Instrument alternation U

Description

The instrument(-subject) alternation is possible for every verb that can take an instrument, e.g. ó wá-hdahɨ́-nú-hi (
1.SG/INST:HIT-cut-MULT.TRANS-PRED) ‘I cut’ vs.
pɨdójowa wáh-dahɨ́-nú-hi (knife/INST:HIT-cut-MULT.TRANS-PRED) ‘the knife cuts’. The instrument is promoted to subject position. It does not matter, wheather it had instrumantal, ablative or allative marking in the basic frame.

for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
TIE chijchú R
(4)
wajpi
man
chiácó
tie
ɨ́ɨ́ju-ke
horse-ACC
úméhe-tu
tree-ABL
‘The man tied the horse to the tree.’
POUR cáhpiñú N
(5)
wajpi
man
cáhpiñú
pour
nújpacyo
water
váásó
glass
pañé-vu
inside-ALL
‘The man poured the water into the glass .’
LOAD picyo N
(3)
wajpi
man
picyóó
put
ájɨ
palm_leaves
mɨ́ɨ́né
canoe
pañé-vu
inside-ALL
‘The man loaded the hay on the canoe (lit. The man put palm leaves into the canoe).’
(6)
wajpi
man
picyó
put
wajácuháámɨ
book
méétsá
table
hallú-vu
top-ALL
‘The man put the book on the table.’
(97)
ó
1SG
picyóó
put
tá-waajácuháámɨ́
1SG-book
méétsáwá
table
hallú-vu
top-ALL
‘I put my book on the table.’
PUSH waaó N
(7)
ováhtsa
boy
waaó
throw
nééwau
stone(ACC)
nújpácyó
water
pañé-vu
inside-ALL
‘The boy threw the stone into the window.’
(102)
tsɨ́ɨ́mene
child
waaó
throw
íwatájcojɨ
his_hat(ACC)
téhí
water
pañé-vu
inside-ALL
‘The child threw his hat into the water.’
(114)
táñahbe
my_brother
o-ke
1SG-ACC
waaó
push
‘My brother pushed me.’
BRING tsiivá N
(8)
ováhtsa
boy
tsiivá
bring
wajácuháámɨ
book
uwáábóóbe-dí-vu
teacher-ANIM-ALL
‘The boy brought the book to the teacher.’
CARRY tsajtyé N
(9)
ováhtsa
boy
tsajtyé
carry
wajácuháámɨ
book
uwáábóóbe-dí-vu
teacher-ANIM-ALL
‘The boy carried the book to the teacher.’
(10)
ováhtsa
boy
tsajtyé
carry
wajácuháámɨ
book
uwáábója-vu
school-ALL
‘The boy carried the book to school.’
SEND walló N
(11)
ováhtsa
boy
walló
send
wajácuháámɨ
book
uwáábóóbe-dí-vu
teacher-ANIM-ALL
‘The boy sent the book to the teacher .’
(12)
ováhtsa
boy
walló
send
wajácuháámɨ
book
uwáábó-ja-vu
teach-house-ALL
‘The boy sent the book to school.’
GIVE ajcú N
(13)
ováhtsa
boy
ajcú
give
waajácuháámɨ-vu
book-ALL
uwáábóóbe-ke
teacher-ACC
‘The boy gave the book to the teacher.’
(96)
téwaahyé-vú
leftovers-ALL
o-ke
1SG-ACC
ú
2SG
ájcuú
give
‘You give me the leftovers.’
SHOW úúje-tsó N
(14)
ováhtsa
boy
ɨ́ɨ́te-tsó
see-CAUS
waajácuháámɨ
book
uwáábóóbe-ke
teacher-ACC
‘The boy showed the book to the teacher.’
(95)
táj-tsɨɨméne-ke
1SG-child-ACC
tsúúca
already
í-tyujpácyo-vu
3-blood-ALL
ú
2SG
úúje-tsó
see-CAUS
‘You have already shown my child his blood.’
TAKE ujcú N
(15)
ováhtsa
boy
ujcú
take
waajácuháámɨ
book
uwáábóóbe-dí-tyu
teacher-ANIM-ABL
‘The boy took the book from the teacher.’
STEAL naní N
(16)
ováhtsa
boy
naní
steal
waajácuháámɨ
book
uwáábóóbe-dí-tyu
teacher-ANIM-ABL
‘The boy stole the book from the teacher.’
HIDE páátanú N
(17)
ováhtsa
boy
páátanú
hide
waajácuháámɨ
book
uwáábóóbe-dí-tyu
teacher-ANIM-ABL
‘The boy hid the book from the teacher.’
TEAR dóbahjyúcú N
(80)
ováhtsa
boy
tsá-haamɨ
one-leaf
dó-ba-hjyúcú
INST:HAND-tear-SNG.TRANS
wajácuháámɨ-tu
book-ABL
‘The boy tore the page from the book.’
CUT kídyahɨ́nú R
(18)
ováhtsa
boy
kídyahɨ́nú
cut
páá
bread
nɨɨtsúwáwu-ri
knife-LOC/INST
‘The boy cut the bread with the knife.’

(112)
nɨɨtsúwáwu
knife
kídyahɨ́nú
cut
páá
bread
‘The knife cuts the bread.’
TOUCH dómajcó N
(19)
ováhtsa
boy
dómajcó
touch
ííñíme-ke
snake-ACC
úméhéco-ri
stick-LOC/INST
‘The boy touched the snake with the stick.’
BEAT wádɨ́rɨhcó R
(20)
ováhtsa
boy
wádɨ́rɨhjácó
beat.w/stick
ííñíme-ke
snake-ACC
ballóówa-ri
stick-LOC/INST
‘The boy hit the snake with the stick .’
(21)
ováhtsa
boy
wádɨ́rɨhcó
beat.w/stick
ííñíme-ke
snake-ACC
ballóówa-ri
stick-LOC/INST
‘The boy beat the snake with the stick.’
KILL dsɨ́jɨ́vetsó R
(22)
ováhtsa
boy
dsɨ́jɨ́ve-tsó
die-CAUS
ííñíme-ke
snake-ACC
ballóówa-ri
stick-LOC/INST
‘The boy killed the snake with the stick.’
BREAK cápujuhjácó M
(23)
ováhtsa
boy
cápújuhjácó
break.w/pointed_object
veentáána
window
nééwábya-ri
stone-LOC/INST
‘The boy broke the window with the stone.’
BUILD meenú N
(79)
wajpi
man
meenú
make
ja
house
ájɨ-tu
palm-ABL
‘The man built the house with palm leaves.’
NAME dilló N
(25)
wajpi
man
dilló
name
ováhtsa-ke
boy-ACC
cuhjúba-di
fool-ANIM
‘The man called the boy a fool.’
(106)
wajpi
man
dilló
name
ováhtsa-ke
boy-ACC
cuhjúba-ke
slow-ACC
‘The man called the boy a slow one.’
SAY néé N
(26)
wajpi
man
néé
say
ováhtsa-ke
boy-ACC
tsáhaá
no
‘The man said to the boy: "no".’
TELL uubálle N
(27)
wajpi
man
uubállé
story
uubálle
tell
ováhtsa-ke
boy-ACC
‘The man told a story to the boy.’
ASK FOR táuméí N
(28)
ováhtsa
boy
táuméí
ask
dsɨ́ɨ́dsɨ
money(ACC)
wajpi-kye
man-ACC
‘The boy asked the man for money.’
(94)
botsíi
finally
píívyéébe-ke
creator-ACC
ú
2SG
táúmeí-hí
ask-PRED
mé-májchotá
1PL-nutrition
dooráábe-ke
fish-ACC
‘You ask the creator for fish of our nutrition.’
TALK ihjyúvá N
(29)
wajpi
man
ihjyúvá
talk
ováhtsa-ma
boy-SOC
wákyiméi-yi
work-LOC/INST
‘The man talked to the boy about work.’
KNOW wáájacú N
(30)
wajpi
man
wáájacú
know
ováhtsa-ke
boy-ACC
‘The man knew the boy.’
MEET ájtyumɨ́ N
(32)
wajpi
man
ováhtsa-ke
boy-ACC
ájtyumɨ́
see
‘The man saw the boy.’
(40)
wajpi
man
ajtyúmɨ́
meet
bádsɨ́jcája-ke
girl-ACC
‘The man met (lit. saw) the girl.’
LOOK AT ɨɨté N
(33)
wajpi
man
ɨɨté
look
ováhtsa-ke
boy-ACC
‘The man looked at the boy.’
FRIGHTEN íllívyeebó N
(34)
wajpi
man
íllívyeebó
frighten
ováhtsa-ke
boy-ACC
‘The man frightened the boy.’
FEAR illí N
(35)
ováhtsa
boy
illí
fear
wájpi-ke
man-ACC
‘The boy feared the man.’
LIKE ímillé N
(36)
ováhtsa
boy
ímillé
like
wájpi-kye
man-ACC
‘The boy liked the man.’
SEARCH FOR nehco N
(37)
wajpi
man
nehcó
search
ováhtsa-ke
boy-ACC
‘The man searched for the boy.’
HUNT (FOR) llííñájá
(38)
wajpi
man
llííñájá
hunt
‘The man hunted.’
HUNT (FOR) taavá N
(109)
wajpi
man
taavá
hunt
niivúwa-ke
deer-ACC
‘The man hunted the deer.’
MARRY táábavá N
(39)
wajpi
man
táába-vá
wife-VBLZ.have
wálle-ke
woman-ACC
‘The man married the girl.’
FOLLOW úraavyé N
(41)
wajpi
man
úraavyé
follow
bádsɨ́jcája-ke
girl-ACC
‘The man followed the girl.’
HELP pɨ́aabó N
(42)
wajpi
man
pɨ́aabó
help
bádsɨ́jcája-ke
girl-ACC
‘The man helped the girl.’
EAT majchó N
(43)
wajpi
man
majchó
eat
páá
bread(ACC)
‘The man ate the bread.’
EAT do N
(72)
o
1SG
dóó-hi
eat_meat-PRED
níívúwa-ke
deer-ACC
‘I eat deer.’
DRESS uácó N
(44)
wajpi
man
uácó
dress
tsɨ́ɨ́méne-ke
child-ACC
‘The man dressed the child.’
WASH nijtyú N
(45)
wajpi
man
nijtyú
wash
tsɨ́ɨ́méne-ke
child-ACC
‘The man washed the child.’
COUGH éjéhtsó N
(47)
wajpi
man
éjéhtsó
cough
‘The man coughed.’
CLIMB nériivyé N
(48)
wajpi
man
nériivyé
climb
téhbau
hill
‘The man climbed (up) the hill.’
SIT DOWN ácuuvé N
(49)
wajpi
man
ácuuvé
sit
baa-vu
below-ALL
‘The man sat down (on the floor).’
SIT ácuúcunú N
(50)
wajpi
man
ácuúcunú
sit
baa-ri
below-LOC/INST
‘The man sat (on the floor).’
(83)
keeme
old_man
ácuúcunú
sit
cúúmú
signal_drum
hallú-ri
top-LOC/INST
‘The old man sits on the signal drum.’
RUN dsɨɨné N
(51)
tsɨɨméne
child
dsɨɨné
run
baa-ri
below-LOC/INST
‘The child ran (on the floor).’
JUMP cátsíñiivyé N
(52)
tsɨɨméne
child
cátsíñiivyé
jump
baa-ri
below-LOC/INST
‘The child jumped (on the floor).’
LEAVE tsáá N
(54)
ováhtsa
boy
tsáá
come
cóomi-tu
village-ABL
‘The boy went (from the village).’
LIVE ícyahíjcá N
(55)
ováhtsa
boy
ícya-híjcyá
be-REP
cóomi-ri
village-LOC/INST
‘The boy lived (in the village).’
SING májtsivá N
(56)
ováhtsa
boy
májtsi-vá
song-VBLZ.have
‘The boy sang (a song).’
APPEAR bóhowaavé N
(57)
ováhtsa
boy
bóhówaavé
appear
júúva-ri
road-LOC/INST
‘The boy appeared on the path.’
FEEL PAIN avyé N
(58)
táñéjuwa
1SG.POSS_arm
o-ké
1SG-ACC
avyé
hurt
‘My arm hurts (me).’
DIE dsɨ́jívé N
(59)
wajpi
man
dsɨ́jívé
die
‘The man died.’
FALL áákityé N
(60)
wajpi
man
áákityé
fall
baa-vu
below-ALL
‘The man fell (on the ground).’
FEEL COLD tsuucó N
(61)
ováhtsa
boy
tsuucó
cold
‘The boy froze (lit. The boy was cold).’
BE HUNGRY ajyábáávaté N
(62)
ováhtsa
boy
ajyábáávaté
be_hungry
‘The boy was hungry.’
RAIN allé N
(63)
allé-ne
rain-3INAN
‘It rained.’
(116)
nííjyaba
thunderstorm
allé
rain
‘Lit. The thunderstorm rained.’
HUG ámabúcu N
(74)
tsɨ́ɨ́jú-mu-ke
mother-PL-ACC
tsɨɨme
children
ámábiñú-hi
hug-PRED
‘The children are hugging the mothers.’
SMELL árahjúcu N
(75)
oohííbyé
dog
árahcó
smell
hééco
meat(ACC)
‘The dog smells the meat.’
THINK ɨ́tsaave N
(31)
wajpi
man
ɨ́tsaavé
remember
ováhtsa-ke
boy-ACC
‘The man remembered the boy.’
(76)
táñahbévajté-ké
brothers-ACC
ó
1SG
ɨtsááve-híjcyá-hi
think-REP-PRED
‘I think about my brothers.’
DRESS babyáro N
(77)
ó
1SG
babáñú
dress
áátsɨ́ɨ́me-ke
my_children-ACC
wájyamúúne-vu
clothes-ALL
‘I dress my children with clothes.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) nɨɨ́tsu M
(100)
táujcáhé
my_beard(ACC)
ó
1SG
nɨɨtsú
shave
‘I shaved my beard.’
SHOUT AT tsɨjpáju N
(78)
o-ke
1.SG-ACC
táñahbe
1.SG_brother
tsɨjpájúú
shout_at
‘My brother is shouting at me.’
PEEL ɨhtu
(81)
mé-ɨhtú
1PL-peel
baajúrí
manioc(ACC)
‘We peel manioc.’
BLINK támihjyáco N
(82)
aalle
3SG
támihcyó
blink
‘She blinks.’
GO pee N
(84)
o
1SG
péé
go
tah-jyá-vu
1SG-house-ALL
‘I go to my house.’
LEAVE ijchívye N
(85)
ú
2SG
ijchívyé
leave
cóómí-tyuú
village-ABL
‘You left the village.’
LAUGH gooco N
(86)
ó
1SG
goocó
laugh
‘I laugh.’
(117)
Ɨ́ɨ́ne-LOC/INST
what-INST
ú
2SG
goocó
laugh
‘What are you laughing about/at?’
SHOUT AT ihjyúcunu N
(87)
wajpi
man
ihjyúcunú
shout
ováhtsa-ke
boy-ACC
‘The man shouted at the boy.’
PLAY ɨɨcú N
(88)
ováhtsá-mú
boy-PL
ɨɨcú
play
peróótáu-ri
ball-LOC/INST
‘The boys are playing with the ball.’
BE SAD ɨ́dáátsové N
(89)
bádsɨ́jcaja
girl
ɨ́dáátsové
feel_sad
‘The girl feels sad.’
ROLL víyiivye N
(90)
úméneba
trunk
víyiivyé
roll
téhí
river
pañé-vu
inside-ALL
‘The trunk rolled into the river.’
SINK pámaave N
(91)
cúújúwamɨ
steam_ship
pámaavé
sink
Ikító
Iquitos
mujcóju-tu
harbour-ALL
‘The steamship sank in the harbour of Iquitos.’
BURN áiivye N
(92)
tah-jya
1SG-house
áiivyé
burn
‘My house is burning.’
BE DRY daarɨ N
(93)
ó
1SG
daarɨ́
dry
‘I am dry.’
BE A HUNTER no verbal counterpart N
(108)
táñahbe
my_brother
úménemúnáajpi
wood_worker
íjcya-á-hi
be-FUT-PRED
‘My brother will be a wood worker.’
GRIND caanú N
(98)
ó
1SG
caanú
grind
dɨɨ
peppers
caanúco-ri
mortar-LOC/INST
‘I grind peppers with a mortar.’
WIPE píchóuáco N
(99)
ó
1SG
píchóujcó
wipe
ííñullíjyu
dust
tájtyúha-tyu
my_foot-ABL
‘I am wiping dust off my foot.’
HEAR lleebo N
(101)
ó
1SG
lleebó
hear
cajpááná
bell
ihjyúvá-ne
speak-INAN
‘I hear the bell ring.’
COOK tuu N
(103)
taálle
grandmother
cook
hééco
meat
‘The grandmother cooks the meat.’
TEACH úwááboó N
(104)
mé-úwaabó
1PL-teach
tsɨɨmé-ké
children-ACC
wákimyéi-vu
work-ALL
‘We teach the children the work.’
BOIL waáne N
(105)
nújpacyo
water
tsúúca
already
waané-hi
boil-PRED
‘The water is already boiling.’
DIG tsehdi N
(110)
mújcuri
barbasco_root(ACC)
ó
1SG
tsehdí
dig
‘I dig for barbasco root.’
COVER wátájcó R
(1)
wajpi
man
tsɨ́ɨ́méne-ke
child-ACC
wátajcó
cover
cobííjya-vu
blanket-ALL
‘The man covered the child with the blanket.’
FILL wahpétsó N
(2)
wajpi
man
wáhpe-tsó
full-CAUS
vááso
glass
nújpácyo-tu
water-ABL
‘The man filled the glass with water.’