Locative/absolutive alternation U

Description

Many verbs indicating movement to a destination can mark the destination either by the locative or the absolutive case (= zero). This alternation is independent of valency, so it also occurs with ditransitive verbs.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
GO khat R
(84)
akka
1s
teĩ-be
village-LOC
khad-a-ŋ-kha
go-PST-1sS-BGR
‘I had gone to the village.’
TAKE khatt R
(51)
thuli-ŋa
Thuli-ERG
mo
DEM.DOWN
newarni-beʔ-ŋa
Newar.woman-LOC-ERG
ek
one
bora
sack
khatt-u-wakt-e
take-3[s]P-IPFV-[3sA.]IND.PST
‘Thuli used to take one sack from the Newar woman down there.’
(144)
dailo-be
veranda-LOC
khatt-u-m
bring-3[s]P-1nsA
‘Let's bring it to the veranda.’
SEND haŋs R
(60)
akka
1s
jorman-beʔ-yã
Germany-LOC-ERG
thitta
one
citthi
letter
haŋs-u-h-ẽ
send-3[s]P-1sA-IND.PST
‘I sent a letter from Germany.’
(145)
ba
PROX
u-padum-be
3sPOSS-father's.elder.brother-LOC
haŋs-a-nd-o-thapt-u-h-ẽ
send-3P-CHANGE-3P-over-3[s]P-1sA-IND.PST
ta
FOC
na
TOP
hoke-ʔni
where-DIR
mas-a-d-e
get.lost-PST-COMPL.ITR-IND.PST
‘I did send this one to his uncle - where did it get lost?’
THROW os R
(63)
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
jaskeli-be
window-LOC
luŋtak
stone
os-o-s-e
throw-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child has thrown a stone into the window.’
LOAD yuŋs N
(67)
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
kitap
book
tebul-be
table-LOC
yuŋs-o-s-e
put-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man put the book on the table.’
(73)
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
gadi-be
car-LOC
ghãsa
grass
yuŋs-o-s-e
put-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has loaded hay onto the truck.’
FILL tipt N
(71)
huŋ-go
MED-NMLZ
i-bari
2sPOSS-field
na
TOP
sontoloŋ-ŋa
orange-ERG
abo
now
tipt-o-ŋs-e
fill-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘Oranges have filled that field of yours.’
PUSH tol N
(114)
sa-iʔ-ko
who-LOC-GEN
u-chau-ŋa
3sPOSS-child-ERG
u-toĩ-ya-ʔã=lo
3sA-push-1sP-IND.NPST=SURP
ni
EMPH
‘Whose child is pushing me?’
(115)
to-ʔni
DEM.UP-DIR
tol-o-kh-o
push-3P-CON-[2sA.]3[s]P
ni
EMPH
‘Push it up there!’
TEAR rek N
(1)
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
kitap-ko
book-GEN
panna
page
reg-o-s-e
tear-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child has torn the page from the book.’
(55)
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
kitap-pe-ʔã
book-LOC-ERG
panna
page
reg-o-s-e
tear-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child has torn a page from the book.’
EAT ca N
(3)
ma-ŋa
female-ERG
pempak
bread
c-o-s-e
eat-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The woman has eaten the bread.’
HUG hept N
(5)
lakhman
Lakhman
hept-u-ŋs-u-h-ẽ
hug-3P-PRF-3[s]P-1sA-IND.PST
‘I had hugged Lakhman.’
(129)
ma-ŋa
mother-ERG
u-chau
3sPOSS-child
hept-o-ŋs-e
hug-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The mother has hugged her child.’
LOOK AT copt N
(6)
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
cha
child
copt-o-s-e
look.at-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has looked at the child.’
SEE khaŋ N
(7)
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
cha
child
kha-o-s-e
see-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has seen the child.’
SMELL nams N
(8)
kocuwa-ŋa
dog-ERG
nams-o-ŋs-e
smell-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
kocuwa
dog
u-jutho
3sPOSS-dirt
‘The dog has smelled at a(nother) dog's dirt.’
FEAR kipma kat N
(10)
cha
child
maʔmi-beʔ-ã
person-LOC-ERG
u-kipma
3sPOSS-fear
kad-a-s-e
come.up-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The child has become afraid of the man.’
FEAR kitt N
(11)
ma-ŋa
female-ERG
sencak
mouse
kitt-o-ko
fear-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST
‘The woman is afraid of the mouse.’
FEAR kipma katt N
(12)
ma-ŋa
female-ERG
sencak
mouse
u-kipma
3sPOSS-fear
katt-o-ko
bring.up-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST
‘The woman is afraid of the mouse.’
(130)
rame-ce-ŋa
Rame-ns-ERG
puchak-ce
snake-ns
huni-kipma
3pPOSS-fear
katt-u-ku-ce
bring.up-[3sA.]3P-IND.NPST-3nsP
‘Rame and the others are afraid of snakes.’
(143)
ani-kocuwa
1piPOSS-dog
huk
bark
gari
when
cha-ce-ŋa
child-ns-ERG
huni-kipma
3nsPOSS-fear
katt-o-ko
bring.up-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST
‘When our dog barks the children get frightened.’
FRIGHTEN kip-mett N
(13)
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
cha
child
kip-mett-o-s-e
fear-CAUS-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has frightened the child.’
(131)
ba
PROX
kocuwa-ŋa
dog-ERG
cha
child
kip-mett-o-ko
fear-CAUS-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST
‘This dog frightens the child.’
LIKE khaŋma les N
(14)
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
maʔmi
person
khaŋ-ma
see-INF
les-o-s-e
like-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child likes the man.’
KNOW mɨksi-khaŋ N
(15)
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
cha
child
mɨksi-kha-o-s-e
know-STEM-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has come to know the child.’
KNOW nis N
(16)
huĩ
MED
kheme-ŋa=ta
Kheme-ERG=FOC
nis-o-ko=ta
know-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST=FOC
na
TOP
‘Kheme knows that.’
THINK mitt N
(17)
debi-ŋa
Debi-ERG
huŋ-go
MED-NMLZ
seu
apple
mitt-o-ko
think.of-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST
‘Debi thinks of that apple.’
SEARCH FOR kond N
(18)
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
cha
child
kond-o-s-e
search.for-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has searched for the child.’
WASH wahu-mett N
(19)
ma-ŋa
woman-ERG
cha
child
wahu-mett-o-s-e
take.bathe-CAUS-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The woman has washed the child.’
WASH wa-chid- N
(20)
abo
now
wa-chid-o=ta
wash-STEM-[3sA.]3[s]P=FOC
naŋ
but
hapcur-i-ŋa
crybaby-F-ERG
‘Now the crybaby is going to wash it.’
WASH wa-dhapt N
(21)
i-ppa
2sPOSS-father
u-tec-ce
3sPOSS-clothes-ns
wa-dhapt-o-c-a
wash-STEM-[2sA.]3P-3nsP-IMP
‘Wash your father's clothes!’
(133)
a-nisa-ŋa
1sPOSS-younger.sibling-ERG
anci-tec-ce
1diPOSS-clothes-ns
wa-dhapt-o-ko-ce-ta
wash-STEM-[3sA.]3P-IND.NPST-3nsP-IPFV
‘My younger sister is washing our clothes.’
WASH wa-lekt N
(22)
sa-ŋa
who-ERG
wa-lekt-u-ku-ce
wash-STEM-3O-IND.NPST-[3sA.]3nsP
‘Who washed them?’
DRESS waiʔ-mett N
(23)
ma-ŋa
woman-ERG
cha
child
teiʔ
clothes
waiʔ-mett-o-s-e
wear-CAUS-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The woman has dressed the child.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) khos N
(24)
bahala-ŋa
flood-ERG
jammai
all
kham
soil
khos-a-tt-e
sweep.away-PST-COMPL.TR-[3sA.3sP.]IND.PST
‘The flood swept away all the soil.’
(134)
rame-ŋa
Rame-ERG
u-dadi
3sPOSS-beard
khos-a-nd-o-ŋs-e
shave-3P-CHANGE-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
pho
REP
‘I heard Rame has shaved his beard.’
HELP phad N
(25)
pa-ŋa
man-ERG
ma
woman
phad-o-s-e
help-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has helped the woman.’
FOLLOW rɨkt N
(26)
pa-ŋa
man-ERG
ma
woman
rɨkt-o-s-e
follow-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has followed the woman.’
GET tok N
(27)
pa-ŋa
man-ERG
ma
woman
tog-o-s-e
get-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has come across the woman.’
(126)
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
kitap
book
kacĩpa-beʔ-ã
teacher-LOC-ERG
tog-o-s-e
get-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child has got a book from the teacher.’
MEET tup N
(28)
ba-iʔ
PROX-LOC
anaŋa
1pe
tub-i-ki-ya
meet-1pS-IND.NPST-e
e
or
‘Here we meet, don't we.’
TALK hand N
(30)
aiya
oh
hana
2s
pa=yaŋ
husband=also
themma
why
a-hand-o-ko-kha
2[s]A-talk.about-3[s]P-IND.NPST-BGR
naŋ
but
‘My, why do you talk about (your) husband, too?’
NAME lud N
(32)
pa-ŋa
man-ERG
ma-be-ko
woman-LOC-GEN
rɨŋ
story
u-kam
3sPOSS-friend
lud-o-s-e
tell-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man told his friend (the story) about the woman.’
(36)
pa-ŋa
man-ERG
ma
woman
katha
story
lud-o-s-e
tell-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has told the woman a story.’
(37)
hou
AFF
syam
Syam
u-boju-ŋa
3sPOSS-grandmother-ERG
nacuwa
dancer
mo
CIT
lud-o-ko-kha=lo
say.to-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST-BGR=SURP
naŋ
but
‘Yes, Syam's grandmother says "dancer" to him/calls him a dancer.’
(39)
thitta
one
teĩ-be
village-LOC
huĩ
MED
teĩ-be-ko
village-LOC-GEN
u-nɨŋ
3sPOSS-name
dãphe
Dãphe
teĩ
village
mo
CIT
u-lud-o-yakt-e
3nsA-call-3[s]P-IPFV-IND.PST
‘In one village they called that village's name Dãphe (= 'there was a village they called Dãphe').’
(135)
huĩ-sa-ŋa
MED-OBL-ERG
hana
2s
u-katha
3sPOSS-story
na-lud-e
3[s]:2-tell-IND.PST
‘Did he tell you his story?’
ASK FOR nakt N
(33)
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
maʔmi
person
u-pheʔwa
3sPOSS-money
nakt-o-s-e
ask.for-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child has asked the man for money.’
SHOUT AT ratt N
(34)
pa-ŋa
man-ERG
ma
woman
ratt-o-s-e
shout.at-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has shouted at the woman.’
NAME patt N
(38)
ma-ŋa
woman-ERG
pa
man
comcole
idiot
mo
CIT
patt-o-s-e
call-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The woman has called the man an idiot.’
BUILD numd N
(40)
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
khim
house
numd-o-s-e
make-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has built a house.’
BREAK ket N
(41)
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
jaskeli
window
luŋtak-ŋa
stone-ERG
ked-o-s-e
break-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child has broken the window with a stone.’
BREAK ot N
(43)
athom
before
wa-ce-ŋa
hen-ns-ERG
ɨ-cɨk
3sPOSS-side
u-od-a-nd-o-ŋs-e
3nsA-break-3[s]P-CHANGE-3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘Just before the hens broke its side.’
(45)
aseĩba
last.time
cakku-ŋa
knife-ERG
ba
PROX
od-u-ŋ-kha=lo
break-3[s]P-1sA-BGR=SURP
ba-iʔ
PROX-LOC
‘Last time I broke this here with a knife.’
KILL set N
(46)
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
puchak
snake
lauri-ŋa
stick-ERG
sed-o-s-e
kill-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child has killed the snake with a stick.’
BEAT thatt N
(47)
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
puchak
snake
lauri-ŋa
stick-ERG
thatt-o-s-e
beat-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child has beaten the snake with a stick.’
BEAT ten N
(48)
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
puchak
snake
lauri-ŋa
stick-ERG
ten-o-s-e
hit-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child has hit the snake with a stick.’
TOUCH nop N
(49)
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
puchak
snake
lauri-ŋa
stick-ERG
nob-o-s-e
touch-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child touched the snake with a stick.’
CUT kɨpt N
(50)
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
pempak
bread
dabi-ŋa
knife-ERG
kɨpt-o-s-e
cut-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child has cut the bread with a knife.’
BRING khutt N
(61)
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
kacĩpa
teacher
kitap
book
khutt-o-s-e
bring-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child carried/brought a book to the teacher.’
PEEL ok N
(53)
anne-ŋa
elder.sister-ERG
og-o-ne
peel-[3sA.]3[s]P-OPT
‘Let the older girl peel it.’
HIDE tek N
(54)
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
kacĩpa-ko
teacher-GEN
kitap
book
teg-o-s-e
hide-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child hid the teacher's book.’
SHOW khaŋ-mett N
(56)
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
kacĩpa
teacher
kitap
book
khaŋ-mett-o-s-e
see-CAUS-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child showed the book to the teacher.’
(57)
u-khɨcɨŋ
3sPOSS-ass
khaŋ-mai-meʔ-no
see-[3sA.]1nsiP-CAUS-IND.NPST
‘He shows us his ass.’
GIVE pid N
(58)
a-pakku-ŋa
1sPOSS-mother's.younger.brother-ERG
cha-ce
child-ns
mithai
sweets
pid-o-ko-ce
give-[3sA.]3P-IND.NPST-3nsP
‘My uncle gives sweets to the children.’
SEND hakt N
(59)
rame
Rame
u-ppa-ŋa
3sPOSS-father-ERG
u-nisa-ce
3sPOSS-younger.sibling-ns
pheʔwa
money
hakt-u-c-e
send-[3sA.]3P-3nsP-IND.PST
‘Rame's father sent money to his younger siblings.’
CARRY khur N
(62)
ba-sa-ŋa
PROX-OBL-ERG
dinbhari=ta
whole.day=FOC
khur-u-ku-ce
carry-[3sA.]3P-IND.NPST-3nsP
‘This one carries (things) the whole day.’
THROW or N
(64)
a-ppa-ŋa
1sPOSS-father-ERG
u-pheʔwa-ŋa
3sPOSS-money-ERG
akka
1s
u-or-a-s-e-h-ẽ
3sA-throw-PST-PRF-PST-1sP-IND.PST
‘My father has thrown his money at me.’
TIE chud N
(65)
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
ghoda
horse
sɨŋtaŋ-be
tree-LOC
chud-o-s-e
tie-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has tied the horse to a tree.’
(66)
tin-era
three-CLF
saŋlo-ŋa
chain-ERG
chud-a-nd-u-cu-h-ẽ
tie-3O-CHANGE-3P-3nsP-1sA-IND.PST
‘I tied three with a chain.’
FILL bhare numd N
(68)
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
cuwa-ŋa
water-ERG
tenki
tank
bhar-e
fill-V.NTVZ
numd-o-s-e
do-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has filled the tank with water/has poured water into the tank.’
COVER bhukt N
(69)
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
sirek-ŋa
blanket-ERG
cha
child
bhukt-o-s-e
cover-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has covered the child with a blanket.’
BLINK sipt (1) N
(74)
su-no-go-sa-ŋa
be.sour-IND.NPST-NMLZ-OBL-ERG
na
TOP
kani-mɨksɨlɨk=ta
1piPOSS-eye=FOC
sipt-a-nd-o-ko
shut-3P-CHANGE-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST
‘The sour stuff makes our eyes blink.’
COUGH chuŋs N
(75)
maʔmi
person
chuŋs-a-s-e
cough-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The man has coughed.’
CLIMB sopt N
(76)
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
bhɨrɨ
hill
sopt-o-s-e
climb-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has climbed (up) the hill.’
RUN pind M
(77)
cha
child
kham-be
floor-LOC
pind-a-s-e
run-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The child has run over the floor.’
LIVE yuŋ R
(78)
maʔmi
person
kham-be
floor-LOC
yuw-a-s-e
sit-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The man has sat down on the floor.’
(79)
maʔmi
person
kham-be
floor-LOC
yuw-a-kt-e
sit-PST-IPFV-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The man was sitting on the floor.’
(86)
cha
child
teĩ-be
village-LOC
yuw-a-kt-e
live-PST-IPFV-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The child lived in the village.’
JUMP tand N
(80)
cha
child
kham-be
floor-LOC
tand-a-s-e
jump-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The child has jumped (down) to the floor.’
SING cham lus N
(81)
pa-ŋa
man-ERG
cham
song
lus-o-s-e
sing-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has sung a song.’
LAUGH ABOUT rett N
(87)
u-narek
3sPOSS-ear
rett-u-m=yaŋ
laugh.at-3[s]P-1nsA=also
lon-na-haiʔ
come.out-LNK-[3sS.]COMPL.ITR
hola
maybe
‘Maybe he comes out if we laugh about his ears.’
FEEL PAIN tuk N
(90)
a-phok
1sPOSS-belly
tuk-no-ta
ache-[3sS.]IND.NPST-IPFV
‘My belly is aching.’
FEEL COLD cuŋwa si N
(91)
cha
child
cuŋwa
cold
si-a-s-e
feel-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The child feels cold/has started feeling cold.’
DIE si N
(92)
maʔmi
person
si-a-d-a-s-e
die-PST-COMPL.ITR-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The man has died.’
PLAY khoŋs N
(93)
menuwa-ŋa
cat-ERG
sencak
mouse
khoŋs-o-ko
play.with-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST
‘The cat plays with the mouse.’
BE SAD micinɨŋ tuk N
(96)
i-micinɨŋ
2sPOSS-mind
tuk-nɨk-nɨŋ
ache-[3sS.]IND.NPST-NEG
‘Don't you feel sad?’
BE SAD som tuk N
(97)
utti
that.much
para
COND
i-som
2sPOSS-mind
tuk-nɨŋ-ne
ache-[3sS.]NEG-OPT
‘In that case don't be worried.’
BE HUNGRY sɨŋsawa si N
(98)
cha
child
sɨŋsawa
hunger
si-a-s-e
feel-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The child is hungry/has started to feel hungry.’
ROLL (tr) kɨr N
(100)
huĩ-sa-ŋa
MED-OBL-ERG
kɨr-o-ne
roll-[3sA.]3[s]P-OPT
‘Let him roll it.’
(136)
kancha-ŋa
youngest.son-ERG
u-gol
3sPOSS-ball
mo-ʔni
DEM.DOWN-DIR
kɨr-o-ŋs-e
roll-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘Kancha has rolled his ball down there.’
SINK (tr) lums N
(102)
rame-ŋa
Rame-ERG
u-tec-ce
3sPOSS-clothes-ns
kosi-be
river-ns
lums-u-c-e
sink-[3sA.]3P-3nsP-IND.PST
‘Rame sank his clothes in the river.’
BURN (tr) hutt N
(104)
nam-ŋa
sun-ERG
kham
soil
hutt-o-ŋs-e
burn-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The sun has burnt the soil.’
DRY sipt (2) N
(106)
to
DEM.UP
sipt-a-tt-o-ŋs-e
dry-3P-COMPL.TR-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
thitta
one
‘Up there it has dried up one.’
(138)
nam-ŋa
sun-ERG
ahala
pond
sipt-a-tt-o-ŋs-e
dry.out-3P-COMPL.TR-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The sun has dried out the pond.’
RAIN weiʔ ta N
(107)
weiʔ
rain
ti-a-s-e
come-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘It has rained.’
GRIND cemd N
(108)
jhanta-ã
grinding.stone-ERG
them
what
cemd-o-ko
grind-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST
‘What is he grinding with the grinding stone?’
(139)
ma-ce-ŋa
woman-ns-ERG
sambok
millet
u-cemd-o-ko
3[ns]A-grind-3P-IND.NPST
‘The women grind the millet.’
WIPE tɨk N
(110)
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
teiʔ-be-ko
clothes-LOC-GEN
dhuli
dirt
tɨg-o-s-e
wipe-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child has wiped the dirt off the clothes.’
DIG phol N
(112)
ba-go
PROX-NMLZ
maʔmi-yã
person-ERG
phol-o-ŋs-e
dig-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
elo
or
hokke
where
‘Is it a person who has dug out this one or what?’
DIG tus N
(111)
hun-ce
MED-ns
tus-u-kh-o-ce-ne-na
dig-3P-CON-[3sA.]3P-3nsP-OPT-INSIST
huĩ-sa-ŋa
MED-OBL-ERG
‘Let him try to dig them out.’
(113)
a-khim
1sPOSS-house
theŋsi-be
behind-LOC
sa-ŋa
who-ERG
dhuwaŋ
hole
tus-o-s-e
dig-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘Who has dug the hole behind my house?’
TEACH cind N
(116)
a-ppa-ŋa
1sPOSS-father-ERG
u-rɨŋ
3sPOSS-language
a-nisa-ce
1sPOSS-younger.sibling-ns
cind-o-s-e
teach-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘My father taught my younger brothers his language.’
HEAR khems N
(117)
carko
loudly
cekt-aʔ-na
speak-IMP-INSIST
khems-o-ko-nɨŋ
hear-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST-NEG
a-nne-ŋa
1sPOSS-elder.sister-ERG
‘Speak up, my sister doesn't hear it.’
(141)
budha-ŋa
old.man-ERG
u-natini
3sPOSS-granddaughter
u-sora
3sPOSS-voice
khems-o-ko-nɨŋ
hear-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST-NEG
‘The old man doesn't hear his granddaughter's voice.’
COOK thukt N
(118)
huĩ
MED
kanti-be
pot-LOC
boŋga
banana.leaf
thukt-u-ŋs-u-h-ẽ
cook-3P-PRF-3[s]P-1sA-IND.PST
marci-nɨŋ
chilli-COM
‘I've cooked a banana leaf with chilli in that pot.’
BOIL lokt N
(119)
cuwa
water
lokt-o
boil-[3sA.]3[s]P
pache
after
choku
nettle
cimta-ŋa
pincers-ERG
lap-ma
seize-INF
kina
SEQ
ti-ma
put.in-INF
kon-no
must-[3sS.]IND.NPST
‘After the water comes to a boil, one has to take the nettles with pincers and put them in.’
BOIL (tr) phaŋs N
(120)
them
what
a-phaŋs-o-ŋs-e
2[s]A-boil-3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘What have you boiled?’
APPEAR that N
(121)
cha
child
lambu-be
road-LOC
thad-a-ŋs-e
appear-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The child appeared on the road.’
BE ILL maihid N
(122)
u-nna
3sPOSS-elder.sister
hi-nɨk-nɨŋ
be.able-[3sS.]IND.NPST-NEG
‘His sister is ill.’
CRY hap N
(123)
hana
2s
a-hap-no
2[s]S-cry-IND.NPST
‘Do you cry?’
DROP thams N
(128)
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
u-saikil
3sPOSS-bike
bhir-beʔ-yã
cliff-LOC-ERG
thams-e
drop-[3sA.3sP.]IND.PST
‘The child dropped his bike from the cliff.’
MAKE bane numd N
(125)
halo
plough
ban-e
make-V.NTVZ
numd-o-ko-kha
do-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST-BGR
centi-ŋa
Centi-ERG
‘Centi is making a plough.’
WANT lamma katt N
(127)
huĩ
MED
suncuwa-ce
citrus.fruit-ns
a-lamma
1sPOSS-appetite
katt-o-ŋs-u-c-e
bring.up-3P-PRF-[3sA.]3P-3nsP-IND.PST
‘I want/have an appetite for those citrus fruits.’
BE A HUNTER kaʔappa N
(142)
huŋ-go
MED-NMLZ
maʔmi
person
kaʔappa-kha
hunter-CAT
‘That guy is a hunter.’
LEAVE khat (2) R
(85)
cha
child
teĩ-beʔ-ã
village-LOC-ERG
khad-a-s-e
go-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The child went from/left the village.’
SCREAM ratt (2) N
(35)
bakhra-ce
goat-ns
u-raʔ-no
3nsS-shout-IND.NPST
‘The goats are bleating.’
(89)
cha-ce
child-ns
u-ratt-a-kt-a-c-e
3nsS-scream-PST-IPFV-PST-d-IND.PST
‘The (two) children were screaming.’