Alternations of Bora

Alternations
Alternation name Description Examples Verbs
C
y The causative -tso adds a causee, the underived verb's subject becomes the causee, marked by accusative case (primary object). The underived verb's object (if present) of a previously transitive verb is marked with allative case (secondary object). If the underived verb has a third argument, then both the second and the third argument retain their marking in the causative construction.
(64)
Walle wájpikyé wátájcotsó tsɨ́ɨ́méneke cobííjyavu.
walle
woman
wájpii-kyé
man-ACC
wátájco-tsó
cover-CAUS
tsɨ́ɨ́méne-ke
child-ACC
cobííjya-vu
blanket-ALL
‘The woman made the man cover the child with a blanket.’
80
C
y Only transitive verbs combine with the reciprocal marker -jcátsi, which has the expected semantic and syntactic effect. Some intransitive verbs can combine with the reciprocal marker too.
(67)
Wajpíímu wátácójcatsí cobííjyari.
wajpíí-mu
man-PL
wátácó-jcatsí
cover-RECP
cobííjya-ri
blanket-LOC/INST
‘The men covered each other with a blanket.’
51
U
n The secondary object can be in allative case or locative/Instrumental case, probably with a slight semantic difference. The alternation applies only to one verb, it is therefore uncertain whether it should be considered a valency alternation at all.
(107)
Ó babáñú áátsɨ́ɨ́meke wájyamúúneri.
ó
1SG
babáñú
dress
áátsɨ́ɨ́me-ke
my_children-ACC
wájyamúúne-ri
clothes-LOC/INST
‘I dress my children with clothes.’
1
C
y Reflexive is marked by the derivational suffix -mei. In addition to marking a valency alternation, this suffix is often applied without a valency change but with a semantic change in which the agency of the subject is downgraded; the resulting verb is translated by native speakers as 'do x poorly'. If this is the only reading of the verb derived with -mei, then it is counted as not participating in the reflexive derivation.
(65)
Wajpi wátájcameí cobííjyari.
wajpi
man
wátájca-meí
cover-REFL
cobííjya-ri
blanket-LOC/INST
‘The man covered himself with a blanket.’
40
U
n The instrument(-subject) alternation is possible for every verb that can take an instrument, e.g. ó wá-hdahɨ́-nú-hi (
1.SG/INST:HIT-cut-MULT.TRANS-PRED) ‘I cut’ vs.
pɨdójowa wáh-dahɨ́-nú-hi (knife/INST:HIT-cut-MULT.TRANS-PRED) ‘the knife cuts’. The instrument is promoted to subject position. It does not matter, wheather it had instrumantal, ablative or allative marking in the basic frame.

(112)
Nɨɨtsúwáwu kídyahɨ́nú páá.
nɨɨtsúwáwu
knife
kídyahɨ́nú
cut
páá
bread
‘The knife cuts the bread.’
5