u
close-inf-gen
baɾʒɾ-acʰ-a
rise-aor-1sg
jeɾtʰuʁajin
road
takʰsi
taxi
‘One day it rained strongly, and (I) got into a minibus without folding my umbrella.’
COUGH hagal N
(55)
maɾd-ə
man-def
hag-acʰ
cough-aor.3sg
‘The man coughed.’
COVER cackel N
(2)
maɾd-ə
man-def
cack-ecʰ
cover-aor.3sg
jeɾeχa-ji-n
child-dat-def
cackocʰ-ov
blanket-instr
‘The man covered the child with the blanket.’
CRY lacʰel N
(193)
lacʰ-ecʰ
cry-aor.3sg
najev
also
majɾ-ə
mother-def
‘The mother also cried.’
CUT ktɾel N
(26)
tʁa-n
boy-def
hacʰ-ə
bread-def
ktɾ-ecʰ
cut-aor.3sg
danak-ov
knife-instr
‘The boy cut the bread with the knife.’
(87)
maɾd-ə
man-def
ktɾ-ecʰ
cut-aor.3sg
maz-eɾ-ə
hair-pl-def
‘The man cut his hair.’
(144)
hacʰ-ə
bread-def
ktɾ-iɾ
cut-imp
‘Cut the bread!’
(145)
suɾ
sharp
danak-ov
knife-instr
amen
all
inčʰ
what
aveli
more
aɾag
fast
k-ktɾ-es
fut-cut-sbjv.2sg
‘You will cut it all faster with a sharp knife.’
DIE mahanal N
(68)
maɾd-ə
man-def
mahacʰa-v
die-aor.3sg
‘The man died.’
DIE mernel N
(69)
maɾd-ə
man-def
mera-v
die.aor-aor.3sg
‘The man died.’
DIG pʰoɾel N
(103)
kin-ə
woman-def
kaɾtofil
potato
e
aux.3sg
pʰoɾ-um-han-um
dig-cvb.ipfv-take.out-cvb.ipfv
‘The woman is digging for potatoes.’
(161)
du
you.sg.nom
inkʰ-d
self-2sg.poss
kʰo
your
geɾezman-ə
grave-def
k-pʰoɾ-es
fut-dig-sbjv.2sg
isk
but
heto
then
jes
I.nom
kʰez
you.sg.dat
k-tʰaʁ-em
fut-bury-sbjv.1sg
‘You will dig your own grave, and then I’ll burry you.’
(187)
varpet-ə
master-def
partez-um
garden-loc
pʰos
hole
aux.pst.3sg
pʰoɾ-um
dig-cvb.ipfv
‘The master was digging a hole in the garden ...’
DRESS hagcʰnel N
(52)
aʁǯik-ə
girl-def
hagcʰɾ-ecʰ
dress.caus-aor.3sg
jeɾeχa-ji-n
child-dat-def
‘The girl dressed the child.’
BE A HUNTER voɾsoɾd e N
(101)
ajs
this
maɾd-ə
man-def
voɾsoɾd
hunter
e
aux.3sg
‘This man is a hunter.’
BE DRY čʰoɾ e N
(78)
getin-ə
floor-def
čʰoɾ
dry
e
aux.3sg
‘The ground is dry.’
BE ILL hivand e N
(110)
tʰšnami-s
enemy-1sg.poss
hivand
sick
e
aux.3sg
‘My enemy is ill.’
BE SAD tχuɾ e N
(76)
aʁǯik-ə
girl-def
tχuɾ
sad
be.pst.3sg
‘The little girl was sad.’