Alternations of Eastern Armenian

Alternations
Alternation name Description Examples Verbs
C
y Usually introduces a new Agent, the Causee
(151)
Cicaʁecʰnelə cicaʁecʰnum em, bajcʰ vočʰ vokʰ čʰi cicaʁum.
cicaʁ-ecʰn-el-ə
laugh-caus-inf-def
cicaʁ-ecʰn-um
laugh-caus-cvb.ipfv
em
aux.1sg
bajcʰ
but
vočʰ
not
vokʰ
one
čʰi
neg.aux.3sg
cicaʁ-um
laugh-cvb.ipfv
‘I do (try to) make them laugh, only no one is laughing.’
15
C
y suffix stacking: causative suffix followed by mediopassive suffix
(122)
Hetpateɾazmjan tasnamjakneɾi əntʰacʰkʰum ajd kapeɾə pʰastoɾen sarecʰvac ein.
het-pateɾazm-jan
post-war-adjv
tasnamjak-neɾ-i
decade-pl-gen
əntʰacʰkʰ-um
course-loc
ajd
this
kap-eɾ-ə
tie-pl-def
pʰastoɾen
in.fact
sar-ecʰ-v-ac
freeze-caus-med-ptcp.res
ein
aux.pst.3pl
‘In the post-war decades these connections have almost stopped (lit. were frozen).’
3
C
y Mediopassive is a semantically heterogeneous alternation usually yielding a reduction of the argument number and having a vast range of interpretations, depending on the verb semantics and the context, from passive and decausative to reflexive and reciprocal.
(133)
Jetʰe menak apɾveɾ astvac jevajin čʰeɾ steʁci...
jetʰe
if
menak
alone
apɾ-v-eɾ
live-med-sbjv.3sg
astvac
God
jeva-ji-n
Eve-dat-def
čʰ-eɾ
neg-aux.pst.3sg
steʁc-i
create-sbjv.3sg
‘If [one could] live alone, God wouldn’t have created Eve...’
38
U
n With come reciprocal situations, the two participants may be either expressed as separate NPs (a subject NP and a complement NP) or to be incorporated into single plural subject NP.

As this is an uncoded alternation, we can not check how frequent this alternation is used with the separate verbs in the corpus. The alternation value regularly is therefore given to verbs for which we entered an example.
(135)
Nɾankʰ handipecʰin (iɾaɾ).
nɾankʰ
they.nom
handip-ecʰ-in
meet-aor-3pl
iɾaɾ
each.other
‘They met (each other).’
3
U
n Generalized objects may be omitted to result in a new situation, with a focus on the state or the activity of the Agent.
(160)
U jeɾgecʰ siɾucʰ, jeɾgecʰ kjankʰicʰ.
u
and
jeɾg-ecʰ
sing-aor.3sg
siɾ-ucʰ
love-abl
jeɾg-ecʰ
sing-aor.3sg
kjankʰ-icʰ
life-abl
‘And he sang about love, and he sang about life.’
1
U
n Semantics of some verbs may strongly suggest a specific object; however, when the object is not default or has to be additionally characterized, it may appear as an overt DO 0
U
n Verbs of loading and filling may take the filling substance as P and the Goal as an in-lative adjunct or take the Goal as P and the filling substance as an instrument. 0
U
n Vebs of removal and separation may take the Source as an ablative adjunct; alternatively, the Source may be coded as the Possessor of the Theme. While in many languages that may happen to verbs of deprivation such as still or take away by force (I stole my friend's hat vs. I stole this hat from a friend of mine), in Armenian this is extended to verbs designating separation of the part from the whole.

As this is an uncoded alternation, we can not check how frequent this alternation is used with the separate verbs in the corpus. The alternation value regularly is therefore given to verbs for which we entered an example.
(139)
Jes cari χnʒoɾə pokecʰi.
jes
I.nom
car-i
tree-gen
χnʒoɾ-ə
apple-def
pok-ecʰ-i
tear-aor-1sg
‘I plucked an apple from a tree.’
3