Examples of Chintang

Example Verb meaning Example of...
(1)
Chaŋa kitapko panna regose.
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
kitap-ko
book-GEN
panna
page
reg-o-s-e
tear-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child has torn the page from the book.’
TEAR a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(2)
Ugoji regadaŋse.
u-goji
3sPOSS-pocket
reg-a-d-a-ŋs-e
tear-PST-COMPL.ITR-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘Her pocket has been torn.’
TEAR an Alternation:
S/P ambitransitivity
(3)
Maŋa pempak cose.
ma-ŋa
female-ERG
pempak
bread
c-o-s-e
eat-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The woman has eaten the bread.’
EAT a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(4)
Rameseyaŋ cie elo, parsada?
ramese=yaŋ
Rames=also
ci-e
eat-[3sS.]IND.PST
elo
or
parsada
sacrificed.meat
‘Did Rames also eat sacrificed meat or not?’
EAT an Alternation:
S/A detransitivisation
(5)
Lakhman heptuŋsuhẽ.
lakhman
Lakhman
hept-u-ŋs-u-h-ẽ
hug-3P-PRF-3[s]P-1sA-IND.PST
‘I had hugged Lakhman.’
HUG a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(6)
Maʔmiŋa cha coptose.
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
cha
child
copt-o-s-e
look.at-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has looked at the child.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(7)
Maʔmiŋa cha khaose.
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
cha
child
kha-o-s-e
see-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has seen the child.’
SEE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(8)
Kocuwaŋa namsoŋse kocuwa ujutho.
kocuwa-ŋa
dog-ERG
nams-o-ŋs-e
smell-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
kocuwa
dog
u-jutho
3sPOSS-dirt
‘The dog has smelled at a(nother) dog's dirt.’
SMELL a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(9)
Mailakko pen carko namno konei!
maila-ko
second.son-GEN
pen
pants
carko
strongly
nam-no
smell-[3sS.]IND.NPST
konei
ATTN
‘Hey, Maila's pants smell really bad!’
SMELL an Alternation:
S/P ambitransitivity
(10)
Cha maʔmibeʔã ukipma kadase.
cha
child
maʔmi-beʔ-ã
person-LOC-ERG
u-kipma
3sPOSS-fear
kad-a-s-e
come.up-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The child has become afraid of the man.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1-abs poss[1].V.subj[1]
(11)
Maŋa sencak kittoko.
ma-ŋa
female-ERG
sencak
mouse
kitt-o-ko
fear-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST
‘The woman is afraid of the mouse.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(12)
Maŋa sencak ukipma kattoko.
ma-ŋa
female-ERG
sencak
mouse
u-kipma
3sPOSS-fear
katt-o-ko
bring.up-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST
‘The woman is afraid of the mouse.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs poss[1].V.agt[1].obj[2]
(13)
Maʔmiŋa cha kipmettose.
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
cha
child
kip-mett-o-s-e
fear-CAUS-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has frightened the child.’
FRIGHTEN a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(14)
Chaŋa maʔmi khaŋma lesose.
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
maʔmi
person
khaŋ-ma
see-INF
les-o-s-e
like-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child likes the man.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(15)
Maʔmiŋa cha mɨksikhaose.
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
cha
child
mɨksi-kha-o-s-e
know-STEM-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has come to know the child.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(16)
Huĩ Khemeŋata nisokota na.
huĩ
MED
kheme-ŋa=ta
Kheme-ERG=FOC
nis-o-ko=ta
know-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST=FOC
na
TOP
‘Kheme knows that.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(17)
Debiŋa huŋgo seu mittoko.
debi-ŋa
Debi-ERG
huŋ-go
MED-NMLZ
seu
apple
mitt-o-ko
think.of-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST
‘Debi thinks of that apple.’
THINK a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(18)
Maʔmiŋa cha kondose.
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
cha
child
kond-o-s-e
search.for-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has searched for the child.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(19)
Maŋa cha wahumettose.
ma-ŋa
woman-ERG
cha
child
wahu-mett-o-s-e
take.bathe-CAUS-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The woman has washed the child.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(20)
Abo wachidota naŋ hapcuriŋa.
abo
now
wa-chid-o=ta
wash-STEM-[3sA.]3[s]P=FOC
naŋ
but
hapcur-i-ŋa
crybaby-F-ERG
‘Now the crybaby is going to wash it.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(21)
Ippa utecce wadhaptoca!
i-ppa
2sPOSS-father
u-tec-ce
3sPOSS-clothes-ns
wa-dhapt-o-c-a
wash-STEM-[2sA.]3P-3nsP-IMP
‘Wash your father's clothes!’
WASH a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(22)
Saŋa walektukuce?
sa-ŋa
who-ERG
wa-lekt-u-ku-ce
wash-STEM-3O-IND.NPST-[3sA.]3nsP
‘Who washed them?’
WASH a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(23)
Maŋa cha teiʔ waiʔmettose.
ma-ŋa
woman-ERG
cha
child
teiʔ
clothes
waiʔ-mett-o-s-e
wear-CAUS-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The woman has dressed the child.’
DRESS a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-abs V.agt[1].obj[3]
(24)
Bahalaŋa jammai kham khosatte.
bahala-ŋa
flood-ERG
jammai
all
kham
soil
khos-a-tt-e
sweep.away-PST-COMPL.TR-[3sA.3sP.]IND.PST
‘The flood swept away all the soil.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(25)
Paŋa ma phadose.
pa-ŋa
man-ERG
ma
woman
phad-o-s-e
help-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has helped the woman.’
HELP a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(26)
Paŋa ma rɨktose.
pa-ŋa
man-ERG
ma
woman
rɨkt-o-s-e
follow-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has followed the woman.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(27)
Paŋa ma togose.
pa-ŋa
man-ERG
ma
woman
tog-o-s-e
get-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has come across the woman.’
GET a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(28)
Baiʔ anaŋa tubikiya e.
ba-iʔ
PROX-LOC
anaŋa
1pe
tub-i-ki-ya
meet-1pS-IND.NPST-e
e
or
‘Here we meet, don't we.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1-abs V.subj[1]
(29)
Thitta mechacha lambube tubuhẽ.
thitta
one
mechacha
girl
lambu-be
road-LOC
tub-u-h-ẽ
meet-3[s]P-1sA-IND.PST
‘I met a girl on the road.’
MEET an Alternation:
Reciprocal ambitransitivity
(30)
Aiya, hana payaŋ themma ahandokokha naŋ?
aiya
oh
hana
2s
pa=yaŋ
husband=also
themma
why
a-hand-o-ko-kha
2[s]A-talk.about-3[s]P-IND.NPST-BGR
naŋ
but
‘My, why do you talk about (your) husband, too?’
TALK a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(31)
Hunce to uhancekenɨŋ.
hun-ce
MED-ns
to
DEM.UP
u-han-ce-ke-nɨŋ
3nsS-talk-d-IND.NPST-NEG
‘They don't talk up there.’
TALK an Alternation:
S/A detransitivisation
(32)
Paŋa mabeko rɨŋ ukam ludose.
pa-ŋa
man-ERG
ma-be-ko
woman-LOC-GEN
rɨŋ
story
u-kam
3sPOSS-friend
lud-o-s-e
tell-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man told his friend (the story) about the woman.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-abs V.agt[1].obj[3]
(33)
Chaŋa maʔmi upheʔwa naktose.
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
maʔmi
person
u-pheʔwa
3sPOSS-money
nakt-o-s-e
ask.for-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child has asked the man for money.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-abs V.agt[1].obj[3]
(34)
Paŋa ma rattose.
pa-ŋa
man-ERG
ma
woman
ratt-o-s-e
shout.at-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has shouted at the woman.’
SHOUT AT a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(35)
Bakhrace uraʔno.
bakhra-ce
goat-ns
u-raʔ-no
3nsS-shout-IND.NPST
‘The goats are bleating.’
SHOUT AT an Alternation:
S/A detransitivisation
(36)
Paŋa ma katha ludose.
pa-ŋa
man-ERG
ma
woman
katha
story
lud-o-s-e
tell-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has told the woman a story.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-abs V.agt[1].obj[3]
(37)
Hou, Syam ubojuŋa "nacuwa" mo ludokokhalo naŋ.
hou
AFF
syam
Syam
u-boju-ŋa
3sPOSS-grandmother-ERG
nacuwa
dancer
mo
CIT
lud-o-ko-kha=lo
say.to-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST-BGR=SURP
naŋ
but
‘Yes, Syam's grandmother says "dancer" to him/calls him a dancer.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-abs V.agt[1].obj[3]
(38)
Maŋa pa comcole mo pattose.
ma-ŋa
woman-ERG
pa
man
comcole
idiot
mo
CIT
patt-o-s-e
call-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The woman has called the man an idiot.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-abs V.agt[1].obj[3]
(39)
Thitta teĩbe huĩ teĩbeko unɨŋ Dãphe teĩ mo uludoyakte.
thitta
one
teĩ-be
village-LOC
huĩ
MED
teĩ-be-ko
village-LOC-GEN
u-nɨŋ
3sPOSS-name
dãphe
Dãphe
teĩ
village
mo
CIT
u-lud-o-yakt-e
3nsA-call-3[s]P-IPFV-IND.PST
‘In one village they called that village's name Dãphe (= 'there was a village they called Dãphe').’
NAME a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-abs V.agt[1].obj[3]
(40)
Maʔmiŋa khim numdose.
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
khim
house
numd-o-s-e
make-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has built a house.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(41)
Chaŋa jaskeli luŋtakŋa kedose.
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
jaskeli
window
luŋtak-ŋa
stone-ERG
ked-o-s-e
break-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child has broken the window with a stone.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-erg V.agt[1].obj[2]
(42)
Unari kedaŋse?
u-nari
3sPOSS-nose
ked-a-ŋs-e
break-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘Is her nose broken?’
BREAK an Alternation:
S/P ambitransitivity
(43)
Athom waceŋa ɨcɨk uodandoŋse.
athom
before
wa-ce-ŋa
hen-ns-ERG
ɨ-cɨk
3sPOSS-side
u-od-a-nd-o-ŋs-e
3nsA-break-3[s]P-CHANGE-3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘Just before the hens broke its side.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-erg V.agt[1].obj[2]
(44)
Ilaŋ odadaŋse?
i-laŋ
2sPOSS-leg
od-a-d-a-ŋs-e
break-PST-COMPL.ITR-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘Is your leg broken?’
BREAK an Alternation:
S/P ambitransitivity
(45)
Aseĩba cakkuŋa ba oduŋkhalo baiʔ.
aseĩba
last.time
cakku-ŋa
knife-ERG
ba
PROX
od-u-ŋ-kha=lo
break-3[s]P-1sA-BGR=SURP
ba-iʔ
PROX-LOC
‘Last time I broke this here with a knife.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-erg V.agt[1].obj[2]
(46)
Chaŋa puchak lauriŋa sedose.
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
puchak
snake
lauri-ŋa
stick-ERG
sed-o-s-e
kill-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child has killed the snake with a stick.’
KILL a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-erg V.agt[1].obj[2]
(47)
Chaŋa puchak lauriŋa thattose.
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
puchak
snake
lauri-ŋa
stick-ERG
thatt-o-s-e
beat-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child has beaten the snake with a stick.’
BEAT a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-erg V.agt[1].obj[2]
(48)
Chaŋa puchak lauriŋa tenose.
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
puchak
snake
lauri-ŋa
stick-ERG
ten-o-s-e
hit-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child has hit the snake with a stick.’
BEAT a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-erg V.agt[1].obj[2]
(49)
Chaŋa puchak lauriŋa nobose.
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
puchak
snake
lauri-ŋa
stick-ERG
nob-o-s-e
touch-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child touched the snake with a stick.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-erg V.agt[1].obj[2]
(50)
Chaŋa pempak dabiŋa kɨptose.
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
pempak
bread
dabi-ŋa
knife-ERG
kɨpt-o-s-e
cut-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child has cut the bread with a knife.’
CUT a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-erg V.agt[1].obj[2]
(51)
Thuliŋa mo newarnibeʔŋa ekbora khattuwakte.
thuli-ŋa
Thuli-ERG
mo
DEM.DOWN
newarni-beʔ-ŋa
Newar.woman-LOC-ERG
ek
one
bora
sack
khatt-u-wakt-e
take-3[s]P-IPFV-[3sA.]IND.PST
‘Thuli used to take one sack from the Newar woman down there.’
TAKE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-loc V.agt[1].obj[2]
(52)
Chaŋa kacĩpako kitap khuttose.
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
kacĩpa-ko
teacher-GEN
kitap
book
khutt-o-s-e
take-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child took away/stole the teacher's book.’
BRING the Verb form khutt
(53)
Anneŋa ogone.
anne-ŋa
elder.sister-ERG
og-o-ne
peel-[3sA.]3[s]P-OPT
‘Let the older girl peel it.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(54)
Chaŋa kacĩpako kitap tegose.
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
kacĩpa-ko
teacher-GEN
kitap
book
teg-o-s-e
hide-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child hid the teacher's book.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(55)
Chaŋa kitappeʔã panna regose.
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
kitap-pe-ʔã
book-LOC-ERG
panna
page
reg-o-s-e
tear-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child has torn a page from the book.’
TEAR a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(56)
Chaŋa kacĩpa kitap khaŋmettose.
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
kacĩpa
teacher
kitap
book
khaŋ-mett-o-s-e
see-CAUS-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child showed the book to the teacher.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-abs V.agt[1].obj[3]
(57)
Ukhɨcɨŋ khaŋmaimeʔno.
u-khɨcɨŋ
3sPOSS-ass
khaŋ-mai-meʔ-no
see-[3sA.]1nsiP-CAUS-IND.NPST
‘He shows us his ass.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-abs V.agt[1].obj[3]
(58)
Apakkuŋa chace mithai pidokoce.
a-pakku-ŋa
1sPOSS-mother's.younger.brother-ERG
cha-ce
child-ns
mithai
sweets
pid-o-ko-ce
give-[3sA.]3P-IND.NPST-3nsP
‘My uncle gives sweets to the children.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-abs V.agt[1].obj[3]
(59)
Rame uppaŋa unisace pheʔwa haktuce.
rame
Rame
u-ppa-ŋa
3sPOSS-father-ERG
u-nisa-ce
3sPOSS-younger.sibling-ns
pheʔwa
money
hakt-u-c-e
send-[3sA.]3P-3nsP-IND.PST
‘Rame's father sent money to his younger siblings.’
SEND a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-abs V.agt[1].obj[3]
(60)
Akka Jormanbeʔyã thitta citthi haŋsuhẽ.
akka
1s
jorman-beʔ-yã
Germany-LOC-ERG
thitta
one
citthi
letter
haŋs-u-h-ẽ
send-3[s]P-1sA-IND.PST
‘I sent a letter from Germany.’
SEND a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-loc V.agt[1].obj[2]
(61)
Chaŋa kacĩpa kitap khuttose.
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
kacĩpa
teacher
kitap
book
khutt-o-s-e
bring-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child carried/brought a book to the teacher.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-abs V.agt[1].obj[3]
(62)
Basaŋa dinbharita khurukuce.
ba-sa-ŋa
PROX-OBL-ERG
dinbhari=ta
whole.day=FOC
khur-u-ku-ce
carry-[3sA.]3P-IND.NPST-3nsP
‘This one carries (things) the whole day.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(63)
Chaŋa jaskelibe luŋtak osose.
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
jaskeli-be
window-LOC
luŋtak
stone
os-o-s-e
throw-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child has thrown a stone into the window.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-loc V.agt[1].obj[2]
(64)
Appaŋa upheʔwaŋa akka uorasehẽ.
a-ppa-ŋa
1sPOSS-father-ERG
u-pheʔwa-ŋa
3sPOSS-money-ERG
akka
1s
u-or-a-s-e-h-ẽ
3sA-throw-PST-PRF-PST-1sP-IND.PST
‘My father has thrown his money at me.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-erg V.agt[1].obj[2]
(65)
Maʔmiŋa ghoda sɨŋtaŋbe chudose.
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
ghoda
horse
sɨŋtaŋ-be
tree-LOC
chud-o-s-e
tie-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has tied the horse to a tree.’
TIE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-erg 4-loc V.agt[1].obj[2]
(66)
Tinera saŋloŋa chudanducuhẽ.
tin-era
three-CLF
saŋlo-ŋa
chain-ERG
chud-a-nd-u-cu-h-ẽ
tie-3O-CHANGE-3P-3nsP-1sA-IND.PST
‘I tied three with a chain.’
TIE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-erg 4-loc V.agt[1].obj[2]
(67)
Maʔmiŋa kitap tebulbe yuŋsose.
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
kitap
book
tebul-be
table-LOC
yuŋs-o-s-e
put-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man put the book on the table.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-loc V.agt[1].obj[2]
(68)
Maʔmiŋa cuwaŋa tenki bhare numdose.
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
cuwa-ŋa
water-ERG
tenki
tank
bhar-e
fill-V.NTVZ
numd-o-s-e
do-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has filled the tank with water/has poured water into the tank.’
FILL a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-erg V.agt[1].obj[2]
(69)
Maʔmiŋa sirekŋa cha bhuktose.
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
sirek-ŋa
blanket-ERG
cha
child
bhukt-o-s-e
cover-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has covered the child with a blanket.’
COVER a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-erg V.agt[1].obj[2]
(70)
Istamitraŋa sɨŋ ubhuktaŋnɨhẽ.
istamitra-ŋa
friends-ERG
sɨŋ
wood
u-bhukt-a-ŋ-nɨ-h-ẽ
3nsS/A-cover-PST-1sP-3p[A]-1sP-IND.PST
‘Friends covered me with wood.’
COVER an Alternation:
Theme alternation
(71)
Huŋgo ibari na sontoloŋŋa abo tiptoŋse.
huŋ-go
MED-NMLZ
i-bari
2sPOSS-field
na
TOP
sontoloŋ-ŋa
orange-ERG
abo
now
tipt-o-ŋs-e
fill-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘Oranges have filled that field of yours.’
FILL a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(72)
Teŋkibe cuwa tiptaŋse.
teŋki-be
tank-LOC
cuwa
water
tipt-a-ŋs-e
come.to.the.top-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The water has come to the top/has filled the tank.’
FILL an Alternation:
S/P ambitransitivity
(73)
Maʔmiŋa gadibe ghãsa yuŋsose.
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
gadi-be
car-LOC
ghãsa
grass
yuŋs-o-s-e
put-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has loaded hay onto the truck.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-loc V.agt[1].obj[2]
(74)
Sunogosaŋa na kanimɨksɨlɨkta siptandoko.
su-no-go-sa-ŋa
be.sour-IND.NPST-NMLZ-OBL-ERG
na
TOP
kani-mɨksɨlɨk=ta
1piPOSS-eye=FOC
sipt-a-nd-o-ko
shut-3P-CHANGE-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST
‘The sour stuff makes our eyes blink.’
BLINK a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(75)
Maʔmi chuŋsase.
maʔmi
person
chuŋs-a-s-e
cough-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The man has coughed.’
COUGH a Coding frame:
1-abs V.subj[1]
(76)
Maʔmiŋa bhɨrɨ soptose.
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
bhɨrɨ
hill
sopt-o-s-e
climb-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has climbed (up) the hill.’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(77)
Cha khambe pindase.
cha
child
kham-be
floor-LOC
pind-a-s-e
run-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The child has run over the floor.’
RUN a Coding frame:
1-abs V.subj[1]
(78)
Maʔmi khambe yuwase.
maʔmi
person
kham-be
floor-LOC
yuw-a-s-e
sit-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The man has sat down on the floor.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1-abs 2-loc V.subj[1]
(79)
Maʔmi khambe yuwakte.
maʔmi
person
kham-be
floor-LOC
yuw-a-kt-e
sit-PST-IPFV-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The man was sitting on the floor.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1-abs 2-loc V.subj[1]
(80)
Cha khambe tandase.
cha
child
kham-be
floor-LOC
tand-a-s-e
jump-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The child has jumped (down) to the floor.’
JUMP a Coding frame:
1-abs 2-loc V.subj[1]
(81)
Paŋa cham lusose.
pa-ŋa
man-ERG
cham
song
lus-o-s-e
sing-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has sung a song.’
SING a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(82)
Ukhalakhalakha cham lusiyaktiehẽ.
u-khalakhala-kha
3sPOSS-types-CAT
cham
song
lus-i-yakt-i-e-hẽ
sing-1pS-IPFV-1pS-e-IND.PST
‘We used to sing songs of various types.’
SING an Alternation:
S/A detransitivisation
(83)
Saŋboŋ teĩ theke khadaŋse?
saŋboŋ
Sambugaũ
teĩ
village
theke
why
khad-a-ŋs-e
go-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘Why has he gone to Sambugaũ?’
GO an Alternation:
Locative/absolutive alternation
(84)
Akka teĩbe khadaŋkha.
akka
1s
teĩ-be
village-LOC
khad-a-ŋ-kha
go-PST-1sS-BGR
‘I had gone to the village.’
GO a Coding frame:
1-abs 2-loc V.subj[1]
(85)
Cha teĩbeʔã khadase.
cha
child
teĩ-beʔ-ã
village-LOC-ERG
khad-a-s-e
go-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The child went from/left the village.’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
1-abs V.subj[1]
(86)
Cha teĩbe yuwakte.
cha
child
teĩ-be
village-LOC
yuw-a-kt-e
live-PST-IPFV-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The child lived in the village.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1-abs 2-loc V.subj[1]
(87)
Unarek rettumyaŋ lonnahaiʔ hola.
u-narek
3sPOSS-ear
rett-u-m=yaŋ
laugh.at-3[s]P-1nsA=also
lon-na-haiʔ
come.out-LNK-[3sS.]COMPL.ITR
hola
maybe
‘Maybe he comes out if we laugh about his ears.’
LAUGH ABOUT a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(88)
Bago carko reʔno, patarnilo!
ba-go
PROX-NMLZ
carko
aloud
reʔ-no
laugh-[3sS.]IND.NPST
patarni=lo
slut=SURP
‘This one laughs out loud, like some slut!’
LAUGH ABOUT an Alternation:
S/A detransitivisation
(89)
Chace urattaktace.
cha-ce
child-ns
u-ratt-a-kt-a-c-e
3nsS-scream-PST-IPFV-PST-d-IND.PST
‘The (two) children were screaming.’
SHOUT AT an Alternation:
S/A detransitivisation
(90)
Aphok tuknota.
a-phok
1sPOSS-belly
tuk-no-ta
ache-[3sS.]IND.NPST-IPFV
‘My belly is aching.’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
1-abs V.subj[1]
(91)
Cha cuŋwa siase.
cha
child
cuŋwa
cold
si-a-s-e
feel-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The child feels cold/has started feeling cold.’
FEEL COLD a Coding frame:
1-abs V.subj[1]
(92)
Maʔmi siadase.
maʔmi
person
si-a-d-a-s-e
die-PST-COMPL.ITR-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The man has died.’
DIE a Coding frame:
1-abs V.subj[1]
(93)
Menuwaŋa sencak khoŋsoko.
menuwa-ŋa
cat-ERG
sencak
mouse
khoŋs-o-ko
play.with-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST
‘The cat plays with the mouse.’
PLAY a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(94)
Menuwa sencak khoŋno.
menuwa
cat
sencak
mouse
khoŋ-no
play.with-[3sS.]IND.NPST
‘The cat plays with mice.’
PLAY an Alternation:
S/A detransitivisation
(95)
Moba dajuce ukhoŋno.
mo-ba
DEM.DOWN-LOC
daju-ce
elder.brother-ns
u-khoŋ-no
3nsS-play-IND.NPST
‘Down there the older guys are playing.’
PLAY an Alternation:
S/A detransitivisation
(96)
Imicinɨŋ tuknɨknɨŋ?
i-micinɨŋ
2sPOSS-mind
tuk-nɨk-nɨŋ
ache-[3sS.]IND.NPST-NEG
‘Don't you feel sad?’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
1-abs V.subj[1]
(97)
Utti para isom tuknɨŋne.
utti
that.much
para
COND
i-som
2sPOSS-mind
tuk-nɨŋ-ne
ache-[3sS.]NEG-OPT
‘In that case don't be worried.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
1-abs V.subj[1]
(98)
Cha sɨŋsawa siase.
cha
child
sɨŋsawa
hunger
si-a-s-e
feel-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The child is hungry/has started to feel hungry.’
BE HUNGRY a Coding frame:
1-abs V.subj[1]
(99)
Bagote mojja kɨnoʔ.
ba-go-te
PROX-NMLZ-SPEC.TOP
mojja
nicely
kɨ-noʔ
roll-[3sS.]IND.NPST
‘This one rolls nicely. / This one rolls (things) nicely.’
ROLL (tr) an Alternation:
S/P ambitransitivity
(100)
Huĩsaŋa kɨrone.
huĩ-sa-ŋa
MED-OBL-ERG
kɨr-o-ne
roll-[3sA.]3[s]P-OPT
‘Let him roll it.’
ROLL (tr) a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(101)
Kosibe maʔmi lumse.
kosi-be
river-LOC
maʔmi
person
lums-e
sink-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘Somebody drowned in the river.’
SINK (tr) an Alternation:
S/P ambitransitivity
(102)
Rameŋa utecce kosibe lumsuce.
rame-ŋa
Rame-ERG
u-tec-ce
3sPOSS-clothes-ns
kosi-be
river-ns
lums-u-c-e
sink-[3sA.]3P-3nsP-IND.PST
‘Rame sank his clothes in the river.’
SINK (tr) a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(103)
Ama, boda huttase!
ama
mother
boda
bean
hutt-a-s-e
burn-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘Mother, the beans got burned!’
BURN (tr) an Alternation:
S/P ambitransitivity
(104)
Namŋa kham huttoŋse.
nam-ŋa
sun-ERG
kham
soil
hutt-o-ŋs-e
burn-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The sun has burnt the soil.’
BURN (tr) a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(105)
Bheʔwace huniahala siptade.
bheʔwa-ce
duck-ns
huni-ahala
3pPOSS-pond
sipt-a-d-e
dry-PST-COMPL.ITR-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The ducks' pond has dried out.’
DRY an Alternation:
S/P ambitransitivity
(106)
To siptattoŋse thitta.
to
DEM.UP
sipt-a-tt-o-ŋs-e
dry-3P-COMPL.TR-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
thitta
one
‘Up there it has dried up one.’
DRY a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(107)
Weiʔ tiase.
weiʔ
rain
ti-a-s-e
come-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘It has rained.’
RAIN a Coding frame:
V
(108)
Jhantaã them cemdoko?
jhanta-ã
grinding.stone-ERG
them
what
cemd-o-ko
grind-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST
‘What is he grinding with the grinding stone?’
GRIND a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-erg V.agt[1].obj[2]
(109)
Akka sambok cemdehẽ.
akka
1s
sambok
millet
cemd-e-h-ẽ
grind-PST-1sS-IND.PST
‘I ground millet.’
GRIND the Verb form cemd
(110)
Chaŋa teiʔbeko dhuli tɨgose.
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
teiʔ-be-ko
clothes-LOC-GEN
dhuli
dirt
tɨg-o-s-e
wipe-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child has wiped the dirt off the clothes.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(111)
Hunce tusukhocenena huĩsaŋa.
hun-ce
MED-ns
tus-u-kh-o-ce-ne-na
dig-3P-CON-[3sA.]3P-3nsP-OPT-INSIST
huĩ-sa-ŋa
MED-OBL-ERG
‘Let him try to dig them out.’
DIG a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(112)
Bago maʔmiyã pholoŋse elo hokke?
ba-go
PROX-NMLZ
maʔmi-yã
person-ERG
phol-o-ŋs-e
dig-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
elo
or
hokke
where
‘Is it a person who has dug out this one or what?’
DIG a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(113)
Akhim theŋsibe saŋa dhuwaŋ tusose?
a-khim
1sPOSS-house
theŋsi-be
behind-LOC
sa-ŋa
who-ERG
dhuwaŋ
hole
tus-o-s-e
dig-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘Who has dug the hole behind my house?’
DIG a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(114)
Saiʔko uchauŋa utoĩyaʔãlo ni?
sa-iʔ-ko
who-LOC-GEN
u-chau-ŋa
3sPOSS-child-ERG
u-toĩ-ya-ʔã=lo
3sA-push-1sP-IND.NPST=SURP
ni
EMPH
‘Whose child is pushing me?’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(115)
Toʔni tolokho ni!
to-ʔni
DEM.UP-DIR
tol-o-kh-o
push-3P-CON-[2sA.]3[s]P
ni
EMPH
‘Push it up there!’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(116)
Appaŋa urɨŋ anisace cindose.
a-ppa-ŋa
1sPOSS-father-ERG
u-rɨŋ
3sPOSS-language
a-nisa-ce
1sPOSS-younger.sibling-ns
cind-o-s-e
teach-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘My father taught my younger brothers his language.’
TEACH a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-abs V.agt[1].obj[3]
(117)
Carko cektaʔna, khemsokonɨŋ anneŋa.
carko
loudly
cekt-aʔ-na
speak-IMP-INSIST
khems-o-ko-nɨŋ
hear-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST-NEG
a-nne-ŋa
1sPOSS-elder.sister-ERG
‘Speak up, my sister doesn't hear it.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(118)
Huĩ kantibe boŋga thuktuŋsuhẽ marcinɨŋ.
huĩ
MED
kanti-be
pot-LOC
boŋga
banana.leaf
thukt-u-ŋs-u-h-ẽ
cook-3P-PRF-3[s]P-1sA-IND.PST
marci-nɨŋ
chilli-COM
‘I've cooked a banana leaf with chilli in that pot.’
COOK a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(119)
Cuwa lokto pache choku cimtaŋa lapma kina tima konnoʔ.
cuwa
water
lokt-o
boil-[3sA.]3[s]P
pache
after
choku
nettle
cimta-ŋa
pincers-ERG
lap-ma
seize-INF
kina
SEQ
ti-ma
put.in-INF
kon-no
must-[3sS.]IND.NPST
‘After the water comes to a boil, one has to take the nettles with pincers and put them in.’
BOIL a Coding frame:
1-abs V.obj[1]
(120)
Them aphaŋsoŋse?
them
what
a-phaŋs-o-ŋs-e
2[s]A-boil-3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘What have you boiled?’
BOIL (tr) a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(121)
Cha lambube thadaŋse.
cha
child
lambu-be
road-LOC
thad-a-ŋs-e
appear-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The child appeared on the road.’
APPEAR a Coding frame:
1-abs V.subj[1]
(122)
Unna hinɨknɨŋ.
u-nna
3sPOSS-elder.sister
hi-nɨk-nɨŋ
be.able-[3sS.]IND.NPST-NEG
‘His sister is ill.’
BE ILL a Coding frame:
1-abs V.subj[1]
(123)
Hana ahapno?
hana
2s
a-hap-no
2[s]S-cry-IND.NPST
‘Do you cry?’
CRY a Coding frame:
1-abs V.subj[1]
(124)
Maʔmi thamsase.
maʔmi
person
thams-a-s-e
fall-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The man has fallen down.’
DROP an Alternation:
S/P ambitransitivity
(125)
Halo bane numdokokha Centiŋa.
halo
plough
ban-e
make-V.NTVZ
numd-o-ko-kha
do-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST-BGR
centi-ŋa
Centi-ERG
‘Centi is making a plough.’
MAKE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(126)
Chaŋa kitap kacĩpabeʔã togose.
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
kitap
book
kacĩpa-beʔ-ã
teacher-LOC-ERG
tog-o-s-e
get-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child has got a book from the teacher.’
GET a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(127)
Huĩ suncuwace alamma kattoŋsuce.
huĩ
MED
suncuwa-ce
citrus.fruit-ns
a-lamma
1sPOSS-appetite
katt-o-ŋs-u-c-e
bring.up-3P-PRF-[3sA.]3P-3nsP-IND.PST
‘I want/have an appetite for those citrus fruits.’
WANT a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs poss[1].V.agt[1].obj[2]
(128)
Chaŋa usaikil bhirbeʔyã thamse.
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
u-saikil
3sPOSS-bike
bhir-beʔ-yã
cliff-LOC-ERG
thams-e
drop-[3sA.3sP.]IND.PST
‘The child dropped his bike from the cliff.’
DROP a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(129)
Maŋa uchau heptoŋse.
ma-ŋa
mother-ERG
u-chau
3sPOSS-child
hept-o-ŋs-e
hug-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The mother has hugged her child.’
HUG a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(130)
Rameceŋa puchakce hunikipma kattukuce.
rame-ce-ŋa
Rame-ns-ERG
puchak-ce
snake-ns
huni-kipma
3pPOSS-fear
katt-u-ku-ce
bring.up-[3sA.]3P-IND.NPST-3nsP
‘Rame and the others are afraid of snakes.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs poss[1].V.agt[1].obj[2]
(131)
Ba kocuwaŋa cha kipmettoko.
ba
PROX
kocuwa-ŋa
dog-ERG
cha
child
kip-mett-o-ko
fear-CAUS-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST
‘This dog frightens the child.’
FRIGHTEN a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(132)
Iphuwaŋa Rame phakceŋa kipmettoko.
i-phuwa-ŋa
2sPOSS-elder.brother-ERG
rame
Rame
phak-ce-ŋa
pig-ns-ERG
kip-mett-o-ko
fear-CAUS-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST
‘Your brother makes Rame afraid of the pigs.’
FRIGHTEN the Verb form kip-mett
(133)
Anisaŋa ancitecce wadhaptokoceta.
a-nisa-ŋa
1sPOSS-younger.sibling-ERG
anci-tec-ce
1diPOSS-clothes-ns
wa-dhapt-o-ko-ce-ta
wash-STEM-[3sA.]3P-IND.NPST-3nsP-IPFV
‘My younger sister is washing our clothes.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(134)
Rameŋa udadi khosandoŋse pho.
rame-ŋa
Rame-ERG
u-dadi
3sPOSS-beard
khos-a-nd-o-ŋs-e
shave-3P-CHANGE-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
pho
REP
‘I heard Rame has shaved his beard.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(135)
Huĩsaŋa hana ukatha nalude?
huĩ-sa-ŋa
MED-OBL-ERG
hana
2s
u-katha
3sPOSS-story
na-lud-e
3[s]:2-tell-IND.PST
‘Did he tell you his story?’
NAME a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-abs V.agt[1].obj[3]
(136)
Kanchaŋa ugol moʔni kɨroŋse.
kancha-ŋa
youngest.son-ERG
u-gol
3sPOSS-ball
mo-ʔni
DEM.DOWN-DIR
kɨr-o-ŋs-e
roll-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘Kancha has rolled his ball down there.’
ROLL (tr) a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(137)
Yosaŋa anci mairecceke.
yo-sa-ŋa
DEM.ACROSS-OBL-ERG
anci
1di
mai-rec-ce-ke
1nsiP-laugh.at-d-IND.NPST
‘That guy is laughing at us.’
LAUGH ABOUT the Verb form rett
(138)
Namŋa ahala siptattoŋse.
nam-ŋa
sun-ERG
ahala
pond
sipt-a-tt-o-ŋs-e
dry.out-3P-COMPL.TR-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The sun has dried out the pond.’
DRY a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(139)
Maceŋa sambok ucemdoko.
ma-ce-ŋa
woman-ns-ERG
sambok
millet
u-cemd-o-ko
3[ns]A-grind-3P-IND.NPST
‘The women grind the millet.’
GRIND a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-erg V.agt[1].obj[2]
(140)
Mace sambok ucemno.
ma-ce
woman-ns
sambok
millet
u-cem-no
3[ns]S-grind-IND.NPST
‘The women grind millet.’
GRIND an Alternation:
S/A detransitivisation
(141)
Budhaŋa unatini usora khemsokonɨŋ.
budha-ŋa
old.man-ERG
u-natini
3sPOSS-granddaughter
u-sora
3sPOSS-voice
khems-o-ko-nɨŋ
hear-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST-NEG
‘The old man doesn't hear his granddaughter's voice.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs V.agt[1].obj[2]
(142)
Huŋgo maʔmi kaʔappakha.
huŋ-go
MED-NMLZ
maʔmi
person
kaʔappa-kha
hunter-CAT
‘That guy is a hunter.’
BE A HUNTER a Coding frame:
1-abs V
(143)
Anikocuwa huk gari chaceŋa hunikiʔma kattoko.
ani-kocuwa
1piPOSS-dog
huk
bark
gari
when
cha-ce-ŋa
child-ns-ERG
huni-kipma
3nsPOSS-fear
katt-o-ko
bring.up-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST
‘When our dog barks the children get frightened.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs poss[1].V.agt[1].obj[2]
(144)
Dailobe khattum.
dailo-be
veranda-LOC
khatt-u-m
bring-3[s]P-1nsA
‘Let's bring it to the veranda.’
TAKE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-loc V.agt[1].obj[2]
(145)
Ba upadumbe haŋsandothaptuhẽ ta na, hokeʔni masade?
ba
PROX
u-padum-be
3sPOSS-father's.elder.brother-LOC
haŋs-a-nd-o-thapt-u-h-ẽ
send-3P-CHANGE-3P-over-3[s]P-1sA-IND.PST
ta
FOC
na
TOP
hoke-ʔni
where-DIR
mas-a-d-e
get.lost-PST-COMPL.ITR-IND.PST
‘I did send this one to his uncle - where did it get lost?’
SEND a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-loc V.agt[1].obj[2]
(146)
Dhankuta khattummakha.
dhankuta
Dhankuta
khatt-u-m-ma-kha
bring-3[s]P-1nsA-e-BGR
‘We had brought him to Dhankuta.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Locative/absolutive alternation
(147)
Bago Malesia haŋma konno.
ba-go
PROX-NMLZ
malesia
Malaysia
haŋ-ma
send-INF
kon-no
must-[3sS.]IND.NPST
‘This one must be sent to Malaysia.’
SEND an Alternation:
Locative/absolutive alternation
(148)
Kancha, mo inisa osa!
kancha
youngest.son
mo
DEM.DOWN
i-nisa
2sPOSS-younger.sibling
os-a
throw-IMP
‘Kancha, throw (something) on your younger brother down there!’
THROW an Alternation:
Locative/absolutive alternation
(149)
Muda yuwaʔna.
muda
stool
yuw-aʔ-na
sit-IMP-INSIST
‘Sit down on a stool.’
LIVE an Alternation:
Locative/absolutive alternation
(150)
Hapnoʔ, bhuknaŋnace!
hap-no
cry-IND.NPST
bhuk-na-ŋ-na-c-e
cover-REFL-PRF-REFL-REFL-IND.PST
‘He's crying, he's covered himself!’
COVER an Alternation:
Reflexive
(151)
Hokkoiʔ-hokkoiʔya abo kanikko ucinnaancĩ.
hokko-iʔ-hokko-iʔ-ya
which-LOC-which-LOC-ERG
abo
now
kani-kko
1pi-GEN
u-cin-na-a-ncĩ
3nsS-teach-REFL-IND.NPST-nsREFL
‘Now they (come from) various places (and) learn our language.’
TEACH an Alternation:
Reflexive
(152)
Anaŋa khaŋnaancĩya.
anaŋa
1pe
khaŋ-na-a-ncī-ya
watch-REFL-IND.NPST-nsREFL-e
‘We look after ourselves.’
SEE an Alternation:
Reflexive
(153)
Theke kɨnacelo ni bago?
theke
why
kɨ-na-c-e=lo
roll-REFL-REFL-IND.PST=SURP
ni
EMPH
ba-go
PROX-NMLZ
‘Why did this one fall down?’
ROLL (tr) an Alternation:
Reflexive
(154)
Huŋgo onadinace pho inarabe.
huŋ-go
MED-NMLZ
o-na-di-na-c-e
throw-REFL-in-REFL-REFL-IND.PST
pho
REP
inara-be
well-LOC
‘They say it jumped into the well.’
THROW an Alternation:
Reflexive
(155)
Teĩkateĩ lusinɨŋkha!
teĩ-ka-teĩ
beat-RECP-beat
lus-i-nɨŋ-kha
AUX-1p[S]-NEG-BGR
‘Let's not beat each other!’
BEAT an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(156)
Khaŋkakhaŋ lusi gari chitti likhi ta lusaŋsehẽʔ.
khaŋ-ka-khaŋ
watch-RECP-watch
lus-i
AUX-1p[S]
gari
when
chitt-i
find-1p[S]
likhi=ta
like=FOC
lus-a-ŋs-e-h-ẽʔ
feel-PST-PRF-PST-1sS-IND.PST
‘I felt like we could find something just watching each other.’
SEE an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(157)
Tubiŋsi ghari nikani lusi, rettine, cektine.
tub-i-ŋs-i
meet-1p-PRF-1p[S]
ghari
when
ni-ka-ni
know-RECP-know
lus-i
AUX-1p[S]
rett-i-ne
laugh-1p[S]-OPT
cekt-i-ne
speak-1p[S]-OPT
‘When we have met let's get to know each other, let's laugh and talk.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(158)
Huŋgo khalko sahayog pikapi lusikiya teĩbe.
huŋ-go
MED-NMLZ
khal-ko
kind-GEN
sahayog
help
pi-ka-pi
give-RECP-give
lus-i-ki-ya
AUX-1p[S]-IND.NPST-e
teĩ-be
village-LOC
‘We give that kind of help to each other in the village.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Reciprocal
(159)
Huŋgo sambali yuŋmayaŋ bhãda.
huŋ-go
MED-NMLZ
sambali
soybean
yuŋ-mayaŋ
put-PASS.PTCP
bhãda
pot
‘The pot where the soybeans have been put.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Passive participle
(160)
Phidaŋ bhukmayaŋkha.
phidaŋ
ginger
bhuk-mayaŋ-kha
cover-PASS.PTCP-CAT
‘That is covered ginger.’
COVER an Alternation:
Passive participle
(161)
Okmayaŋlo raicha naŋ.
ok-mayaŋ=lo
peel-PASS.PTCP=SURP
raicha
MIR
naŋ
but
‘But it looks like it's been peeled.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Passive participle
(162)
Rameko waadhaptopido pho.
rame-ko
Rame-GEN
wa-a-dhapt-o-pid-o
wash-2[s]A-STEM-3P-BEN-3[s]P
pho
REP
‘I heard you're washing Rame's (clothes).’
WASH an Alternation:
Benefactive
(163)
Ba regandobido ni!
ba
PROX
reg-a-nd-o-bid-o
tear-3P-CHANGE-3P-BEN-[3sA.]3[s]P
ni
EMPH
‘He's going to tear this one (apart)!’
TEAR an Alternation:
Benefactive
(164)
Akka oknabina.
akka
1s
ok-na-bi-na
peel-1s:2[s]-BEN-1s:2[s]
‘Let me peel it for you.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Benefactive
(165)
Phakce cam piducaʔ ni, them-them kondupiduca ni!
phak-ce
pig-ns
cam
fodder
pid-u-c-a
give-3P-3nsP-[2sA.]IMP
ni
EMPH
them-them
what-what
kond-u-pid-u-c-a
search-3P-BEN-3P-3nsP-[2sA.]IMP
ni
EMPH
‘Give fodder to the pigs, search something for them!’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Benefactive
(166)
Jogoyaŋ nakhutticaihattibiri.
jo-go=yaŋ
whatever-NMLZ=also
na-khutt-i-ca-i-hatt-i-bir-i
3[s]:2-steal-2p-eat-2p-COMPL.TR-2p-BEN-2p
‘He will steal and eat everything from you.’
BRING an Alternation:
Benefactive
(167)
Utaŋ ukɨptandupidoŋse bayaŋ.
u-taŋ
3sPOSS-hair
u-kɨpt-a-nd-u-pid-o-ŋs-e
3nsA-cut-3P-CHANGE-3P-BEN-3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
ba=yaŋ
PROX=also
‘They cut this one's hair, too.’
CUT an Alternation:
Benefactive
(168)
Yuŋmettukuce holau jammai।.
yuŋ-mett-u-ku-ce
sit-CAUS-3P-IND.NPST-[3sA.]3nsP
holau
maybe
jammai
all
‘Maybe she makes them all sit down.’
LIVE an Alternation:
Causative
(169)
Yoʔni thaiʔmettokho!
yo-ʔni
DEM.ACROSS-DIR
thaiʔ-mett-o-kh-o
appear-CAUS-3P-CON-[2sA.]3[s]P
‘Make it appear over there!’
APPEAR an Alternation:
Causative
(170)
Kassikana taĩmettana!
kassikana
with.force
taĩ-mett-a-na
jump-CAUS-IMP-INSIST
‘Let it bounce with all your force!’
JUMP an Alternation:
Causative
(171)
Saĩli lo okmettoŋse naŋ.
saĩli=lo
third.youngest.daughter=SURP
ok-mett-o-ŋs-e
peel-CAUS-3P-PRF-IND.PST
naŋ
but
‘But he's made Saili peel it.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Causative
(172)
Cuwa tima kina lokmeiʔma konno.
cuwa
water
ti-ma
put.in-INF
kina
SEQ
lok-meiʔ-ma
boil-CAUS-INF
kon-no
must-[3sS.]IND.NPST
‘One has to fill in water and boil it.’
BOIL an Alternation:
Causative
(173)
Akhaita hapmettoko mo na Rameŋa.
akhai=ta
a.lot=FOC
hap-mett-o-ko
cry-CAUS-[3sA.]3P-IND.NPST
mo
CIT
na
TOP
rame-ŋa
Rame-ERG
‘Rame makes her cry a lot.’
CRY an Alternation:
Causative
(174)
Kocuwa khumettokho naŋ!
kocuwa
dog
khu-mett-o-kh-o
carry-CAUS-3P-CON-[2sA.]3[s]P
naŋ
but
‘Try to make the dog carry it!’
CARRY an Alternation:
Causative
(175)
Theke khaŋamettuce?
theke
why
khaŋ-a-mett-u-c-e
watch-PST-CAUS-3P-3nsP-[3sA.]IND.PST
‘Why did you show it to them?’
SEE an Alternation:
Causative
(176)
Bharkhari camayɨŋ likhiʔ ta namno.
bharkhari
recently
ca-mayaŋ
eat-PASS.PTCP
likhi
EQU
ta
FOC
nams-no
smell-IND.NPST[.3sS]
‘It smells as if it had been eaten just now.’
EAT an Alternation:
Passive participle
(177)
Chamukŋa khaŋmayaŋ thaũ.
cha-muk-ŋa
child-eye-ERG
khaŋ-mayaŋ
see-PASS.PTCP
thaũ
place
‘A place seen with a child's eyes.’
SEE an Alternation:
Passive participle