S/P ambitransitivity U

Description

This alternation is between the basic intransitive and the basic monotransitive frame. Intransitive S corresponds to transitive P. All intransitive or monotransitive verbs fulfilling certain semantic conditions (approximated as change-of-state semantics) can undergo this alternation. There are more verbs preferring the transitive frame than the other way round, so if one abstracts away from single verbs, the transitive frame may be viewed as the default.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
TEAR rek R
(1)
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
kitap-ko
book-GEN
panna
page
reg-o-s-e
tear-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child has torn the page from the book.’
(55)
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
kitap-pe-ʔã
book-LOC-ERG
panna
page
reg-o-s-e
tear-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child has torn a page from the book.’
SMELL nams R
(8)
kocuwa-ŋa
dog-ERG
nams-o-ŋs-e
smell-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
kocuwa
dog
u-jutho
3sPOSS-dirt
‘The dog has smelled at a(nother) dog's dirt.’
BREAK ket R
(41)
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
jaskeli
window
luŋtak-ŋa
stone-ERG
ked-o-s-e
break-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child has broken the window with a stone.’
BREAK ot R
(43)
athom
before
wa-ce-ŋa
hen-ns-ERG
ɨ-cɨk
3sPOSS-side
u-od-a-nd-o-ŋs-e
3nsA-break-3[s]P-CHANGE-3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘Just before the hens broke its side.’
(45)
aseĩba
last.time
cakku-ŋa
knife-ERG
ba
PROX
od-u-ŋ-kha=lo
break-3[s]P-1sA-BGR=SURP
ba-iʔ
PROX-LOC
‘Last time I broke this here with a knife.’
FILL tipt R
(71)
huŋ-go
MED-NMLZ
i-bari
2sPOSS-field
na
TOP
sontoloŋ-ŋa
orange-ERG
abo
now
tipt-o-ŋs-e
fill-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘Oranges have filled that field of yours.’
ROLL (tr) kɨr R
(100)
huĩ-sa-ŋa
MED-OBL-ERG
kɨr-o-ne
roll-[3sA.]3[s]P-OPT
‘Let him roll it.’
(136)
kancha-ŋa
youngest.son-ERG
u-gol
3sPOSS-ball
mo-ʔni
DEM.DOWN-DIR
kɨr-o-ŋs-e
roll-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘Kancha has rolled his ball down there.’
SINK (tr) lums R
(102)
rame-ŋa
Rame-ERG
u-tec-ce
3sPOSS-clothes-ns
kosi-be
river-ns
lums-u-c-e
sink-[3sA.]3P-3nsP-IND.PST
‘Rame sank his clothes in the river.’
BURN (tr) hutt R
(104)
nam-ŋa
sun-ERG
kham
soil
hutt-o-ŋs-e
burn-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The sun has burnt the soil.’
BLINK sipt (1) R
(74)
su-no-go-sa-ŋa
be.sour-IND.NPST-NMLZ-OBL-ERG
na
TOP
kani-mɨksɨlɨk=ta
1piPOSS-eye=FOC
sipt-a-nd-o-ko
shut-3P-CHANGE-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST
‘The sour stuff makes our eyes blink.’
DRY sipt (2) R
(106)
to
DEM.UP
sipt-a-tt-o-ŋs-e
dry-3P-COMPL.TR-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
thitta
one
‘Up there it has dried up one.’
(138)
nam-ŋa
sun-ERG
ahala
pond
sipt-a-tt-o-ŋs-e
dry.out-3P-COMPL.TR-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The sun has dried out the pond.’
DROP thams R
(128)
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
u-saikil
3sPOSS-bike
bhir-beʔ-yã
cliff-LOC-ERG
thams-e
drop-[3sA.3sP.]IND.PST
‘The child dropped his bike from the cliff.’
PUSH tol N
(114)
sa-iʔ-ko
who-LOC-GEN
u-chau-ŋa
3sPOSS-child-ERG
u-toĩ-ya-ʔã=lo
3sA-push-1sP-IND.NPST=SURP
ni
EMPH
‘Whose child is pushing me?’
(115)
to-ʔni
DEM.UP-DIR
tol-o-kh-o
push-3P-CON-[2sA.]3[s]P
ni
EMPH
‘Push it up there!’
EAT ca N
(3)
ma-ŋa
female-ERG
pempak
bread
c-o-s-e
eat-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The woman has eaten the bread.’
HUG hept N
(5)
lakhman
Lakhman
hept-u-ŋs-u-h-ẽ
hug-3P-PRF-3[s]P-1sA-IND.PST
‘I had hugged Lakhman.’
(129)
ma-ŋa
mother-ERG
u-chau
3sPOSS-child
hept-o-ŋs-e
hug-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The mother has hugged her child.’
LOOK AT copt N
(6)
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
cha
child
copt-o-s-e
look.at-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has looked at the child.’
SEE khaŋ N
(7)
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
cha
child
kha-o-s-e
see-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has seen the child.’
FEAR kipma kat N
(10)
cha
child
maʔmi-beʔ-ã
person-LOC-ERG
u-kipma
3sPOSS-fear
kad-a-s-e
come.up-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The child has become afraid of the man.’
FEAR kitt N
(11)
ma-ŋa
female-ERG
sencak
mouse
kitt-o-ko
fear-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST
‘The woman is afraid of the mouse.’
FEAR kipma katt N
(12)
ma-ŋa
female-ERG
sencak
mouse
u-kipma
3sPOSS-fear
katt-o-ko
bring.up-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST
‘The woman is afraid of the mouse.’
(130)
rame-ce-ŋa
Rame-ns-ERG
puchak-ce
snake-ns
huni-kipma
3pPOSS-fear
katt-u-ku-ce
bring.up-[3sA.]3P-IND.NPST-3nsP
‘Rame and the others are afraid of snakes.’
(143)
ani-kocuwa
1piPOSS-dog
huk
bark
gari
when
cha-ce-ŋa
child-ns-ERG
huni-kipma
3nsPOSS-fear
katt-o-ko
bring.up-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST
‘When our dog barks the children get frightened.’
FRIGHTEN kip-mett N
(13)
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
cha
child
kip-mett-o-s-e
fear-CAUS-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has frightened the child.’
(131)
ba
PROX
kocuwa-ŋa
dog-ERG
cha
child
kip-mett-o-ko
fear-CAUS-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST
‘This dog frightens the child.’
LIKE khaŋma les N
(14)
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
maʔmi
person
khaŋ-ma
see-INF
les-o-s-e
like-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child likes the man.’
KNOW mɨksi-khaŋ N
(15)
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
cha
child
mɨksi-kha-o-s-e
know-STEM-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has come to know the child.’
KNOW nis N
(16)
huĩ
MED
kheme-ŋa=ta
Kheme-ERG=FOC
nis-o-ko=ta
know-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST=FOC
na
TOP
‘Kheme knows that.’
THINK mitt N
(17)
debi-ŋa
Debi-ERG
huŋ-go
MED-NMLZ
seu
apple
mitt-o-ko
think.of-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST
‘Debi thinks of that apple.’
SEARCH FOR kond N
(18)
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
cha
child
kond-o-s-e
search.for-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has searched for the child.’
WASH wahu-mett N
(19)
ma-ŋa
woman-ERG
cha
child
wahu-mett-o-s-e
take.bathe-CAUS-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The woman has washed the child.’
WASH wa-chid- N
(20)
abo
now
wa-chid-o=ta
wash-STEM-[3sA.]3[s]P=FOC
naŋ
but
hapcur-i-ŋa
crybaby-F-ERG
‘Now the crybaby is going to wash it.’
WASH wa-dhapt N
(21)
i-ppa
2sPOSS-father
u-tec-ce
3sPOSS-clothes-ns
wa-dhapt-o-c-a
wash-STEM-[2sA.]3P-3nsP-IMP
‘Wash your father's clothes!’
(133)
a-nisa-ŋa
1sPOSS-younger.sibling-ERG
anci-tec-ce
1diPOSS-clothes-ns
wa-dhapt-o-ko-ce-ta
wash-STEM-[3sA.]3P-IND.NPST-3nsP-IPFV
‘My younger sister is washing our clothes.’
WASH wa-lekt N
(22)
sa-ŋa
who-ERG
wa-lekt-u-ku-ce
wash-STEM-3O-IND.NPST-[3sA.]3nsP
‘Who washed them?’
DRESS waiʔ-mett N
(23)
ma-ŋa
woman-ERG
cha
child
teiʔ
clothes
waiʔ-mett-o-s-e
wear-CAUS-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The woman has dressed the child.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) khos N
(24)
bahala-ŋa
flood-ERG
jammai
all
kham
soil
khos-a-tt-e
sweep.away-PST-COMPL.TR-[3sA.3sP.]IND.PST
‘The flood swept away all the soil.’
(134)
rame-ŋa
Rame-ERG
u-dadi
3sPOSS-beard
khos-a-nd-o-ŋs-e
shave-3P-CHANGE-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
pho
REP
‘I heard Rame has shaved his beard.’
HELP phad N
(25)
pa-ŋa
man-ERG
ma
woman
phad-o-s-e
help-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has helped the woman.’
FOLLOW rɨkt N
(26)
pa-ŋa
man-ERG
ma
woman
rɨkt-o-s-e
follow-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has followed the woman.’
GET tok N
(27)
pa-ŋa
man-ERG
ma
woman
tog-o-s-e
get-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has come across the woman.’
(126)
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
kitap
book
kacĩpa-beʔ-ã
teacher-LOC-ERG
tog-o-s-e
get-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child has got a book from the teacher.’
MEET tup N
(28)
ba-iʔ
PROX-LOC
anaŋa
1pe
tub-i-ki-ya
meet-1pS-IND.NPST-e
e
or
‘Here we meet, don't we.’
TALK hand N
(30)
aiya
oh
hana
2s
pa=yaŋ
husband=also
themma
why
a-hand-o-ko-kha
2[s]A-talk.about-3[s]P-IND.NPST-BGR
naŋ
but
‘My, why do you talk about (your) husband, too?’
NAME lud N
(32)
pa-ŋa
man-ERG
ma-be-ko
woman-LOC-GEN
rɨŋ
story
u-kam
3sPOSS-friend
lud-o-s-e
tell-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man told his friend (the story) about the woman.’
(36)
pa-ŋa
man-ERG
ma
woman
katha
story
lud-o-s-e
tell-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has told the woman a story.’
(37)
hou
AFF
syam
Syam
u-boju-ŋa
3sPOSS-grandmother-ERG
nacuwa
dancer
mo
CIT
lud-o-ko-kha=lo
say.to-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST-BGR=SURP
naŋ
but
‘Yes, Syam's grandmother says "dancer" to him/calls him a dancer.’
(39)
thitta
one
teĩ-be
village-LOC
huĩ
MED
teĩ-be-ko
village-LOC-GEN
u-nɨŋ
3sPOSS-name
dãphe
Dãphe
teĩ
village
mo
CIT
u-lud-o-yakt-e
3nsA-call-3[s]P-IPFV-IND.PST
‘In one village they called that village's name Dãphe (= 'there was a village they called Dãphe').’
(135)
huĩ-sa-ŋa
MED-OBL-ERG
hana
2s
u-katha
3sPOSS-story
na-lud-e
3[s]:2-tell-IND.PST
‘Did he tell you his story?’
ASK FOR nakt N
(33)
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
maʔmi
person
u-pheʔwa
3sPOSS-money
nakt-o-s-e
ask.for-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child has asked the man for money.’
SHOUT AT ratt N
(34)
pa-ŋa
man-ERG
ma
woman
ratt-o-s-e
shout.at-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has shouted at the woman.’
NAME patt N
(38)
ma-ŋa
woman-ERG
pa
man
comcole
idiot
mo
CIT
patt-o-s-e
call-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The woman has called the man an idiot.’
BUILD numd N
(40)
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
khim
house
numd-o-s-e
make-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has built a house.’
KILL set N
(46)
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
puchak
snake
lauri-ŋa
stick-ERG
sed-o-s-e
kill-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child has killed the snake with a stick.’
BEAT thatt N
(47)
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
puchak
snake
lauri-ŋa
stick-ERG
thatt-o-s-e
beat-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child has beaten the snake with a stick.’
BEAT ten N
(48)
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
puchak
snake
lauri-ŋa
stick-ERG
ten-o-s-e
hit-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child has hit the snake with a stick.’
TOUCH nop N
(49)
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
puchak
snake
lauri-ŋa
stick-ERG
nob-o-s-e
touch-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child touched the snake with a stick.’
CUT kɨpt N
(50)
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
pempak
bread
dabi-ŋa
knife-ERG
kɨpt-o-s-e
cut-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child has cut the bread with a knife.’
TAKE khatt N
(51)
thuli-ŋa
Thuli-ERG
mo
DEM.DOWN
newarni-beʔ-ŋa
Newar.woman-LOC-ERG
ek
one
bora
sack
khatt-u-wakt-e
take-3[s]P-IPFV-[3sA.]IND.PST
‘Thuli used to take one sack from the Newar woman down there.’
(144)
dailo-be
veranda-LOC
khatt-u-m
bring-3[s]P-1nsA
‘Let's bring it to the veranda.’
BRING khutt N
(61)
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
kacĩpa
teacher
kitap
book
khutt-o-s-e
bring-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child carried/brought a book to the teacher.’
PEEL ok N
(53)
anne-ŋa
elder.sister-ERG
og-o-ne
peel-[3sA.]3[s]P-OPT
‘Let the older girl peel it.’
HIDE tek N
(54)
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
kacĩpa-ko
teacher-GEN
kitap
book
teg-o-s-e
hide-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child hid the teacher's book.’
SHOW khaŋ-mett N
(56)
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
kacĩpa
teacher
kitap
book
khaŋ-mett-o-s-e
see-CAUS-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child showed the book to the teacher.’
(57)
u-khɨcɨŋ
3sPOSS-ass
khaŋ-mai-meʔ-no
see-[3sA.]1nsiP-CAUS-IND.NPST
‘He shows us his ass.’
GIVE pid N
(58)
a-pakku-ŋa
1sPOSS-mother's.younger.brother-ERG
cha-ce
child-ns
mithai
sweets
pid-o-ko-ce
give-[3sA.]3P-IND.NPST-3nsP
‘My uncle gives sweets to the children.’
SEND hakt N
(59)
rame
Rame
u-ppa-ŋa
3sPOSS-father-ERG
u-nisa-ce
3sPOSS-younger.sibling-ns
pheʔwa
money
hakt-u-c-e
send-[3sA.]3P-3nsP-IND.PST
‘Rame's father sent money to his younger siblings.’
SEND haŋs N
(60)
akka
1s
jorman-beʔ-yã
Germany-LOC-ERG
thitta
one
citthi
letter
haŋs-u-h-ẽ
send-3[s]P-1sA-IND.PST
‘I sent a letter from Germany.’
(145)
ba
PROX
u-padum-be
3sPOSS-father's.elder.brother-LOC
haŋs-a-nd-o-thapt-u-h-ẽ
send-3P-CHANGE-3P-over-3[s]P-1sA-IND.PST
ta
FOC
na
TOP
hoke-ʔni
where-DIR
mas-a-d-e
get.lost-PST-COMPL.ITR-IND.PST
‘I did send this one to his uncle - where did it get lost?’
CARRY khur R
(62)
ba-sa-ŋa
PROX-OBL-ERG
dinbhari=ta
whole.day=FOC
khur-u-ku-ce
carry-[3sA.]3P-IND.NPST-3nsP
‘This one carries (things) the whole day.’
THROW os N
(63)
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
jaskeli-be
window-LOC
luŋtak
stone
os-o-s-e
throw-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child has thrown a stone into the window.’
THROW or N
(64)
a-ppa-ŋa
1sPOSS-father-ERG
u-pheʔwa-ŋa
3sPOSS-money-ERG
akka
1s
u-or-a-s-e-h-ẽ
3sA-throw-PST-PRF-PST-1sP-IND.PST
‘My father has thrown his money at me.’
TIE chud N
(65)
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
ghoda
horse
sɨŋtaŋ-be
tree-LOC
chud-o-s-e
tie-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has tied the horse to a tree.’
(66)
tin-era
three-CLF
saŋlo-ŋa
chain-ERG
chud-a-nd-u-cu-h-ẽ
tie-3O-CHANGE-3P-3nsP-1sA-IND.PST
‘I tied three with a chain.’
LOAD yuŋs N
(67)
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
kitap
book
tebul-be
table-LOC
yuŋs-o-s-e
put-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man put the book on the table.’
(73)
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
gadi-be
car-LOC
ghãsa
grass
yuŋs-o-s-e
put-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has loaded hay onto the truck.’
FILL bhare numd N
(68)
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
cuwa-ŋa
water-ERG
tenki
tank
bhar-e
fill-V.NTVZ
numd-o-s-e
do-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has filled the tank with water/has poured water into the tank.’
COVER bhukt N
(69)
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
sirek-ŋa
blanket-ERG
cha
child
bhukt-o-s-e
cover-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has covered the child with a blanket.’
COUGH chuŋs N
(75)
maʔmi
person
chuŋs-a-s-e
cough-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The man has coughed.’
CLIMB sopt N
(76)
maʔmi-ŋa
person-ERG
bhɨrɨ
hill
sopt-o-s-e
climb-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has climbed (up) the hill.’
RUN pind N
(77)
cha
child
kham-be
floor-LOC
pind-a-s-e
run-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The child has run over the floor.’
LIVE yuŋ N
(78)
maʔmi
person
kham-be
floor-LOC
yuw-a-s-e
sit-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The man has sat down on the floor.’
(79)
maʔmi
person
kham-be
floor-LOC
yuw-a-kt-e
sit-PST-IPFV-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The man was sitting on the floor.’
(86)
cha
child
teĩ-be
village-LOC
yuw-a-kt-e
live-PST-IPFV-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The child lived in the village.’
JUMP tand N
(80)
cha
child
kham-be
floor-LOC
tand-a-s-e
jump-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The child has jumped (down) to the floor.’
SING cham lus N
(81)
pa-ŋa
man-ERG
cham
song
lus-o-s-e
sing-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The man has sung a song.’
GO khat N
(84)
akka
1s
teĩ-be
village-LOC
khad-a-ŋ-kha
go-PST-1sS-BGR
‘I had gone to the village.’
LAUGH ABOUT rett N
(87)
u-narek
3sPOSS-ear
rett-u-m=yaŋ
laugh.at-3[s]P-1nsA=also
lon-na-haiʔ
come.out-LNK-[3sS.]COMPL.ITR
hola
maybe
‘Maybe he comes out if we laugh about his ears.’
FEEL PAIN tuk N
(90)
a-phok
1sPOSS-belly
tuk-no-ta
ache-[3sS.]IND.NPST-IPFV
‘My belly is aching.’
FEEL COLD cuŋwa si N
(91)
cha
child
cuŋwa
cold
si-a-s-e
feel-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The child feels cold/has started feeling cold.’
DIE si N
(92)
maʔmi
person
si-a-d-a-s-e
die-PST-COMPL.ITR-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The man has died.’
PLAY khoŋs N
(93)
menuwa-ŋa
cat-ERG
sencak
mouse
khoŋs-o-ko
play.with-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST
‘The cat plays with the mouse.’
BE SAD micinɨŋ tuk N
(96)
i-micinɨŋ
2sPOSS-mind
tuk-nɨk-nɨŋ
ache-[3sS.]IND.NPST-NEG
‘Don't you feel sad?’
BE SAD som tuk N
(97)
utti
that.much
para
COND
i-som
2sPOSS-mind
tuk-nɨŋ-ne
ache-[3sS.]NEG-OPT
‘In that case don't be worried.’
BE HUNGRY sɨŋsawa si N
(98)
cha
child
sɨŋsawa
hunger
si-a-s-e
feel-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The child is hungry/has started to feel hungry.’
RAIN weiʔ ta N
(107)
weiʔ
rain
ti-a-s-e
come-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘It has rained.’
GRIND cemd M
(108)
jhanta-ã
grinding.stone-ERG
them
what
cemd-o-ko
grind-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST
‘What is he grinding with the grinding stone?’
(139)
ma-ce-ŋa
woman-ns-ERG
sambok
millet
u-cemd-o-ko
3[ns]A-grind-3P-IND.NPST
‘The women grind the millet.’
WIPE tɨk N
(110)
cha-ŋa
child-ERG
teiʔ-be-ko
clothes-LOC-GEN
dhuli
dirt
tɨg-o-s-e
wipe-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘The child has wiped the dirt off the clothes.’
DIG phol N
(112)
ba-go
PROX-NMLZ
maʔmi-yã
person-ERG
phol-o-ŋs-e
dig-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
elo
or
hokke
where
‘Is it a person who has dug out this one or what?’
DIG tus N
(111)
hun-ce
MED-ns
tus-u-kh-o-ce-ne-na
dig-3P-CON-[3sA.]3P-3nsP-OPT-INSIST
huĩ-sa-ŋa
MED-OBL-ERG
‘Let him try to dig them out.’
(113)
a-khim
1sPOSS-house
theŋsi-be
behind-LOC
sa-ŋa
who-ERG
dhuwaŋ
hole
tus-o-s-e
dig-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘Who has dug the hole behind my house?’
TEACH cind N
(116)
a-ppa-ŋa
1sPOSS-father-ERG
u-rɨŋ
3sPOSS-language
a-nisa-ce
1sPOSS-younger.sibling-ns
cind-o-s-e
teach-[3sA.]3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘My father taught my younger brothers his language.’
HEAR khems N
(117)
carko
loudly
cekt-aʔ-na
speak-IMP-INSIST
khems-o-ko-nɨŋ
hear-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST-NEG
a-nne-ŋa
1sPOSS-elder.sister-ERG
‘Speak up, my sister doesn't hear it.’
(141)
budha-ŋa
old.man-ERG
u-natini
3sPOSS-granddaughter
u-sora
3sPOSS-voice
khems-o-ko-nɨŋ
hear-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST-NEG
‘The old man doesn't hear his granddaughter's voice.’
COOK thukt N
(118)
huĩ
MED
kanti-be
pot-LOC
boŋga
banana.leaf
thukt-u-ŋs-u-h-ẽ
cook-3P-PRF-3[s]P-1sA-IND.PST
marci-nɨŋ
chilli-COM
‘I've cooked a banana leaf with chilli in that pot.’
BOIL lokt N
(119)
cuwa
water
lokt-o
boil-[3sA.]3[s]P
pache
after
choku
nettle
cimta-ŋa
pincers-ERG
lap-ma
seize-INF
kina
SEQ
ti-ma
put.in-INF
kon-no
must-[3sS.]IND.NPST
‘After the water comes to a boil, one has to take the nettles with pincers and put them in.’
BOIL (tr) phaŋs R
(120)
them
what
a-phaŋs-o-ŋs-e
2[s]A-boil-3[s]P-PRF-IND.PST
‘What have you boiled?’
APPEAR that N
(121)
cha
child
lambu-be
road-LOC
thad-a-ŋs-e
appear-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The child appeared on the road.’
BE ILL maihid N
(122)
u-nna
3sPOSS-elder.sister
hi-nɨk-nɨŋ
be.able-[3sS.]IND.NPST-NEG
‘His sister is ill.’
CRY hap N
(123)
hana
2s
a-hap-no
2[s]S-cry-IND.NPST
‘Do you cry?’
MAKE bane numd N
(125)
halo
plough
ban-e
make-V.NTVZ
numd-o-ko-kha
do-[3sA.]3[s]P-IND.NPST-BGR
centi-ŋa
Centi-ERG
‘Centi is making a plough.’
WANT lamma katt N
(127)
huĩ
MED
suncuwa-ce
citrus.fruit-ns
a-lamma
1sPOSS-appetite
katt-o-ŋs-u-c-e
bring.up-3P-PRF-[3sA.]3P-3nsP-IND.PST
‘I want/have an appetite for those citrus fruits.’
BE A HUNTER kaʔappa N
(142)
huŋ-go
MED-NMLZ
maʔmi
person
kaʔappa-kha
hunter-CAT
‘That guy is a hunter.’
LEAVE khat (2) N
(85)
cha
child
teĩ-beʔ-ã
village-LOC-ERG
khad-a-s-e
go-PST-PRF-[3sS.]IND.PST
‘The child went from/left the village.’
SCREAM ratt (2) N
(35)
bakhra-ce
goat-ns
u-raʔ-no
3nsS-shout-IND.NPST
‘The goats are bleating.’
(89)
cha-ce
child-ns
u-ratt-a-kt-a-c-e
3nsS-scream-PST-IPFV-PST-d-IND.PST
‘The (two) children were screaming.’