Examples of Bora

Example Verb meaning Example of...
(1)
Wajpi tsɨ́ɨ́méneke wátajcó cobííjavu.
wajpi
man
tsɨ́ɨ́méne-ke
child-ACC
wátajcó
cover
cobííjya-vu
blanket-ALL
‘The man covered the child with the blanket.’
COVER a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-all) V
(2)
Wajpi wáhpetsó vááso nújpácyotu.
wajpi
man
wáhpe-tsó
full-CAUS
vááso
glass
nújpácyo-tu
water-ABL
‘The man filled the glass with water.’
FILL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-abl V
(3)
Wajpi picyóó ájɨ mɨ́ɨ́népañévu.
wajpi
man
picyóó
put
ájɨ
palm_leaves
mɨ́ɨ́né
canoe
pañé-vu
inside-ALL
‘The man loaded the hay on the canoe (lit. The man put palm leaves into the canoe).’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-all) V
(4)
Wajpi chiácó ɨ́ɨ́juke úméhetu.
wajpi
man
chiácó
tie
ɨ́ɨ́ju-ke
horse-ACC
úméhe-tu
tree-ABL
‘The man tied the horse to the tree.’
TIE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-abl V
(5)
Wajpi cáhpiñú nújpacyo váásó pañévu.
wajpi
man
cáhpiñú
pour
nújpacyo
water
váásó
glass
pañé-vu
inside-ALL
‘The man poured the water into the glass .’
POUR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-all) V
(6)
Wajpi picyó wajácuháámɨ méétsá hallúvu.
wajpi
man
picyó
put
wajácuháámɨ
book
méétsá
table
hallú-vu
top-ALL
‘The man put the book on the table.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-all) V
(7)
Ováhtsa waaó nééwau nújpácyó pañévu.
ováhtsa
boy
waaó
throw
nééwau
stone(ACC)
nújpácyó
water
pañé-vu
inside-ALL
‘The boy threw the stone into the window.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-all) V
(8)
Ováhtsa tsiivá wajácuháámɨ uwáábóóbedívu.
ováhtsa
boy
tsiivá
bring
wajácuháámɨ
book
uwáábóóbe-dí-vu
teacher-ANIM-ALL
‘The boy brought the book to the teacher.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-all) V
(9)
Ováhtsa tsajtyé wajácuháámɨ uwáábóóbedívu.
ováhtsa
boy
tsajtyé
carry
wajácuháámɨ
book
uwáábóóbe-dí-vu
teacher-ANIM-ALL
‘The boy carried the book to the teacher.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-all) V
(10)
Ováhtsa tsajtyé wajácuháámɨ uwáábójavu.
ováhtsa
boy
tsajtyé
carry
wajácuháámɨ
book
uwáábója-vu
school-ALL
‘The boy carried the book to school.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-all) V
(11)
Ováhtsa walló wajácuháámɨ uwáábóóbedívu.
ováhtsa
boy
walló
send
wajácuháámɨ
book
uwáábóóbe-dí-vu
teacher-ANIM-ALL
‘The boy sent the book to the teacher .’
SEND a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-all) V
(12)
Ováhtsa walló wajácuháámɨ uwáábójavu.
ováhtsa
boy
walló
send
wajácuháámɨ
book
uwáábó-ja-vu
teach-house-ALL
‘The boy sent the book to school.’
SEND a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-all) V
(13)
Ováhtsa ajcú waajácuháámɨvu uwáábóóbeke.
ováhtsa
boy
ajcú
give
waajácuháámɨ-vu
book-ALL
uwáábóóbe-ke
teacher-ACC
‘The boy gave the book to the teacher.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-all) V
(14)
Ováhtsa ɨ́ɨ́tetsó waajácuháámɨ uwáábóóbeke.
ováhtsa
boy
ɨ́ɨ́te-tsó
see-CAUS
waajácuháámɨ
book
uwáábóóbe-ke
teacher-ACC
‘The boy showed the book to the teacher.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-all) V
(15)
Ováhtsa ujcú waajácuháámɨ uwáábóóbedítyu .
ováhtsa
boy
ujcú
take
waajácuháámɨ
book
uwáábóóbe-dí-tyu
teacher-ANIM-ABL
‘The boy took the book from the teacher.’
TAKE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-abl V
(16)
Ováhtsa naní waajácuháámɨ uwáábóóbedítyu .
ováhtsa
boy
naní
steal
waajácuháámɨ
book
uwáábóóbe-dí-tyu
teacher-ANIM-ABL
‘The boy stole the book from the teacher.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-abl V
(17)
Ováhtsa páátanú waajácuháámɨ uwáábóóbedítyu.
ováhtsa
boy
páátanú
hide
waajácuháámɨ
book
uwáábóóbe-dí-tyu
teacher-ANIM-ABL
‘The boy hid the book from the teacher.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-abl V
(18)
Ováhtsa kídyahɨ́nú páá nɨɨtsúwáwuri.
ováhtsa
boy
kídyahɨ́nú
cut
páá
bread
nɨɨtsúwáwu-ri
knife-LOC/INST
‘The boy cut the bread with the knife.’
CUT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-loc/instr) V
(19)
Ováhtsa dómajcó ííñímeke úméhékori.
ováhtsa
boy
dómajcó
touch
ííñíme-ke
snake-ACC
úméhéco-ri
stick-LOC/INST
‘The boy touched the snake with the stick.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-loc/instr) V
(20)
Ováhtsa wádɨ́rɨhjácó ííñímeke (ballóówari).
ováhtsa
boy
wádɨ́rɨhjácó
beat.w/stick
ííñíme-ke
snake-ACC
ballóówa-ri
stick-LOC/INST
‘The boy hit the snake with the stick .’
BEAT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-loc/instr) V
(21)
Ováhtsa wádɨ́rɨhcó ííñímeke (ballóówari).
ováhtsa
boy
wádɨ́rɨhcó
beat.w/stick
ííñíme-ke
snake-ACC
ballóówa-ri
stick-LOC/INST
‘The boy beat the snake with the stick.’
BEAT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-loc/instr) V
(22)
Ováhtsa dsɨ́jɨ́vetsó ííñímeke ballóówari.
ováhtsa
boy
dsɨ́jɨ́ve-tsó
die-CAUS
ííñíme-ke
snake-ACC
ballóówa-ri
stick-LOC/INST
‘The boy killed the snake with the stick.’
KILL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-loc/instr) V
(23)
Ováhtsa cápújuhjácó veentáána nééwábyari.
ováhtsa
boy
cápújuhjácó
break.w/pointed_object
veentáána
window
nééwábya-ri
stone-LOC/INST
‘The boy broke the window with the stone.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-loc/instr) V
(24)
Wajpi meenú ja ájɨri.
wajpi
man
meenú
make
ja
house
ájɨ-ri
palm-LOC/INST
‘The man built the house with palm leaves.’
BUILD the Verb form meenú
(25)
Wajpi dilló ováhtsake cuhjúbadi.
wajpi
man
dilló
name
ováhtsa-ke
boy-ACC
cuhjúba-di
fool-ANIM
‘The man called the boy a fool.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-acc V
(26)
Wajpi néé ováhtsake ''tsáhaá''.
wajpi
man
néé
say
ováhtsa-ke
boy-ACC
tsáhaá
no
‘The man said to the boy: "no".’
SAY a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc UTT3
(27)
Wajpi (uubállé) uubálle ováhtsake .
wajpi
man
uubállé
story
uubálle
tell
ováhtsa-ke
boy-ACC
‘The man told a story to the boy.’
TELL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-nom V
(28)
Ováhtsa táuméí dsɨ́ɨ́dsɨ wajpikye.
ováhtsa
boy
táuméí
ask
dsɨ́ɨ́dsɨ
money(ACC)
wajpi-kye
man-ACC
‘The boy asked the man for money.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-acc V
(29)
Wajpi ihjyúvá ováhtsama wákyiméiyi.
wajpi
man
ihjyúvá
talk
ováhtsa-ma
boy-SOC
wákyiméi-yi
work-LOC/INST
‘The man talked to the boy about work.’
TALK a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-soc 3-loc/instr V
(30)
Wajpi wáájacú ováhtsake.
wajpi
man
wáájacú
know
ováhtsa-ke
boy-ACC
‘The man knew the boy.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(31)
Wajpi ɨ́tsaavé ováhtsake.
wajpi
man
ɨ́tsaavé
remember
ováhtsa-ke
boy-ACC
‘The man remembered the boy.’
THINK a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(32)
Wajpi ováhtsake ájtyumɨ́.
wajpi
man
ováhtsa-ke
boy-ACC
ájtyumɨ́
see
‘The man saw the boy.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(33)
Wajpi ɨɨté ováhtsake.
wajpi
man
ɨɨté
look
ováhtsa-ke
boy-ACC
‘The man looked at the boy.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(34)
Wajpi íllívyeebó ováhtsake.
wajpi
man
íllívyeebó
frighten
ováhtsa-ke
boy-ACC
‘The man frightened the boy.’
FRIGHTEN a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(35)
Ováhtsa illí wájpike.
ováhtsa
boy
illí
fear
wájpi-ke
man-ACC
‘The boy feared the man.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(36)
Ováhtsa ímillé wájpikye.
ováhtsa
boy
ímillé
like
wájpi-kye
man-ACC
‘The boy liked the man.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(37)
Wajpi nehcó ováhtsake.
wajpi
man
nehcó
search
ováhtsa-ke
boy-ACC
‘The man searched for the boy.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(38)
Wajpi llííñájá.
wajpi
man
llííñájá
hunt
‘The man hunted.’
HUNT (FOR) a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(39)
Wajpi táábavá wálleke.
wajpi
man
táába-vá
wife-VBLZ.have
wálle-ke
woman-ACC
‘The man married the girl.’
MARRY a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(40)
Wajpi ajtyúmɨ́ bádsɨ́jcájake.
wajpi
man
ajtyúmɨ́
meet
bádsɨ́jcája-ke
girl-ACC
‘The man met (lit. saw) the girl.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(41)
Wajpi úraavyé bádsɨ́jcájake.
wajpi
man
úraavyé
follow
bádsɨ́jcája-ke
girl-ACC
‘The man followed the girl.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(42)
Wajpi pɨ́aabó bádsɨ́jcájake.
wajpi
man
pɨ́aabó
help
bádsɨ́jcája-ke
girl-ACC
‘The man helped the girl.’
HELP a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(43)
Wajpi majchó páá.
wajpi
man
majchó
eat
páá
bread(ACC)
‘The man ate the bread.’
EAT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(44)
Wajpi uácó tsɨ́ɨ́méneke.
wajpi
man
uácó
dress
tsɨ́ɨ́méne-ke
child-ACC
‘The man dressed the child.’
DRESS a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-all) V
(45)
Wajpi nijtyú tsɨ́ɨ́méneke.
wajpi
man
nijtyú
wash
tsɨ́ɨ́méne-ke
child-ACC
‘The man washed the child.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(46)
Wajpi nijtyámeí.
wajpi
man
nijtyá-meí
wash-REFL
‘The man washed himself.’
WASH an Alternation:
Reflexive derivation
(47)
Wajpi éjéhtsó.
wajpi
man
éjéhtsó
cough
‘The man coughed.’
COUGH a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(48)
Wajpi nériivyé téhbau.
wajpi
man
nériivyé
climb
téhbau
hill
‘The man climbed (up) the hill.’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(49)
Wajpi ácuuvé (baavu).
wajpi
man
ácuuvé
sit
baa-vu
below-ALL
‘The man sat down (on the floor).’
SIT DOWN a Coding frame:
1-nom (2-all) V
(50)
Wajpi ácuúcunú (baari).
wajpi
man
ácuúcunú
sit
baa-ri
below-LOC/INST
‘The man sat (on the floor).’
SIT a Coding frame:
1-nom (2-loc/instr) V
(51)
Tsɨɨméne dsɨɨné (baari).
tsɨɨméne
child
dsɨɨné
run
baa-ri
below-LOC/INST
‘The child ran (on the floor).’
RUN a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(52)
Tsɨɨméne cátsíñiivyé (baari).
tsɨɨméne
child
cátsíñiivyé
jump
baa-ri
below-LOC/INST
‘The child jumped (on the floor).’
JUMP a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(53)
Ováhtsa tsáá cóomivu.
ováhtsa
boy
tsáá
come
cóómi-vu
village-ALL
‘The boy came (to the village).’
LEAVE the Verb form tsáá
(54)
Ováhtsa tsáá cóomitu.
ováhtsa
boy
tsáá
come
cóomi-tu
village-ABL
‘The boy went (from the village).’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-abl V
(55)
Ováhtsa ícyahíjcá cóomiri.
ováhtsa
boy
ícya-híjcyá
be-REP
cóomi-ri
village-LOC/INST
‘The boy lived (in the village).’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1-nom (2-loc/instr) V
(56)
Ováhtsa májtsivá.
ováhtsa
boy
májtsi-vá
song-VBLZ.have
‘The boy sang (a song).’
SING a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(57)
Ováhtsa bóhówaavé júúvari.
ováhtsa
boy
bóhówaavé
appear
júúva-ri
road-LOC/INST
‘The boy appeared on the path.’
APPEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom (2-loc/instr) V
(58)
Táñéjuwa oké avyé.
táñéjuwa
1SG.POSS_arm
o-ké
1SG-ACC
avyé
hurt
‘My arm hurts (me).’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(59)
Wajpi dsɨ́jívé.
wajpi
man
dsɨ́jívé
die
‘The man died.’
DIE a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(60)
Wajpi áákityé (baavu).
wajpi
man
áákityé
fall
baa-vu
below-ALL
‘The man fell (on the ground).’
FALL a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(61)
Ováhtsa tsuucó.
ováhtsa
boy
tsuucó
cold
‘The boy froze (lit. The boy was cold).’
FEEL COLD a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(62)
Ováhtsa ajyábáávaté.
ováhtsa
boy
ajyábáávaté
be_hungry
‘The boy was hungry.’
BE HUNGRY a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(63)
Alléne.
allé-ne
rain-3INAN
‘It rained.’
RAIN a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(64)
Walle wájpikyé wátájcotsó tsɨ́ɨ́méneke cobííjyavu.
walle
woman
wájpii-kyé
man-ACC
wátájco-tsó
cover-CAUS
tsɨ́ɨ́méne-ke
child-ACC
cobííjya-vu
blanket-ALL
‘The woman made the man cover the child with a blanket.’
COVER an Alternation:
Causative derivation
(65)
Wajpi wátájcameí cobííjyari.
wajpi
man
wátájca-meí
cover-REFL
cobííjya-ri
blanket-LOC/INST
‘The man covered himself with a blanket.’
COVER an Alternation:
Reflexive derivation
(66)
Wajpi wátájcameí cobííjyavu.
wajpi
man
wátájca-meí
cover-REFL
cobííjya-vu
blanket-ALL
‘The man covered himself with a blanket.’
COVER an Alternation:
Reflexive derivation
(67)
Wajpíímu wátácójcatsí cobííjyari.
wajpíí-mu
man-PL
wátácó-jcatsí
cover-RECP
cobííjya-ri
blanket-LOC/INST
‘The men covered each other with a blanket.’
COVER an Alternation:
Reciprocal derivation
(68)
Wajpi wátacó tsɨ́ɨ́méneke cobííjyari.
wajpi
man
wátacó
cover
tsɨ́ɨ́méne-ke
child-ACC
cobííjya-ri
blanket-LOC/INST
‘The man covered the child with a blanket.’
COVER the Verb form wátájcó
(69)
Tsɨ́ɨ́mene wátahácunú cobííjya-ri.
tsɨ́ɨ́mene
child
wáta-hácunú
cover-MULT.INTR
cobííjya-ri
blanket-LOC/INST
‘The child was covered with a blanket.’
COVER the Verb form wátájcó
(70)
Tsɨ́ɨ́mene wátáhaavé cobííjyavu.
tsɨ́ɨ́mene
child
wátá-haavé
cover-SNG.INTR
cobííjya-vu
blanket-ALL
‘The child has covered himself with a blanket.’
COVER an Alternation:
Reflexive derivation
(71)
Vááso wahpécunú nújpácyotu.
vááso
glass
wahpé-cunú
fill-MULT.INTR
nújpácyo-tu
water-ABL
‘The glass is full of water.’
FILL the Verb form wahpétsó
(72)
O dóóhi.
o
1SG
dóó-hi
eat_meat-PRED
níívúwa-ke
deer-ACC
‘I eat deer.’
EAT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(73)
Walle wajpike majchótso páávu.
walle
woman
wajpi-ke
man-ACC
majchó-tso
eat-CAUS
páá-vu
bread-ALL
‘The woman made the man eat bread.’
EAT an Alternation:
Causative derivation
(74)
Tsɨ́ɨ́júmuke tsɨɨme ámábiñúhi.
tsɨ́ɨ́jú-mu-ke
mother-PL-ACC
tsɨɨme
children
ámábiñú-hi
hug-PRED
‘The children are hugging the mothers.’
HUG a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(75)
Oohííbyé árahcó hééco.
oohííbyé
dog
árahcó
smell
hééco
meat(ACC)
‘The dog smells the meat.’
SMELL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(76)
Táñahbévajtéké ó ɨtsáávehíjcyáhi.
táñahbévajté-ké
brothers-ACC
ó
1SG
ɨtsááve-híjcyá-hi
think-REP-PRED
‘I think about my brothers.’
THINK a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(77)
Ó babáñú áátsɨ́ɨ́meke wájyamúúnevu.
ó
1SG
babáñú
dress
áátsɨ́ɨ́me-ke
my_children-ACC
wájyamúúne-vu
clothes-ALL
‘I dress my children with clothes.’
DRESS a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-all) V
(78)
Oke táñahbe tsɨjpájúú.
o-ke
1.SG-ACC
táñahbe
1.SG_brother
tsɨjpájúú
shout_at
‘My brother is shouting at me.’
SHOUT AT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(79)
Wajpi meenú ja ájɨtu.
wajpi
man
meenú
make
ja
house
ájɨ-tu
palm-ABL
‘The man built the house with palm leaves.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-abl V
(80)
Ováhtsa tsáhaamɨ dóbahjyúcú wajácuháámɨtu.
ováhtsa
boy
tsá-haamɨ
one-leaf
dó-ba-hjyúcú
INST:HAND-tear-SNG.TRANS
wajácuháámɨ-tu
book-ABL
‘The boy tore the page from the book.’
TEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-abl V
(81)
Méɨhtú baajúrí.
mé-ɨhtú
1PL-peel
baajúrí
manioc(ACC)
‘We peel manioc.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(82)
Aalle támihcyó.
aalle
3SG
támihcyó
blink
‘She blinks.’
BLINK a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(83)
Keeme ácuúcunú cúúmú hallúri.
keeme
old_man
ácuúcunú
sit
cúúmú
signal_drum
hallú-ri
top-LOC/INST
‘The old man sits on the signal drum.’
SIT a Coding frame:
1-nom (2-loc/instr) V
(84)
O péé tahjyávu.
o
1SG
péé
go
tah-jyá-vu
1SG-house-ALL
‘I go to my house.’
GO a Coding frame:
1-nom (2-all) V
(85)
Ú ijchívyé cóómítyuú.
ú
2SG
ijchívyé
leave
cóómí-tyuú
village-ABL
‘You left the village.’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-abl V
(86)
Ó goocó.
ó
1SG
goocó
laugh
‘I laugh.’
LAUGH a Coding frame:
1-nom (2-loc/instr) V
(87)
Wajpi ihjyúcunú ováhtsake.
wajpi
man
ihjyúcunú
shout
ováhtsa-ke
boy-ACC
‘The man shouted at the boy.’
SHOUT AT a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(88)
Ováhtsámú ɨɨcú peróótáuri.
ováhtsá-mú
boy-PL
ɨɨcú
play
peróótáu-ri
ball-LOC/INST
‘The boys are playing with the ball.’
PLAY a Coding frame:
1-nom (2-loc/instr) V
(89)
Bádsɨ́jcaja ɨ́dáátsové.
bádsɨ́jcaja
girl
ɨ́dáátsové
feel_sad
‘The girl feels sad.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(90)
Úméneba víyiivyé téhí pañévu.
úméneba
trunk
víyiivyé
roll
téhí
river
pañé-vu
inside-ALL
‘The trunk rolled into the river.’
ROLL a Coding frame:
1-nom (2-all) V
(91)
Cúújúwamɨ pámaavé Ikító mujcójutu.
cúújúwamɨ
steam_ship
pámaavé
sink
Ikító
Iquitos
mujcóju-tu
harbour-ALL
‘The steamship sank in the harbour of Iquitos.’
SINK a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(92)
Tahjya áiivyé.
tah-jya
1SG-house
áiivyé
burn
‘My house is burning.’
BURN a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(93)
Ó daarɨ́.
ó
1SG
daarɨ́
dry
‘I am dry.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(94)
Botsíi píívyéébeke ú táúmeíhí mémájchotá dooráábeke.
botsíi
finally
píívyéébe-ke
creator-ACC
ú
2SG
táúmeí-hí
ask-PRED
mé-májchotá
1PL-nutrition
dooráábe-ke
fish-ACC
‘You ask the creator for fish of our nutrition.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-acc V
(95)
Tájtsɨɨméne-ke tsúúca ítyujpácyovu ú úújetsó.
táj-tsɨɨméne-ke
1SG-child-ACC
tsúúca
already
í-tyujpácyo-vu
3-blood-ALL
ú
2SG
úúje-tsó
see-CAUS
‘You have already shown my child his blood.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-all) V
(96)
Téwaahyévú oke ú ájcuú.
téwaahyé-vú
leftovers-ALL
o-ke
1SG-ACC
ú
2SG
ájcuú
give
‘You give me the leftovers.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-all) V
(97)
Ó picyóó táwaajácuháámɨ́ méétsáwá hallúvu.
ó
1SG
picyóó
put
tá-waajácuháámɨ́
1SG-book
méétsáwá
table
hallú-vu
top-ALL
‘I put my book on the table.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-all) V
(98)
Ó caanú dɨɨ caanúcori.
ó
1SG
caanú
grind
dɨɨ
peppers
caanúco-ri
mortar-LOC/INST
‘I grind peppers with a mortar.’
GRIND a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-loc/instr) V
(99)
Ó píchóujcó ííñullíjyu tájtyúhatyu.
ó
1SG
píchóujcó
wipe
ííñullíjyu
dust
tájtyúha-tyu
my_foot-ABL
‘I am wiping dust off my foot.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-abl V
(100)
Táujcáhé ó nɨɨtsú.
táujcáhé
my_beard(ACC)
ó
1SG
nɨɨtsú
shave
‘I shaved my beard.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(101)
Ó lleebó cajpááná ihjyúváne.
ó
1SG
lleebó
hear
cajpááná
bell
ihjyúvá-ne
speak-INAN
‘I hear the bell ring.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(102)
Tsɨ́ɨ́mene waaó íwatájcojɨ téhí pañévu.
tsɨ́ɨ́mene
child
waaó
throw
íwatájcojɨ
his_hat(ACC)
téhí
water
pañé-vu
inside-ALL
‘The child threw his hat into the water.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-all) V
(103)
Taálle tú hééco.
taálle
grandmother
cook
hééco
meat
‘The grandmother cooks the meat.’
COOK a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(104)
Méúwaabó tsiiméké wákimyéivu.
mé-úwaabó
1PL-teach
tsɨɨmé-ké
children-ACC
wákimyéi-vu
work-ALL
‘We teach the children the work.’
TEACH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-all) V
(105)
Nújpacyo tsúúca waanéhi.
nújpacyo
water
tsúúca
already
waané-hi
boil-PRED
‘The water is already boiling.’
BOIL a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(106)
Wajpi dilló ováhtsake cuhjúbake.
wajpi
man
dilló
name
ováhtsa-ke
boy-ACC
cuhjúba-ke
slow-ACC
‘The man called the boy a slow one.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc 3-acc V
(107)
Ó babáñú áátsɨ́ɨ́meke wájyamúúneri.
ó
1SG
babáñú
dress
áátsɨ́ɨ́me-ke
my_children-ACC
wájyamúúne-ri
clothes-LOC/INST
‘I dress my children with clothes.’
DRESS an Alternation:
Secondary object ALL or INST/LOC
(108)
Táñahbe úménemúnáajpi íjcya-á-hi.
táñahbe
my_brother
úménemúnáajpi
wood_worker
íjcya-á-hi
be-FUT-PRED
‘My brother will be a wood worker.’
BE A HUNTER a Coding frame:
N/A
(109)
Wajpi taavá niivúwake.
wajpi
man
taavá
hunt
niivúwa-ke
deer-ACC
‘The man hunted the deer.’
HUNT (FOR) a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc V
(110)
Mújcuri ó tsehdí.
mújcuri
barbasco_root(ACC)
ó
1SG
tsehdí
dig
‘I dig for barbasco root.’
DIG a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-loc/instr) V
(111)
Pɨ́aabójcatsímye.
pɨ́aabó-jcatsí-mye
help-RECP-3PL
‘They helped each other.’
HELP an Alternation:
Reciprocal derivation
(112)
Nɨɨtsúwáwu kídyahɨ́nú páá.
nɨɨtsúwáwu
knife
kídyahɨ́nú
cut
páá
bread
‘The knife cuts the bread.’
CUT an Alternation:
Instrument alternation
(113)
Dsɨ́jɨ́vétsómeííbye.
dsɨ́jɨ́vé-tsó-meíí-bye
die-CAUS-REFL-3SG
‘He killed himself.’
KILL an Alternation:
Reflexive derivation
(114)
Táñahbe oke waaó.
táñahbe
my_brother
o-ke
1SG-ACC
waaó
push
‘My brother pushed me.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1-nom 2-acc (3-all) V
(115)
Ováhtsa táuméí dsɨ́ɨ́dsɨtu wajpikye.
ováhtsa
boy
táuméí
ask
dsɨ́ɨ́dsɨ-tu
money-ABL
wajpi-kye
man-ACC
‘The boy asked the man for money.’
ASK FOR the Verb form táuméí
(116)
Nííjyaba allé.
nííjyaba
thunderstorm
allé
rain
‘Lit. The thunderstorm rained.’
RAIN a Coding frame:
1-nom V
(117)
Ɨ́ɨ́nerí ú goocó?
Ɨ́ɨ́ne-LOC/INST
what-INST
ú
2SG
goocó
laugh
‘What are you laughing about/at?’
LAUGH a Coding frame:
1-nom (2-loc/instr) V
(118)
Wajpi íllityétsó ováhtsake.
wajpi
man
íllityé-tsó
fear-CAUS
ováhtsa-ke
boy-ACC
‘The man frightened the boy.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Causative derivation
(119)
Ováhtsake ó tsíívatsóhi wajácuháámɨ uwáábóóbedívu.
ováhtsa-ke
boy-ACC
ó
1sg
tsííva-tsó-hi
bring-CAUS-PRED
wajácuháámɨ
book:ACC
uwáábóóbe-dí-vu
teacher-ANIM-ALL
‘I make the boy bring the book to the teacher.’
BRING an Alternation:
Causative derivation
(120)
Tsɨ́ɨ́méneke ó wááotsóhi íwatájcojɨ téhí pañévu.
tsɨ́ɨ́méne-ke
child-ACC
ó
1SG
wááo-tsó-hi
throw-CAUS-PRED
íwatájcojɨ
his_hat:ACC
téhí
water
pañé-vu
inside-ALL
‘I make the child throw his hat into the water.’
PUSH an Alternation:
Causative derivation
(121)
Ovátsake ó wállotsóhi wajácuáámɨ uwáábóóbedívu.
ovátsa-ke
boy-ACC
ó
1SG
wállo-tsó-hi
send-CAUS-PRED
wajácuáámɨ
book:ACC
uwáábóóbe-dí-vu
teacher-ANIM-ALL
‘I make the boy send the book to the teacher.’
SEND an Alternation:
Causative derivation
(122)
Ovátsake o tsájtyetsóhi wajácuáámɨ uwáábóóbedívu.
ovátsa-ke
boy-ACC
o
1SG
tsájtye-tsó-hi
take-CAUS-PRED
wajácuáámɨ
book:ACC
uwáábóóbe-dí-vu
teacher-ANIM-ALL
‘I make the boy take the book to the teacher.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Causative derivation
(123)
Wájpike ó cáhpíñutsóhi nújpakyo váásó pañévu.
wájpi-ke
man-ACC
ó
1SG
cáhpíñu-tsó-hi
pour-CAUS-PRED
nújpakyo
water:ACC
váásó
glass
pañé-vu
inside-ALL
‘I make the man fill the glass with water.’
POUR an Alternation:
Causative derivation
(124)
Wájpike ó píkyootsóhi ájɨ mɨ́ɨ́né pañévu.
wájpi-ke
man-ACC
ó
1SG
píkyoo-tsó-hi
put-CAUS-PRED
ájɨ
palmleafs:ACC
mɨ́ɨ́né
canoe
pañé-vu
inside-ALL
‘I make the man put the palmleafs in the canoe.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Causative derivation
(125)
Wájpike ó uácotsóhi tsɨ́ɨ́meke íwajyámúvu.
wájpi-ke
man-ACC
ó
1SG
uáco-tsó-hi
put_on-CAUS-PRED
tsɨ́ɨ́me-ke
child-ACC
íwajyámú-vu
his_clothes-ALL
‘I make the man dress the child with clothes.’
DRESS an Alternation:
Causative derivation
(126)
Ovátsake ó ájcyutsóhi wajácuáámɨvu uwáábóóbeke.
ovátsa-ke
boy-ACC
ó
1SG
ájcyu-tsó-hi
give-CAUS-PRED
wajácuáámɨ-vu
book-ALL
uwáábóóbe-ke
teacher-ACC
‘I make the boy give the book to the teacher.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Causative derivation
(127)
Ovátsake ó táuméítsóhi dsɨ́ɨ́dsɨke wajpike.
ovátsa-ke
boy-ACC
ó
1SG
táuméí-tsó-hi
ask_for-CAUS-PRED
dsɨ́ɨ́dsɨ-ke
money-ACC
wajpi-ke
man-ACC
‘I make the boy ask the man for money. / Yo hago al joven pedir dinero al hombre.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Causative derivation
(128)
Wájpike ó wátájcotsóhi tsɨ́ɨ́méneke cobííjyari.
wájpi-ke
man-ACC
ó
1SG
wátájco-tsó-hi
cover-CAUS-PRED
tsɨ́ɨ́méne-ke
child-ACC
cobííjya-ri
blanket-INST
‘I make the man cover the child with a blanket.’
COVER an Alternation:
Causative derivation