How to cite the Bora dataset  BibTeX

Seifart, Frank. 2013. Bora Valency Patterns.
In: Hartmann, Iren & Haspelmath, Martin & Taylor, Bradley (eds.) 2013.
Valency Patterns Leipzig.
Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
(Available online at, Accessed on 2015-01-25)


84 Verb forms 13 Coding frames 5 Alternations (99.0% avail.) 128 glossed Examples


General comment

any noun phrase (argument or adjunct) is always optional (except for subjects with some forms of verbal predicates). It was not possible to apply a test using the sentence frame suggested in the manual to distinguish between arguments and adjuncts. The Bora coding frames given here include all arguments/adjuncts of the pre-defined role frame with the corresponding Bora case marking.
The database includes as coded alternations causative, reflexive and reciprocal derivation, which are all productive. There is a separate derivational system, which is relatively unproductive, which combines transitivity marking and verbal number marking (see examples under SIT). These alternations are not taken into account in this database.

Characterization of flagging resources

the major resource for argument/adjunct identification is case marking which applies regularly to all noun phrases except that accusative case is marked only on animates (-ke), unmarked for inanimates

Characterization of indexing resources

subjects may be cross-referenced by suffixes on the verb

Characterization of ordering resources

word order is not a resource for argument identification, as it is mostly free except for some restricions on subjects: first and second person subject pronouns procliticize to the verb, some forms of predicates require overt subject noun phrases that precede the verb. If in such a construction a

Source of the data and generalizations/background of the contributor(s)

Data marked as "elicited from native speaker" was elicited by Frank Seifart during field work in Peru in April 2010 and by telephone in March 2011. Applicability of alternations was also elicited on these two occasions.