Examples of Bezhta

Example Verb meaning Example of...
(1)
Öždi bäbä müqiyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
bäbä
bread(III).ABS
m-üq-iyo
III-eat-PST
‘The boy ate bread.’
EAT a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs abs[2].V
(2)
Kibbal iyo yegaayo.
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
iyo
mother(II).ABS
y-egaa-yo
II-see-PST
‘The girl saw her mother.’
SEE a Coding frame:
1-lat 2-abs abs[2].V
(3)
Abol teli xabarla yiyaq'eš.
abo-l
father-LAT
teli
many
xabar-la
story-PL
y-iyaq'e-š
NHPL-know.PL-PRS
‘The father knows many stories.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1-lat 2-abs abs[2].V
(4)
Öždil kid yat'ca.
öždi-l
boy.OBL-LAT
kid
girl(II).ABS
y-at'-ca
II-like-PRS
‘The boy likes the girl.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1-lat 2-abs abs[2].V
(5)
Kid c'oyqa hič'eš.
kid
girl.ABS
c'o-y-qa
fire-OBL-POSS
hič'e-š
fear-PRS
‘The girl fears the fire.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1-abs 2-poss abs[1].V
(6)
Kibba öžö hič'egolca.
kibba
girl.ERG
öžö
boy(I).ABS
hič'e-gol-ca
fear-MAKE(I)-PRS
‘The girl frightens the boy.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Causative with golal
(7)
Kibba łic'o nizaayo.
kibba
girl.ERG
łic'o
clothes.ABS
nizaa-yo
wash-PST
‘The girl washes the clothes.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs abs[2].V
(8)
Kibba keč' iƛeš.
kibba
girl.ERG
keč'
song.ABS
iƛe-š
sing-PRS
‘The girl sings the song.’
SING the Verb form no verbal counterpart
(9)
Kid yiyas.
kid
girl(II).ABS
y-iya-s
II-cry-PRS
‘The girl cries.’
CRY a Coding frame:
1-abs abs[1].V
(10)
Kid k'ok'ona gey.
kid
girl.ABS
k'ok'o-na
be.ill-CVB
gey
be.PRS
‘The girl is ill.’
BE ILL a Coding frame:
1-abs abs[1].V
(11)
Kibba k'atuwas beš baɣoyo.
kibba
girl.ERG
k'atu-wa-s
potato-OBL-GEN1
beš
skin(III).ABS
b-aɣo-yo
III-take-PST
‘Girl peeled off the potato's skin.’
PEEL the Verb form no verbal counterpart
(12)
Kibba iyol komak booyo.
kibba
girl.ERG
iyo-l
mother-LAT
komak
help(III).ABS
b-oo-yo
III-do-PST
‘The girl helped her mother.’
HELP a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-lat V
(13)
Kibba aboqa dilna niƛaƛo nisoyo.
kibba
girl.ERG
abo-qa
father-POSS
dil-na
1SG.LAT-and
niƛ-a-ƛo
give-IMP-QUOT
niso-yo
say-PST
‘The girl said to the father: "Give me as well!".’
SAY a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-poss UTT3 V
(14)
Uštelli q'owal xabar meeyo.
uštel-li
teacher-ERG
q'owa-l
children-LAT
xabar
story(III).ABS
m-ee-yo
III-let.out-PST
‘The teacher told a story to the children.’
TELL a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-lat V
(15)
Öžö xöxƛ'äš ekiyo.
öžö
boy(I).ABS
xöx-ƛ'ä-š
tree.OBL-SUP-ABL
Ø-ek-iyo
I-fall-PST
‘The boy fell from the tree.’
FALL a Coding frame:
1-abs 2-supabl abs[1].V
(16)
Iyo yuɣoyo.
iyo
mother(II).ABS
y-uɣo-yo
II-die-PST
‘The mother died.’
DIE a Coding frame:
1-abs abs[1].V
(17)
Öždi bekela k'obalalid biƛ'eyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
bekela
snake(III).ABS
k'obala-li-d
stick-OBL-INSTR
b-iƛ'e-yo
III-kill-PST
‘The boy killed the snake with the stick.’
KILL a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-instr abs[2].V
(18)
Kid q'ey yečena gey.
kid
girl(II).ABS
q'ey
on.the.ground
y-eče-na
II-be-CVB
gey
be.PRS
‘The girl is sitting.’
SIT a Coding frame:
1-abs abs[1].V
(19)
Öždi waya sabaliyad micoyo xöxił.
öždi
boy.ERG
waya
cow(III).ABS
sabali-ya-d
rope-OBL-INSTR
m-ico-yo
III-tie-PST
xöx-i-ł
tree-OBL-INTER
‘The boy tied the cow to the tree with the rope.’
TIE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-instr LOC4 abs[2].V
(20)
Kibba wedralaʔ łi git'iyo.
kibba
girl.ERG
wedra-la-ʔ
bucket-OBL-INESS
łi
water(IV).ABS
git'-iyo
pour(II/IV)-PST
‘The girl poured water into the bucket.’
POUR a Coding frame:
1-erg LOC2 3-abs abs[3].V
(21)
Öždi istoliyaƛ'a t'ek guliyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
istoli-ya-ƛ'a
table-OBL-SUP
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
gul-iyo
put(IV)-PST
‘The boy put the book on the table.’
PUT a Coding frame:
1-erg LOC2 3-abs abs[3].V
(22)
Öždi hudo mašinalƛ'a mosoyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
hudo
firewood(III).ABS
mašina-l-ƛ'a
car-OBL-SUP
m-oso-yo
III-collapse-PST
‘The boy loaded the firewood onto the car.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1-erg LOC2 3-abs abs[3].V
(23)
Öždi c'it'ad bäbä büč'iyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
c'it'-a-d
knife-OBL-INSTR
bäbä
bread(III).ABS
b-üč'-iyo
III-cut-PST
‘The boy cut the bread with the knife.’
CUT a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-instr abs[2].V
(24)
Öžö kibbaɣoy müɣäƛ eⁿƛ'eš.
öžö
boy(I).ABS
kibba-ɣoy
girl.OBL-COMIT
müɣäƛ
after
Ø-eⁿƛ'e-š
I-go-PRS
‘The boy follows the girl.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1-abs 2-com abs[1].V
(25)
Öždi isilco t'ek yuⁿcoyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
isi-l-co
sister-OBL-ABL
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-uⁿco-yo
IV-hide-PST
‘The boy hid the book from his sister.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abl 3-abs abs[3].V
(26)
Öžö kibbaƛ'as urɣeziaqiyo.
öžö
boy(I).ABS
kibba-ƛ'a-s
girl.OBL-SUP-ABL
urɣezi<Ø>aq-iyo
think<I>-PST
‘The boy thinks about the girl.’
THINK a Coding frame:
1-abs 2-supabl abs[1].V
(27)
Kibba t'ek xalbooyo.
kibba
girl.ERG
t'ek
book.ABS
xalboo-yo
search-PST
‘The girl looked for the book.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs abs[2].V
(28)
Öžö kibbaqa goc'oqiyo.
öžö
boy.ABS
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
goc'oq-iyo
look(I)-PST
‘The boy looked at the girl.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
1-abs 2-poss abs[1].V
(29)
Öždi kibbaƛ'a lalaƛoyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-ƛ'a
girl.OBL-SUP
lalaƛo-yo
shout-PST
‘The boy shouted at the girl.’
SCREAM a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-sup V
(30)
Kibba iyoqas t'ek yokčiyo.
kibba
girl.ERG
iyo-qa-s
mother-POSS-ABL
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-okči-yo
IV-take-PST
‘The girl took the book from the mother.’
TAKE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-possabl 3-abs abs[3].V
(31)
Mähmädi öždiƛ'a Murad caaⁿ gullo.
Mähmäd-i
Magomed-ERG
öždi-ƛ'a
boy.OBL-SUP
Murad
Murad
caaⁿ
name(IV).ABS
gul-lo
put(IV)-PST
‘Magomed called his son Murad.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-sup V
(32)
Kibba kuntalałco ɣeč'i yäxelca.
kibba
girl.ERG
kunta-la-ł-co
dress-OBL-INTER-ABL
ɣeč'i
tissue(IV).ABS
y-äxe-l-ca
IV-tear-CAUS-PRS
‘The girl tears the tissue from the dress.’
TEAR a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abl 3-abs abs[3].V
(33)
Öžö urɣelliƛ'a gey.
öžö
boy.ABS
urɣel-li-ƛ'a
thought-OBL-SUP
gey
be.PRS
‘The boy is sad.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
1-abs abs[1].V
(34)
Öžö äč’ɬiyo.
öžö
boy(I).ABS
Ø-äč’-ɬ-iyo
I-cold-INCH-PST
‘The boy got cold.’
FEEL COLD a Coding frame:
1-abs abs[1].V
(35)
Iyos q'äm k'ok'os.
iyo-s
mother-GEN1
q'äm
head.ABS
k'ok'o-s
hurt-PRS
‘The mother's head is aching.’
BE ILL a Coding frame:
1-abs abs[1].V
(36)
Hudo bek'eš.
hudo
firewood(III).ABS
b-ek'e-š
III-burn-PRS
‘The firewood is burning.’
BURN a Coding frame:
1-abs abs[1].V
(37)
Kid nukoyo.
kid
girl.ABS
nuko-yo
be.hungry-PST
‘The girl was hungry.’
BE HUNGRY a Coding frame:
1-abs abs[1].V
(38)
Kibba öhƛöyo.
kibba
girl.ERG
öhƛö-yo
cough-PST
‘The girl coughed.’
COUGH a Coding frame:
1-erg V
(39)
Öždis häydä pacpaƛos.
öždi-s
boy.OBL-GEN1
häy-dä
eye-PL
pacpaƛo-s
blink-PRS
‘The boys eyes are blinking.’
BLINK a Coding frame:
V
(40)
Kibba łiis wedra boc'ilca.
kibba
girl.ERG
łii-s
water-GEN1
wedra
bucket(III).ABS
b-oc'-il-ca
III-fill-CAUS-PRS
‘The girl fills the bucket with the water.’
FILL a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs abs[2].V
(41)
Kibba xo heleyo.
kibba
girl.ERG
xo
meat.ABS
hele-yo
boil-PST
‘The girl cooked (boiled) the meat.’
COOK a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs abs[2].V
(42)
Gama ɣanq'izibaqiyo.
gama
boat(III).ABS
ɣanq'izi<b>aq-iyo
sink<III>-PST
‘The boat sank.’
SINK a Coding frame:
1-abs abs[1].V
(43)
Öžö äƛaʔaš eⁿƛ'eyo.
öžö
boy(I).ABS
äƛ-a-ʔ-aš
village-OBL-IN-ABL
Ø-eⁿƛ'e-yo
I-go-PST
‘The boy left the village.’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
1-abs 2-abl abs[1].V
(44)
Örrä k'äyƛöš.
örrä
wheel.ABS
k'äyƛö-š
turn.round-PRS
‘The wheel is rolling.’
ROLL a Coding frame:
1-abs abs[1].V
(45)
Öždi yiƛa č'an yaɣos.
öždi
boy.ERG
yiƛa
fast
č'an
run(IV).ABS
y-aɣo-s
IV-take-PRS
‘The boy is running fast.’
RUN a Coding frame:
1-erg V
(46)
Wodo guus.
wodo
rain(III)
guu-s
come(III)-PRS
‘It is raining.’
RAIN the Verb form no verbal counterpart
(47)
Boq moq'oyo.
boq
sun(III).ABS
m-oq'o-yo
III-come-PST
‘The sun appeared.’
APPEAR a Coding frame:
1-abs abs[1].V
(48)
Öždi kibbal aⁿło yoc'iyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
aⁿło
embrace(IV).ABS
y-oc'-iyo
IV-fill-PST
‘The boy hugged the girl.’
HUG a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-lat V
(49)
Kibbal k'imalis mäh biq'eyo.
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
k'ima-li-s
cheese-OBL-GEN1
mäh
smell(III).ABS
b-iq'e-yo
III-know-PST
‘The girl smelled the cheese.’
SMELL a Coding frame:
1-lat V
(50)
Öždi bab kusuʔiyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
bab
beard.ABS
kusuʔ-iyo
shave-PST
‘The boy shaved his beard.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs abs[2].V
(51)
Öždil kid keziyaqiyo.
öždi-l
boy.OBL-DAT
kid
girl(II).ABS
kezi<y>aq-iyo
meet<II>-PST
‘The boy met the girl.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs abs[2].V
(52)
Kibba simindiyala hät't'äš bäbä boos.
kibba
girl.ERG
simindi-ya-la
maize-OBL-GEN2
hät't'ä-š
flour.OBL-GEN1
bäbä
bread(III).ABS
b-oo-s
III-do-PRS
‘The girl makes the bread out of maize flour.’
MAKE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs abs[2].V
(53)
łi ɣayƛos.
łi
water.ABS
ɣayƛo-s
boil-PRS
‘The water boils.’
BOIL a Coding frame:
1-abs abs[1].V
(54)
Kibbal quy tuqiyo.
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
quy
noise.ABS
tuq-iyo
hear-PST
‘The girl heard the noise.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
1-lat 2-abs abs[2].V
(55)
Ist'i isiqa okko harziyooyo.
ist'i
brother.ERG
isi-qa
sister-POSS
okko
money(IV).ABS
harzi<y>oo-yo
ask<IV>-PST
‘The brother asked his sister for the money.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-poss 3-abs abs[3].V
(56)
Öždi xäbäläd c'ika bišello.
öždi
boy.ERG
xäbä-lä-d
foot-OBL-INSTR
c'ika
glass(III).ABS
b-iše-ll-o
III-break-CAUS-PST
‘The boy broke the glass with his foot.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-instr abs[2].V
(57)
Öždi kibbal k'obala bäƛ'ello.
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
k'obala
stick(III).ABS
b-äƛ'el-lo
III-hit-PST
‘The boy hit the girl with the stick.’
BEAT a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-lat 3-abs abs[3].V
(58)
Öždi kid k'obalalid yäƛ'ello.
öždi
boy.ERG
kid
girl(II).ABS
k'obala-li-d
stick-OBL-INSTR
y-äƛ'el-lo
II-hit-PST
‘The boy hit the girl with the stick.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Instrument Alternation
(59)
Öždi kibbal t'ek niƛiyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
t'ek
book.ABS
niƛ-iyo
give-PST
‘The boy gave the book to the girl.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-lat 3-abs abs[3].V
(60)
Öždi kibbaqa t'ek niƛiyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
t'ek
book.ABS
niƛ-iyo
give-PST
‘The boy gave the book to the girl.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Recipient/Goal/Location Alternation 1
(61)
Öždi kibbaqal t'ek niƛiyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-qa-l
girl.OBL-POSS-LAT
t'ek
book.ABS
niƛ-iyo
give-PST
‘The boy gave the book to the girl.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Recipient/Goal/Location Alternation 1
(62)
Öždi kibbal koo yeⁿxelca.
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
koo
hand(IV).ABS
y-eⁿxe-l-ca
IV-touch-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy touches the girl with his hand.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-lat 3-abs abs[3].V
(63)
Öžö xöxƛ'ä ƛ'odo eⁿƛ'eyo.
öžö
boy(I).ABS
xöx-ƛ'ä
tree.OBL-SUP
ƛ'odo
upwards
Ø-eⁿƛ'e-yo
I-go-PST
‘The boy climbed the tree.’
CLIMB the Verb form no verbal counterpart
(64)
Kibba öždiƛ'a yurɣan moq'olca.
kibba
girl.ERG
öždi-ƛ'a
boy.OBL-SUP
yurɣan
blanket(III).ABS
m-oq'o-l-ca
III-come-CAUS-PRS
‘The girl covers the boy with the blanket.’
COVER a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-sup abs[2].V
(65)
Öžö ogic'iyo.
öžö
boy(I).ABS
Ø-ogic'-iyo
I-jump-PST
‘The boy jumped.’
JUMP a Coding frame:
1-abs abs[1].V
(66)
Öžö kibbaƛ'a laladayo.
öžö
boy.ABS
kibba-ƛ'a
girl.OBL-SUP
lala-da-yo
shout-ANTIP-PST
‘The boy shouted at the girl.’
SCREAM an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(67)
Öžö ogiyacca.
öžö
boy(I).ABS
Ø-ogi<ya>c-ca
I-jump<ANTIP>-PRS
‘The boy is busy jumping.’
JUMP an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(68)
Öžö kibbal t'eklad niƛdas.
öžö
boy.ABS
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
t'ek-la-d
book-PL-INSTR
niƛ-da-s
give-ANTIP-PRS
‘The boy gives books to the girl.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(69)
Öžö kusuʔdas.
öžö
boy.ABS
kusuʔ-da-s
shave-ANTIP-PRS
‘The boy shaves.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(70)
Kid öhdäyo.
kid
girl.ABS
öhdä-yo
cough.ANTIP-PST
‘The girl coughed many times.’
COUGH an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(71)
Öždi kibbal diʔi yeⁿeyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
diʔi
flower(IV).ABS
y-eⁿe-yo
IV-send-PST
‘The boy sent the girl the flower (for permanent possession).’
SEND a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-lat 3-abs abs[3].V
(72)
Öždi kibbadoy t'ek yeⁿeyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-doy
girl.OBL-APUD
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-eⁿe-yo
IV-send-PST
‘The boy sent girl the book (for temporary possession).’
SEND an Alternation:
Recipient/Goal/Location Alternation 2
(73)
Kid nänilaɬ k'isas.
kid
girl.ABS
nänilaɬ
doll.INTER
k'isa-s
play-PRS
‘The girl plays with the doll.’
PLAY a Coding frame:
1-abs abs[1].V
(74)
Kid łowas.
kid
girl.ABS
łowa-s
laugh-PRS
‘The girl laughs.’
LAUGH a Coding frame:
1-abs abs[1].V
(75)
Öždi q'ac'icco iyol yežeš.
öždi
boy.ERG
q'ac'icco
rucksack(IV).ABS
iyo-l
mother-LAT
y-eže-š
IV-carry-PRS
‘The boy carried the rucksack for the mother.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-lat 3-abs abs[3].V
(76)
Öždi q'ac'icco iyodoy yežeš.
öždi
boy.ERG
q'ac'icco
rucksack(IV).ABS
iyo-doy
mother-APUD
y-eže-š
IV-carry-PRS
‘The boy carries the rucksack to the mother.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Recipient/Goal/Location Alternation 2
(77)
Öždi kibbal t'ek yegalca.
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-ega-l-ca
IV-see-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy shows a book to the girl.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-lat 3-abs abs[3].V
(78)
Öždi äƛaʔ ömrö boos.
öždi
boy.ERG
äƛ-a-ʔ
village-OBL-INESS
ömrö
life(III).ABS
b-oo-s
III-do-PRS
‘The boy lives in the village.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-iness V
(79)
Mizo qoqona gey.
mizo
ground.ABS
qoqo-na
dry-CVB
gey
be.PRS
‘The ground is dry.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
1-abs abs[1].V
(80)
Öždi mäče bäxčä.
öždi
boy.ERG
mäče
ground(III).ABS
b-äx-čä
III-dig-PRS
‘The boy digs the ground.’
DIG a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs abs[2].V
(81)
Abo biłoqan gey.
abo
father.ABS
biłoqan
hunter.ABS
gey
be.PRS
‘The father is a hunter.’
BE A HUNTER the Verb form no verbal counterpart
(82)
Öždil kibbaqas t'ek yiqoyo.
öždi-l
boy.OBL-LAT
kibba-qa-s
girl.OBL-POSS-ABL
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-iqo-yo
IV-get-PST
‘The boy got the book from the girl.’
GET a Coding frame:
1-lat 2-possabl 3-abs abs[3].V
(83)
Kibba iyol žamɣo baq'oyo.
kibba
girl.ERG
iyo-l
mother-LAT
žamɣo
sorrel(III).ABS
b-aq'o-yo
III-bring-PST
‘The girl brought sorrel to the mother.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-lat 3-abs abs[3].V
(84)
Kibba iyodoy žamɣo baq'oyo.
kibba
girl.ERG
iyo-doy
mother-APUD
žamɣo
sorrel(III).ABS
b-aq'o-yo
III-bring-PST
‘The girl brought sorrel to the mother.’
BRING an Alternation:
Recipient/Goal/Location Alternation 2
(85)
Öždi kibbaqas t'ek yuⁿcoyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-qa-s
girl.OBL-POSS-ABL
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-uⁿco-yo
IV-steal-PST
‘The boy stole the book from the girl.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-possabl 3-abs abs[3].V
(86)
Öždi kibbal burti biƛ'eyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
burti
ball(III).ABS
b-iƛ'e-yo
III-throw-PST
‘The boy threw the ball to the girl (so as to hit her).’
THROW a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-lat 3-abs abs[3].V
(87)
Öždi kibbadoy burti biƛ'eyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-doy
girl.OBL-APUD
burti
ball(III).ABS
b-iƛ'e-yo
III-throw-PST
‘The boy threw the ball to the girl (into her direction).’
THROW an Alternation:
Recipient/Goal/Location Alternation 2
(88)
Öždi kibbaqa burti biƛ'eyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
burti
ball(III).ABS
b-iƛ'e-yo
III-throw-PST
‘The boy threw the ball to the girl (so that she would catch it).’
THROW an Alternation:
Recipient/Goal/Location Alternation 1
(89)
Öždi istoliyaƛ'a q'alam biƛ'eyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
istoli-ya-ƛ'a
table-OBL-SUP
q'alam
pencil(III).ABS
b-iƛ'e-yo
III-throw-PST
‘The boy threw the pencil on the table.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-lat 3-abs abs[3].V
(90)
Öždi ƛ'alo zistuqilca.
öždi
boy.ERG
ƛ'alo
stone(IV).ABS
zistuqil-ca
push(IV)-PRS
‘The boy pushes the stone.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs abs[2].V
(91)
Öžö wedralaʔ łiid git'das.
öžö
boy(I).ABS
wedra-la-ʔ
bucket-OBL-INESS
łii-d
water-INSTR
git'-da-s
pour(I)-ANTIP-PRS
‘The boy is busy pouring the water into the bucket.’
POUR an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(92)
Öžö istoliyaƛ'a t'eklad goldas.
öžö
boy(I).ABS
istoli-ya-ƛ'a
table-OBL-SUP
t'ek-la-d
book-PL-INSTR
gol-da-s
put(I)-ANTIP-PRS
‘The boy is busy putting books on the table.’
PUT an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(93)
Öžö istoliyaƛ'a q'alamlid iƛ'elas.
öžö
boy(I).ABS
istoli-ya-ƛ'a
table-OBL-SUP
q'alam-li-d
pencil-OBL-INSTR
Ø-iƛ'e-la-s
I-throw-ANTIP-PRS
‘The boy is busy throwing pencils on the table.’
THROW an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(94)
Kid iyol žamɣolid yaq'olas.
kid
girl(II).ABS
iyo-l
mother-LAT
žamɣo-li-d
sorrel-OBL-INSTR
y-aq'o-la-s
II-bring-ANTIP-PRS
‘The girl is busy bringing sorrel to the mother.’
BRING an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(95)
Öžö q'ac'iccad iyodoy eželas.
öžö
boy(I).ABS
q'ac'icca-d
rucksack.OBL-INSTR
iyo-doy
mother-APUD
Ø-eže-la-s
I-carry-ANTIP-PRS
‘The boy is busy carrying the rucksack to the mother.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(96)
Öžö kibbaqas t'eklad uⁿcolas.
öžö
boy(I).ABS
kibba-qa-s
girl.OBL-POSS-ABL
t'ek-la-d
book-PL-INSTR
Ø-uⁿco-la-s
I-steal-ANTIP-PRS
‘The boy is busy stealing books from the girl.’
STEAL an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(97)
Öždi istoliyaƛ'as čaq'i yaⁿcolca.
öždi
boy.ERG
istoli-ya-ƛ'a-s
table-OBL-SUP-ABL
čaq'i
ink(IV).ABS
y-aⁿco-l-ca
IV-clean-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy wipes the ink off the table.’
CLEAN a Coding frame:
1-erg LOC2 3-abs abs[3].V
(98)
Öžö istoliyaƛ'as čaq'ilad aⁿcoldas.
öžö
boy(I).ABS
istoli-ya-ƛ'a-s
table-OBL-SUP-ABL
čaq'i-la-d
ink-OBL-INSTR
Ø-aⁿco-l-da-s
I-clean-CAUS-ANTIP-PRS
‘The boy is busy wiping the ink off the table.’
CLEAN an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(99)
Öžö c'it'ad bäbäläd üč'das.
öžö
boy(I).ABS
c'it'ad
knife.INSTR
bäbä-lä-d
bread-OBL-INSTR
Ø-üⁿč'-da-s
I-cut-ANTIP-PRS
‘The boy is busy cutting the bread with the knife.’
CUT an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(100)
Öžö kibbal k'obalalid äƛ'eldas.
öžö
boy(I).ABS
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
k'obala-li-d
stick-OBL-INSTR
Ø-äƛ'el-da-s
I-hit-ANTIP-PRS
‘The boy is busy hitting the girl with the stick.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(101)
Uštel q'owal xabarlaad eⁿhdas.
uštel
teacher(I).ABS
q'owa-l
children-LAT
xabar-laa-d
story-PL.OBL-INSTR
Ø-eⁿh-da-s
I-let.out-ANTIP-PRS
‘The teacher is busy telling a story to the kids.’
TELL an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(102)
Kid łic'olid nizalaas.
kid
girl.ABS
łic'o-li-d
clothes-OBL-INSTR
niza-laa-s
wash-ANTIP-PRS
‘The girl is busy washing the clothes.’
WASH an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(103)
Kid keč'lad iƛelas.
kid
girl.ABS
keč'-la-d
song-PL-INSTR
iƛe-la-s
sing-ANTIP-PRS
‘The girl is busy singing songs.’
SING an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(104)
Hudo bek'eldas.
hudo
firewood(III).ABS
b-ek'el-da-s
III-burn.CAUS-ANTIP-PRS
‘The firewood is burning slowly.’
BURN an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(105)
Kid iyoqas t'eklad yokčildas.
kid
girl(II).ABS
iyo-qa-s
mother-POSS-ABL
t'ek-la-d
book-PL-INSTR
y-okči-l-da-s
II-take-CAUS-ANTIP-PST
‘The girl is busy taking books from her mother.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(106)
Öždi qibo haʔos haboƛ'a.
öždi
boy.ERG
qibo
wheat.ABS
haʔo-s
grind-PRS
habo-ƛ'a
mill-SUP
‘The boy grinds the wheat on the mill.’
GRIND a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs abs[2].V
(107)
Kibba hinila gedis öždil xabar mehca.
kibba
girl.ERG
hini-la
REFL-GEN2
gedi-s
cat.OBL-GEN1
öždi-l
boy.OBL-LAT
xabar
story(III).ABS
m-eh-ca
III-let.out-PRS
‘The girl talks to the boy about her cat.’
TELL a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-lat V
(108)
Kid yeⁿƛ'eš biƛoɣa.
kid
girl(II).ABS
y-eⁿƛ'e-š
II-go-PRS
biƛo-ɣa
house-APUD
‘The girl goes home.’
GO a Coding frame:
1-abs LOC2 abs[1].V
(109)
Xo heleš.
xo
meat.ABS
hele-š
boil-PRS
‘The meat is cooking/boiling.’
COOK an Alternation:
Ambitransitive Alternation
(110)
Kibba łi ɣayƛollo.
kibba
girl.ERG
łi
water.ABS
ɣayƛo-l-lo
boil-CAUS-PST
‘The girl boiled the water.’
BOIL an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(111)
Kibba öžö xöxƛ'äš ekillo.
kibba
girl.ERG
öžö
boy(I).ABS
xöx-ƛ'ä-š
tree.OBL-SUP-ABL
Ø-ek-ill-o
I-fall-CAUS-PST
‘The girl made the boy fall from the tree.’
FALL an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(112)
Öždi örrä k'äyƛölca.
öždi
boy.ERG
örrä
wheel.ABS
k'äyƛö-l-ca
roll-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy rolls the wheel.’
ROLL an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(113)
Öždi iyo kibbaƛ'as urɣeziyooyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
iyo
mother(II).ABS
kibba-ƛ'a-s
girl.OBL-SUP-ABL
urɣezi<y>oo-yo
think.about<II>-PST
‘The boy made mother think about the girl.’
THINK an Alternation:
Causative with yowal
(114)
Öždi iyoqa kid gič'eqilca.
öždi
boy.ERG
iyo-qa
mother-POSS
kid
girl(II).ABS
gič'eq-il-ca
look(II)-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy makes the girl look at the mother.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(115)
Kibba öžö iyagolca.
kibba
girl.ERG
öžö
boy(I).ABS
Ø-iya-gol-ca
I-cry-MAKE(I)-PRS
‘The girl makes the boy cry.’
CRY an Alternation:
Causative with golal
(116)
Öždi iyos q'äm k'ok'olca.
öždi
boy.ERG
iyo-s
mother-GEN1
q'äm
head.ABS
k'ok'o-l-ca
be.ill-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy troubles the mother.’
BE ILL an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(117)
Öždi häydä pacpaƛolca.
öždi
boy.ERG
häy-dä
eye-PL
pacpaƛo-l-ca
blink-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy blinks his eyes.’
BLINK an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(118)
Öždi kibbal ʔarab mic małciboos.
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
ʔarab
Arabic
mic
language(III).ABS
małci<b>oo-s
teach<III>-PRS
‘The boy teaches the Arabic language to the girl.’
TEACH a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-lat 3-abs abs[3].V
(119)
Öždi yiƛa č'anaɣoš.
öždi
boy.ERG
yiƛa
fast
č'anaɣo-š
run-PRS
‘The boy runs fast.’
RUN an Alternation:
Object Incorporation Alternation
(120)
Öždiqa xäbäläd c'ika bišello.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
xäbä-lä-d
foot-OBL-INSTR
c'ika
glass(III).ABS
b-iše-l-lo
III-break-CAUS-PST
‘Accidentally the boy broke the glass with his foot.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Accidental/Potential Transitive Alternation
(121)
Öždi c'it'ad hinis zoƛ'o büč'iyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
c'it'a-d
knife.OBL-INSTR
hini-s
REFL-GEN1
zoƛ'o
finger(III).ABS
b-üč'-iyo
III-cut-PST
‘Accidentally the boy cut his finger with the knife.’
CUT an Alternation:
Accidental/Potential Transitive Alternation
(122)
Kibba hudo bek'elca.
kibba
girl.ERG
hudo
firewood(III).ABS
b-ek'e-l-ca
III-burn-CAUS-PRS
‘The girl burns the firewood.’
BURN an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(123)
Kibba iyoqa gedo begaallo.
kibba
girl.ERG
iyo-qa
mother-POSS
gedo
cat(III).ABS
b-egaa-l-lo
III-see-CAUS-PST
‘The girl showed the cat to the mother.’
SEE an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(124)
Öždi dars yiq'elca.
öždi
boy.ERG
dars
lesson(IV)
y-iq'e-l-ca
IV-know-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy learns a lesson.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(125)
Kibba hinɣoy öžö k'isagolca.
kibba
girl.ERG
hin-ɣoy
REFL-COMIT
öžö
boy(I).ABS
k'isa-gol-ca
play-MAKE(I)-PRS
‘The girl makes the boy play with her.’
PLAY an Alternation:
Causative with golal
(126)
Öždi kid biƛoɣa yoⁿq'ollo.
öždi
boy.ERG
kid
girl(II).ABS
biƛo-ɣa
house-APUD
y-oⁿq'o-l-lo
II-come-CAUS-PST
‘The boy accompanied girl to the house.’
APPEAR an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(127)
Kibba öždää iyoɣoy kezibooyo.
kibba
girl.ERG
öždää
boy.PL
iyo-ɣoy
mother-COMIT
kezi<b>oo-yo
meet.CAUS<HPL>-PST
‘The girl introduced the boys to the mother.’
MEET an Alternation:
Causative with yowal
(128)
Kibba iyod simindiyala hät't'äš bäbä boylis.
kibba
girl.ERG
iyo-d
mother-INSTR
simindi-ya-la
maize-OBL-GEN2
hät't'ä-š
flour.OBL-GEN1
bäbä
bread(III).ABS
b-oy-l-is
III-do-CAUS-PRS
‘The girl made the mother make the bread out of maize flour.’
MAKE an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(129)
Öždi ist'id mizala aguriyas biƛo yoyliyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
miza-la
ground.OBL-GEN2
aguri-ya-s
brick-OBL-GEN1
biƛo
house(IV).ABS
y-oy-l-iyo
IV-do-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the brother make the house out of ground bricks.’
MAKE an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(130)
Öždi kibbad iyol diʔi yeⁿeyliyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-d
girl.OBL-INSTR
iyo-l
mother-LAT
diʔi
flower(IV).ABS
y-eⁿe-yl-iyo
IV-send-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the girl send a flower to the mother.’
SEND an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(131)
Öždi kibbad q'ac'icco iyol yežeylis.
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-d
girl.OBL-INSTR
q'ac'icco
rucksack(IV).ABS
iyo-l
mother-LAT
y-eže-yl-is
IV-carry-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy made the girl carry the rucksack for the mother.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(132)
Öždi kid q'ey yečello.
öždi
boy.ERG
kid
girl(II).ABS
q'ey
on.the.ground
y-eče-l-lo
II-stay-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the girl sit down.’
SIT an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(133)
Kid öždiƛ'a yurɣanlid yoq'oldas.
kid
girl(II).ABS
öždi-ƛ'a
boy.OBL-SUP
yurɣan-li-d
blanket-OBL-INSTR
y-oq'o-l-da-s
II-come-CAUS-ANTIP-PRS
‘The girl is busy covering the boy with the blanket.’
COVER an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(134)
Öždi kid łowagilca.
öždi
boy.ERG
kid
girl(II).ABS
łowa-gil-ca
laugh-MAKE(II)-PRS
‘The boy made the girl laugh.’
LAUGH an Alternation:
Causative with golal
(135)
Öždiqa box qoqoyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
box
grass.ABS
qoqo-yo
dry-PST
‘The boy could dry the grass. / The boy accidentally dried the grass.’
BE DRY an Alternation:
Accidental/Potential Intransitive Alternation
(136)
Öždi box qoqollo.
öždi
boy.ERG
box
grass.ABS
qoqo-l-lo
dry-CAUS-PST
‘The boy dried the grass.’
BE DRY an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(137)
Öžö micał äkid äxdäš.
öžö
boy(I).ABS
mica-ł
ground.OBL-INTER
äⁿki-d
shovel.OBL-INSTR
Ø-äx-dä-š
I-dig-ANTIP-PRS
‘The boy digs (in) the ground with the shovel.’
DIG an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(138)
Kibba öždid mäče bäxillis.
kibba
girl.ERG
öždi-d
boy.OBL-INSTR
mäče
ground(III).ABS
b-äx-ill-is
III-dig-CAUS2-PRS
‘The girl makes the boy dig the ground.’
DIG an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(139)
Öždi ist'id kibbaqas t'ek yiqollo.
öždi
boy.ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
kibba-qa-s
girl.OBL-POSS-ABL
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-iqo-l-lo
IV-get-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the brother get the book from the girl.’
GET an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(140)
Öžö bäbäläd üⁿqdäš.
öžö
boy(I).ABS
bäbä-lä-d
bread-OBL-INSTR
Ø-üⁿq-dä-š
I-eat-ANTIP-PRS
‘The boy is busy eating the bread.’
EAT an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(141)
Öždiqa xöxƛ'äš eⁿš bekiyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
xöx-ƛ'ä-š
tree.OBL-SUP-ABL
eⁿš
apple(III)
b-ek-iyo
III-fall-PST
‘The boy could make the apple fall from the tree. / The boy accidentally made the apple fall from the tree.’
FALL an Alternation:
Accidental/Potential Intransitive Alternation
(142)
Öždiqa wo buɣoyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
wo
dog(III).ABS
b-uɣo-yo
III-die-PST
‘The boy could kill the dog. / The boy accidentally killed the dog.’
DIE an Alternation:
Accidental/Potential Intransitive Alternation
(143)
Öžö sabaliyad xöxił iⁿcolas.
öžö
boy(I).ABS
sabali-ya-d
rope-OBL-INSTR
xöx-i-ł
tree-OBL-INTER
Ø-iⁿco-la-s
I-tie-ANTIP-PRS
‘The boy ties the rope to the tree.’
TIE an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(144)
Öždiqa kid yäč’ɬiyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
kid
girl(II).ABS
y-äč’-ɬ-iyo
II-cold-INCH-PST
‘The boy accidentally made the girl get cold. / The boy could make the girl get cold.’
FEEL COLD an Alternation:
Accidental/Potential Intransitive Alternation
(145)
Kibbaqa biƛo yek'eyo.
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
biƛo
house(IV).ABS
y-ek'e-yo
IV-burn-PST
‘The girl accidentally burnt the house. / The girl could burn the house.’
BURN an Alternation:
Accidental/Potential Intransitive Alternation
(146)
Öždiqa häydä pacpaƛoyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
häy-dä
eye-PL
pacpaƛo-yo
blink-PST
‘The boy could blink his eyes. / The boy accidentally blinked his eyes.’
BLINK an Alternation:
Accidental/Potential Intransitive Alternation
(147)
Öždiqa kid biƛoɣa yoⁿq'oyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
kid
girl(II).ABS
biƛo-ɣa
house-APUD
y-oⁿq'o-yo
II-come-PST
‘The boy could bring the girl home. / The boy accidentally brought the girl home.’
APPEAR an Alternation:
Accidental/Potential Intransitive Alternation
(148)
Öždi kibbal k'imalis mäh biq'ello.
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
k'ima-li-s
cheese-OBL-GEN1
mäh
smell(III).ABS
b-iq'e-l-lo
III-know-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the girl smell the cheese.’
SMELL an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(149)
Abo öždid bab kusuʔliyo.
abo
father.ERG
öždi-d
boy.OBL-INSTR
bab
beard.ABS
kusuʔ-l-iyo
shave-CAUS-PST
‘The father made the boy shave his beard.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(150)
Kibbaqa łi ɣayƛoyo.
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
łi
water.ABS
ɣayƛo-yo
boil-PST
‘The girl could boil the water. / The girl accidentally boiled the water.’
BOIL an Alternation:
Accidental/Potential Intransitive Alternation
(151)
Öždi kibbal xabar tuqilca.
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
xabar
story.ABS
tuq-il-ca
hear-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy makes the girl listen to the story.’
HEAR an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(152)
Öždi kid bäbäläd yüⁿqdagilca.
öždi
boy.ERG
kid
girl(II).ABS
bäbä-lä-d
bread-OBL-INSTR
y-üⁿq-da-gil-ca
II-eat-PL-MAKE(II)-PRS
‘The boy makes the girl eat the bread.’
EAT an Alternation:
Causative with golal
(153)
Öždi kid yat'ilca.
öždi
boy.ERG
kid
girl(II).ABS
y-at'-il-ca
II-like-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy likes the girl. (lit. The boy is cuddling the girl.).’
LIKE an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(154)
Öždi kibbad łic'o nizayliyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-d
girl.OBL-INSTR
łic'o
clothes.ABS
niza-yl-iyo
wash-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the girl wash the clothes.’
WASH an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(155)
Öždi kibbad keč' iƛellis.
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-d
girl.OBL-INSTR
keč'
song.ABS
iƛe-ll-is
sing-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy makes the girl sing the song.’
SING an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(156)
Untila k'ok'ollo maɣo.
untila
disease.ERG
k'ok'o-l-lo
be.sick-CAUS-PST
maɣo
body
‘The disease made the body sick.’
BE ILL an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(157)
Kibba iyol öždid komak boyliyo.
kibba
girl.ERG
iyo-l
mother-LAT
öždi-d
boy.OBL-INSTR
komak
help(III).ABS
b-oo-yl-iyo
III-do-CAUS-PST
‘The girl made the boy help the mother.’
HELP an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(158)
Kibba öždid gedoƛo nisoyliyo.
kibba
girl.ERG
öždi-d
boy.OBL-INSTR
gedo-ƛo
cat-QUOT
niso-yl-iyo
say-CAUS-PST
‘The girl made the boy say 'cat'.’
SAY an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(159)
Uštelli q'owad hinil xabar meeyliyo.
uštel-li
teacher-ERG
q'owa-d
children-INSTR
hini-l
REFL-LAT
xabar
story(III).ABS
m-ee-yl-iyo
III-let.out-CAUS-PST
‘The teacher made the children tell him a story.’
TELL an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(160)
Öždi ist'id kibbal ʔarab mic małcibooyliyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
ʔarab
Arabic
mic
language(III).ABS
małci<b>oo-yl-iyo
teach<III>-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy made the brother teach the girl the Arabic language.’
TEACH an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(161)
Öždi wo buɣollo.
öždi
boy.ERG
wo
dog(III).ABS
b-uɣo-l-lo
III-die-CAUS-PST
‘The boy killed the dog.’
DIE an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(162)
Öždi ist'id bekela k'obalalid biƛ'elliyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
bekela
snake(III).ABS
k'obala-li-d
stick-OBL-INSTR
b-iƛ'e-ll-iyo
III-kill-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the brother kill the snake with the stick.’
KILL an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(163)
Iyo kid q'ey yečello.
iyo
mother.ERG
kid
girl(II).ABS
q'ey
down
y-eče-l-lo
II-sit-CAUS-PST
‘The mother made the girl sit down.’
SIT an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(164)
Öždi kibbad waya sabaliyad xöxił micolliyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-d
girl.OBL-INSTR
waya
cow(III).ABS
sabali-ya-d
rope-OBL-INSTR
xöx-i-ł
tree-OBL-INTER
m-ico-ll-iyo
III-tie-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the girl tie the cow to the tree with the rope.’
TIE an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(165)
Kibba öždid wedralaʔ łi git'illiyo.
kibba
girl.ERG
öždi-d
boy.OBL-INSTR
wedra-la-ʔ
bucket-OBL-INESS
łi
water(IV).ABS
git'-ill-iyo
pour(IV)-CAUS-PST
‘The girl made the boy pour water into the bucket.’
POUR an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(166)
Öždi istoliyaƛ'a kibbad t'ek gulliyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
istoli-ya-ƛ'a
table-OBL-SUP
kibba-d
girl.OBL-INSTR
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
gul-ill-iyo
put(IV)-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the girl put the book on the table.’
PUT an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(167)
Öždi xabar urɣezibooyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
xabar
story(III).ABS
urɣezi<b>oo-yo
think.about<III>-PST
‘The boy made up the story.’
THINK an Alternation:
Causative with yowal
(168)
Öždi is kibba-qa goc'oq-ill-iyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
is
brother(I).ABS
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
goc'oq-ill-iyo
look(I)-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the brother look at the girl.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(169)
Mähmädi ist'id öždiƛ'a Murad caaⁿ gulilliyo.
Mähmäd-i
Magomed-ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
öždi-ƛ'a
boy.OBL-SUP
Murad
Murad
caaⁿ
name(IV).ABS
gul-ill-iyo
put(IV)-CAUS-PST
‘Magomed made his brother name his son Murad.’
NAME an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(170)
Kibba öžö nukogolca.
kibba
girl.ERG
öžö
boy(I).ABS
nuko-gol-ca
be.hungry-MAKE(I)-PRS
‘The girl makes the boy hungry.’
BE HUNGRY an Alternation:
Causative with golal
(171)
Öžö kibbal diʔiläd eⁿhdas.
öžö
boy(I).ABS
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
diʔi-lä-d
flower-OBL-INSTR
Ø-eⁿh-da-s
I-send-ANTIP-PRS
‘The boy is busy sending flowers to the girl.’
SEND an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(172)
Öžö qibad haʔolas haboƛ'a.
öžö
boy(I).ABS
qiba-d
wheat.OBL-INSTR
haʔo-la-s
grind-ANTIP-PRS
habo-ƛ'a
mill-SUP
‘The boy grinds the wheat on the mill.’
GRIND an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(173)
Öždiqa qibo haʔoyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
qibo
wheat.ABS
haʔo-yo
grind-PST
‘The boy could grind the wheat. / The boy accidentally ground the wheat.’
GRIND an Alternation:
Accidental/Potential Transitive Alternation
(174)
Öžö hudad mašinalƛ'a oⁿsolas.
öžö
boy(I).ABS
huda-d
firewood.OBL-INSTR
mašina-l-ƛ'a
car-OBL-SUP
Ø-oⁿso-la-s
I-collapse-ANTIP-PST
‘The boy is busy loading the firewood on the car.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(175)
Öždi ist'id hudo mašinalƛ'a mosolliyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
hudo
firewood(III).ABS
mašina-l-ƛ'a
car-OBL-SUP
m-oso-ll-iyo
III-collapse-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the brother load the car with the firewood.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(176)
Kibba öždid t'ek xalboyliyo.
kibba
girl.ERG
öždi-d
boy.OBL-INSTR
t'ek
book.ABS
xalbo-yl-iyo
search-CAUS-PST
‘The girl made the boy search for the book.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(177)
Kid iyod isiƛ'a kuntalad łič'eldas.
kid
girl.ABS
iyo-d
mother-INSTR
isi-ƛ'a
sister-SUP
kunta-la-d
dress-OBL-INSTR
łič'e-l-da-s
put.on-CAUS-ANTIP-PRS
‘The girl is dressing the sister with the mother.’
DRESS an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(178)
Kibba öždid iyoqas t'ek yokčilliyo.
kibba
girl.ERG
öždi-d
boy.OBL-INSTR
iyo-qa-s
mother-POSS-ABL
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-okči-ll-iyo
IV-take-CAUS-PST
‘The girl made the boy take the book from the mother.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(179)
Mähmäd öždiƛ'a caaⁿd goldas.
Mähmäd
Magomed.ABS
öždi-ƛ'a
boy.OBL-SUP
caaⁿd
name.INSTR
gol-da-s
put(I)-ANTIP-PRS
‘Magomed gives names to boys.’
NAME an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(180)
Öžö kuntalałla kisad äxeldas.
öžö
boy(I).ABS
kuntalałla
dress.OBL.INTER.GEN2
kisad
pocket.INSTR
Ø-äxe-l-da-s
I-tear-CAUS-ANTIP-PRS
‘The boy is busy tearing the dress pocket.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(181)
Kibbaqa xo heleyo.
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
xo
meat.ABS
hele-yo
cook-PST
‘The girl could cook the meat. / The girl accidentally cooked the meat.’
COOK an Alternation:
Accidental/Potential Transitive Alternation
(182)
Kibba öždid k'atu helelliyo.
kibba
girl.ERG
öždi-d
boy.OBL-INSTR
k'atu
potato.ABS
hele-ll-iyo
cook-CAUS-PST
‘The girl made the boy boil potatoes.’
COOK an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(183)
Öždiqa örrä k'äyƛöyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
örrä
wheel.ABS
k'äyƛö-yo
roll-PST
‘The boy could roll the wheel. / The boy accidentally rolled the wheel.’
ROLL an Alternation:
Accidental/Potential Intransitive Alternation
(184)
Öžö kibbal aⁿłod oc'ildas.
öžö
boy(I).ABS
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
aⁿłod
embrace.INSTR
Ø-oc'-il-da-s
I-fill-CAUS-ANTIP-PRS
‘The boy is busy hugging the girl.’
HUG an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(185)
Kibba öždid k'imalis mäh biq'ello.
kibba
girl.ERG
öždi-d
boy.OBL-INSTR
k'ima-li-s
cheese-OBL-GEN1
mäh
smell(III)
b-iq'e-l-lo
III-know-CAUS-PST
‘The girl made the boy smell the cheese.’
SMELL the Verb form mäh biq'al
(186)
Öžö kibbal kood eⁿxeldas.
öžö
boy(I).ABS
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
koo-d
hand-INSTR
Ø-eⁿxe-l-da-s
I-touch-CAUS-ANTIP-PRS
‘The boy is busy touching the girl with the hand.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(187)
Öždi kid biƛoɣa yeⁿyliyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
kid
girl(II).ABS
biƛo-ɣa
house-APUD
y-eⁿ-yl-iyo
II-let.out-CAUS-PST
‘The boy let the girl go home.’
GO an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(188)
Öždi kibbad bäbä c'it'ad büč'illiyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-d
girl.OBL-INSTR
bäbä
bread(III).ABS
c'it'-a-d
knife-OBL-INSTR
b-üč'-ill-iyo
III-cut-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the girl cut the bread with the knife.’
CUT an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(189)
Öždi wo kibbaɣoy müɣäƛ meeyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
wo
dog(III).ABS
kibba-ɣoy
girl.OBL-COMIT
müɣäƛ
behind
m-ee-yo
III-send-PST
‘The boy let the dog follow the girl.’
FOLLOW the Verb form müɣäƛ yeⁿƛ'al
(190)
Öždi ist'id kibbaqas t'ek yuⁿcolliyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
kibba-qa-s
girl.OBL-POSS-ABL
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-uⁿco-ll-iyo
IV-steal-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the brother steal the book from the girl.’
STEAL an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(191)
Kibba iyod kunta isiƛ'a łič'elliyo.
kibba
girl.ERG
iyod
mother.INSTR
kunta
dress.ABS
isi-ƛ'a
sister-SUP
łič'e-ll-iyo
put.on-CAUS-PST
‘The girl dressed the sister with the mother's help.’
DRESS a Coding frame:
1-erg 2-abs 3-sup abs[2].V
(192)
Öždi ist'id kibbaƛ'a lalaƛolliyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
kibba-ƛ'a
girl.OBL-SUP
lalaƛo-ll-iyo
shout-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the brother shout at the girl.’
SCREAM an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(193)
Öždi kid urɣelliƛ'a yekilliyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
kid
girl(II).ABS
urɣel-li-ƛ'a
thought-OBL-SUP
y-ek-ill-iyo
II-fall-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the girl sad.’
BE SAD an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(194)
Öždi kid yäč'k'iyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
kid
girl(II).ABS
y-äč'-k'-iyo
II-cold-TR-PST
‘The boy made the girl feel cold.’
FEEL COLD an Alternation:
Causative with -k'
(195)
Kid k'atula öhdägilca.
kid
girl(II).ABS
k'atu-la
potato-ERG
öhdä-gil-ca
cough.ANTIP-MAKE(II)-PRS
‘The potato makes the girl cough.’
COUGH an Alternation:
Causative with golal
(196)
Kibba ist'id łiis wedra boc'illiyo.
kibba
girl.ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
łii-s
water-GEN1
wedra
bucket(III).ABS
b-oc'-ill-iyo
III-fill-CAUS2-PRS
‘The girl made the brother fill the bucket with the water.’
FILL an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(197)
Allahli wodo guyliyo.
Allah-li
God-ERG
wodo
rain(IV)
guy-l-iyo
come(IV)-CAUS-PST
‘The God made the rain go.’
RAIN an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(198)
Ist'i isid iyoqa okko harziyoyliyo.
ist'i
brother.ERG
isi-d
sister-INSTR
iyo-qa
mother-POSS
okko
money(IV).ABS
harzi<y>oo-yl-iyo
ask<IV>-CAUS-PST
‘The brother made the sister ask money from the mother.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(199)
Öždi kibbad gedil k'obala bäƛ'elliyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-d
girl.OBL-INSTR
gedil
cat.LAT
k'obala
stick(III).ABS
b-äƛ'el-l-iyo
III-hit-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the girl hit the cat with the stick.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(200)
Öždi ist'id kibbal t'ek niƛilliyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
t'ek
book.ABS
niƛ-ill-iyo
give-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the brother give the book to the girl.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(201)
Öždiqa bäbä müqiyłiyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
bäbä
bread(III).ABS
m-üq-iył-iyo
III-eat-POT-PST
‘The boy could eat the bread.’
CLIMB an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(202)
Kibba iyod öždiƛ'a yurɣan moq'olliyo.
kibba
girl.ERG
iyo-d
mother-INSTR
öždi-ƛ'a
boy.OBL-SUP
yurɣan
blanket(III).ABS
m-oq'o-ll-iyo
III-come-CAUS2-PST
‘The girl made the mother cover the boy with the blanket.’
COVER an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(203)
Kibbaqa łic'o nizayłiyo.
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
łic'o
clothes.ABS
niza-ył-iyo
wash-POT-PST
‘The girl could wash the clothes.’
WASH an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(204)
Öždi kid yogic'illo.
öždi
boy.ERG
kid
girl(II).ABS
y-ogic'-ill-o
II-jump-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the girl jump.’
JUMP an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(205)
Kibbaqa iyol keč' iƛeyłiyo.
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
iyo-l
mother-LAT
keč'
song.ABS
iƛe-ył-iyo
sing-POT-PST
‘The girl could sing a song to her mother.’
SING an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(206)
Öždi ist'id kibbal t'ek yegalliyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-ega-ll-iyo
IV-see-CAUS2-PRS
‘The boy made the brother show the book to the girl.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(207)
Öždiqa hudo mašinalƛ'a mosoyłiyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
hudo
firewood(III).ABS
mašina-l-ƛ'a
car-OBL-SUP
m-oso-ył-iyo
III-load-POT-PST
‘The boy could load the car with the firewood.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(208)
Kibba ist'id iyol žamɣo baq'olliyo.
kibba
girl.ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
iyo-l
mother-LAT
žamɣo
sorrel(III).ABS
b-aq'o-ll-iyo
III-bring-CAUS-PST
‘The girl made the brother bring the sorrel to the mother.’
BRING an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(209)
Öždiqa waya sabaliyad xöxił micoyłiyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
waya
cow(III).ABS
sabali-ya-d
rope-OBL-INSTR
xöx-i-ł
tree-OBL-INTER
m-ico-ył-iyo
III-tie-POT-PST
‘The boy could tie the cow to the tree.’
TIE an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(210)
Öždi ist'id kibbal burti biƛ'elliyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
burti
ball(III).ABS
b-iƛ'e-ll-iyo
III-throw-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the brother throw the ball to the girl.’
THROW an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(211)
Kibbaqa wedralaʔ łi git'iyłiyo.
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
wedra-la-ʔ
bucket-OBL-INESS
łi
water(IV).ABS
git'-iył-iyo
pour(II/IV)-POT-PST
‘The girl could pour water into the bucket.’
POUR an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(212)
Kibba öždid ƛ'alo zistuqilliyo.
kibba
girl.ERG
öždi-d
boy.OBL-INSTR
ƛ'alo
stone.ABS
zistuqil-l-iyo
push-CAUS-PST
‘The girl made the boy push the stone.’
PUSH an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(213)
Öždiqa kibbal burti biƛ'eyłiyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
burti
ball(III).ABS
b-iƛ'e-ył-iyo
III-throw-POT-PST
‘The boy could throw the ball to the girl.’
THROW an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(214)
Kibba öždid gedis xabar meyliyo.
kibba
girl.ERG
öždi-d
boy.OBL-INSTR
gedi-s
cat.OBL-GEN1
xabar
story(III).ABS
m-e-yl-iyo
III-let.out-CAUS-PST
‘The girl made the boy tell the story about the cat.’
TELL an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(215)
Kibbaqa iyol žamɣo baq'oyłiyo.
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
iyo-l
mother-LAT
žamɣo
sorrel(III).ABS
b-aq'o-ył-iyo
III-bring-POT-PST
‘The girl could bring sorrel to the mother.’
BRING an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(216)
Öždi ist'id isilco t'ek yuⁿcoyliyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
isi-l-co
sister-OBL-ABL
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-uⁿco-yl-iyo
IV-hide-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the brother hide the book from his sister.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(217)
Öždiqa q'ac'icco iyol yežeyłiyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
q'ac'icco
rucksack(IV).ABS
iyo-l
mother-LAT
y-eže-ył-iyo
IV-carry-POT-PST
‘The boy could carry the rucksack to his mother.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(218)
Abo öžö äƛaʔaš eⁿeyo.
abo
father.ERG
öžö
boy(I).ABS
äƛ-a-ʔ-aš
village-OBL-INESS-ABL
Ø-eⁿe-yo
I-let.out-PST
‘The father made the son leave the village.’
LEAVE the Verb form yeⁿƛ'al (2)
(219)
Öždiqa kibbal diʔi yeⁿyłiyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
diʔi
flower(IV).ABS
y-eⁿe-ył-iyo
IV-send-POT-PST
‘The boy could send flowers to the girl.’
SEND an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(220)
Öždi ist'id kibbal aⁿło yoc'illiyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
aⁿło
embrace(IV).ABS
y-oc'-ill-iyo
IV-fill-CAUS-
‘The boy made the brother hug the girl.’
HUG an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(221)
Öždiqa kibbal t'ek niƛiyłiyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
t'ek
book.ABS
niƛ-iył-iyo
give-POT-PST
‘The boy could give book to the girl.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(222)
Öždi gama ɣanq'izibooyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
gama
boat(III).ABS
ɣanq'izi<b>oo-yo
make.sink<III>-PST
‘The boy made the boat sink.’
SINK an Alternation:
Causative with yowal
(223)
Öždiqa kibbaqas t'ek yuⁿcoyłiyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
kibba-qa-s
girl.OBL-POSS-ABL
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-uⁿco-ył-iyo
IV-steal-POT-PST
‘The boy could steal the book from the girl.’
STEAL an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(224)
Öždi ist'id äƛaʔ ömrö booyliyo.
öždi
boy.ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
äƛ-a-ʔ
village-OBL-INESS
ömrö
life(III).ABS
b-oo-yl-iyo
III-do-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy made the brother live in the village.’
LIVE an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(225)
Öždiqa isilco t'ek yuⁿcoyłiyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
isi-l-co
sister-OBL-ABL
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-uⁿco-ył-iyo
IV-hide-POT-PST
‘The boy could hide the book from his sister.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(226)
Kibba woyid öžö hič'egolilliyo.
kibba
girl.ERG
woyid
dog.INSTR
öžö
boy(I).ABS
hič'e-gol-ill-iyo
be.afraid-MAKE(I)-CAUS-PST
‘The girl scared the boy with the dog.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(227)
Öždiqa c'it'ad bäbä büč'iyłiyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
c'it'-a-d
knife-OBL-INSTR
bäbä
bread(III).ABS
b-üč'-iył-iyo
III-cut-POT-PST
‘The boy could cut the bread with the knife.’
CUT an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(228)
Öždi ist'id qibo haʔoyliyo haboƛ'a.
öždi
boy.ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
qibo
wheat.ABS
haʔoy-l-iyo
grind-CAUS-PST
habo-ƛ'a
mill-SUP
‘The boy made the brother grind the wheat on the mill.’
GRIND an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(229)
Öždiqa kibbal k'obala bäƛ'eyłiyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
k'obala
stick(III).ABS
b-äƛ'e-ył-iyo
III-hit-POT-PST
‘The boy could hit the girl with the stick.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(230)
Öždiqa bekela k'obalalid biƛ'eyłiyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
bekela
snake(III).ABS
k'obala-li-d
stick-OBL-INSTR
b-iƛ'e-ył-iyo
III-kill-POT-PST
‘The boy could kill the snake with the stick.’
KILL an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(231)
Kibbaqa aboqa dilna niƛaƛo nisoyłiyo.
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
abo-qa
father-POSS
dil-na
1SG.LAT-and
niƛ-a-ƛo
give-IMP-QUOT
niso-ył-iyo
say-POT-PST
‘The girl could say to the father: "Give me as well!".’
SAY an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(232)
Uštelliqa q'owal xabar meeyłiyo.
uštelli-qa
teacher.OBL-POSS
q'owa-l
children-LAT
xabar
story(III).ABS
m-ee-ył-iyo
III-let.out-POT-PST
‘The teacher could tell a story to the children.’
TELL an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(233)
Kibbaqa iyol komak booyłiyo.
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
iyo-l
mother-LAT
komak
help(III).ABS
b-oo-ył-iyo
III-do-POT-PST
‘The girl could help her mother.’
HELP an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(234)
Öždiqa äƛaʔ ömrö booyłiyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
äƛ-a-ʔ
village-OBL-INESS
ömrö
life(III).ABS
b-oo-ył-iyo
III-do-POT-PST
‘The boy could live in the village.’
LIVE an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(235)
Öždiqa häydä pacpaƛoyłiyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
häy-dä
eye-PL
pacpaƛo-ył-iyo
blink-POT-PST
‘The boy could blink his eyes.’
BLINK an Alternation:
Potential Transitivizing Alternation
(236)
Kibbaqa iyoqas t'ek yokčiyłiyo.
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
iyo-qa-s
mother-POSS-ABL
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-okči-ył-iyo
IV-take-POT-PST
‘The girl could take the book from the mother.’
TAKE an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(237)
Öždiqa yiƛa č'anaɣoyłiyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
yiƛa
fast
č'anaɣo-ył-iyo
run-POT-PST
‘The boy could run fast.’
RUN an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(238)
Öždiqa kibbal ʔarab mic małcibooyłiyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
ʔarab
Arabic
mic
language(III).ABS
małci<b>oo-ył-iyo
teach<III>-POT-PST
‘The boy could teach Arabic to the girl.’
TEACH an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(239)
Mähmädqa öždiƛ'a Murad caaⁿ guliyłiyo.
Mähmäd-qa
Magomed-POSS
öždi-ƛ'a
boy.OBL-SUP
Murad
Murad
caaⁿ
name(IV).ABS
gul-iył-iyo
put(IV)-POT-PST
‘Magomed could name his son Murad.’
NAME an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(240)
Öždiqa qibo haboƛ'a haʔoyłiyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
qibo
wheat.ABS
habo-ƛ'a
mill-SUP
haʔo-ył-iyo
grind-POT-PST
‘The boy could grind the wheat on the mill.’
GRIND an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(241)
Öždiqa mäče bäxiyłiyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
mäče
ground(III).ABS
b-äx-iył-iyo
III-dig-POT-PST
‘The boy could grind the ground.’
DIG an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(242)
Kibbaqa t'ek xalboyłiyo.
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
t'ek
book.ABS
xalbo-ył-iyo
search-POT-PST
‘The girl could search for a book.’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(243)
Ist'iqa isiqa okko harziyooyłiyo.
ist'i-qa
brother.OBL-POSS
isi-qa
sister-POSS
okko
money(IV).ABS
harzi<y>oo-ył-iyo
ask<IV>-POT-PST
‘The boy could ask money from his sister.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(244)
Öždiqa kibbal aⁿło yoc'iyłiyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
aⁿło
embrace(IV).ABS
y-oc'-iył-iyo
IV-fill-POT-PST
‘The boy could hug the girl.’
HUG an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(245)
Kibbaqa öhƛöyłiyo.
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
öhƛö-ył-iyo
cough-POT-PST
‘The girl could cough.’
COUGH an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(246)
Öždiqa kibbaƛ'a lalaƛoyłiyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
kibba-ƛ'a
girl.OBL-SUP
lalaƛo-ył-iyo
shout-POT-PST
‘The boy could shout at the girl.’
SCREAM an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(247)
Öždiqa bab kusuʔiyłiyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
bab
beard.ABS
kusuʔ-iył-iyo
shave-POT-PST
‘The boy could shave his beard.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(248)
Kid yuq'o yiyayłiyo.
kid
girl(II).ABS
yuq'o
loud
y-iya-ył-iyo
II-cry-POT-PST
‘The girl could cry loud.’
CRY an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(249)
Kibbaqa yuq'o yiyayłiyo.
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
yuq'o
loud
y-iya-ył-iyo
II-cry-POT-PST
‘The girl could cry loud.’
CRY an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(250)
Öždiqa iyos q'äm k'ok'oyłiyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
iyo-s
mother-GEN1
q'äm
head.ABS
k'ok'o-ył-iyo
be.sick-POT-PST
‘The boy could trouble his mother.’
BE ILL an Alternation:
Potential Transitivizing Alternation
(251)
Biqoqa box qoqoyłiyo.
biqo-qa
sun.OBL-POSS
box
grass.ABS
qoqo-ył-iyo
be.dry-POT-PST
‘The sun could dry the grass.’
BE DRY an Alternation:
Potential Transitivizing Alternation
(252)
Kibbaqa simindiyala hät't'äš bäbä boyłiyo.
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
simindi-ya-la
maize-OBL-GEN2
hät't'ä-š
flour.OBL-GEN1
bäbä
bread(III).ABS
b-o-ył-iyo
III-do-POT-PST
‘The girl could make the bread out of maize flour.’
MAKE an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(253)
Kibbaqa hudo bek'eyłiyo.
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
hudo
firewood(III).ABS
b-ek'e-ył-iyo
III-burn-POT-PST
‘The girl could burn the firewood.’
BURN an Alternation:
Potential Transitivizing Alternation
(254)
Öždiqa xät'ä bekiyłiyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
xät'ä
plate(III)
b-ek-iył-iyo
III-fall-POT-PST
‘The boy could drop the plate.’
FALL an Alternation:
Potential Transitivizing Alternation
(255)
Öždiqa gama ɣanq'izibaqiyłiyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
gama
boat(III).ABS
ɣanq'izi<b>aq-iył-iyo
sink<III>-POT-PST
‘The boy could sink the boat.’
SINK an Alternation:
Potential Transitivizing Alternation
(256)
Kibbaqa łi ɣayƛoyłiyo.
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
łi
water.ABS
ɣayƛo-ył-iyo
boil-POT-PST
‘The girl could boil the water.’
BOIL an Alternation:
Potential Transitivizing Alternation
(257)
Öždiqa örrä k'äyƛöyłiyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
örrä
wheel.ABS
k'äyƛö-ył-iyo
roll-POT-PST
‘The boy could roll the wheel.’
ROLL an Alternation:
Potential Transitivizing Alternation
(258)
Kibbaqa xo heleyłiyo.
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
xo
meat.ABS
hele-ył-iyo
cook-POT-PST
‘The girl could cook the meat.’
COOK an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(259)
Öždiqa kibbaqa goc'oqiyłiyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
goc'oq-iył-iyo
look-POT-PST
‘The boy could look at the girl.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(260)
Öžö kibbaɣoy müɣäƛ eⁿƛ'eyłiyo.
öžö
boy(I).ABS
kibba-ɣoy
girl.OBL-COMIT
müɣäƛ
after
Ø-eⁿƛ'e-ył-iyo
I-go-POT-PST
‘The boy could follow the girl.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(261)
Öžö xöxƛ'ä ƛ'odo eⁿƛ'eyłiyo.
öžö
boy(I).ABS
xöx-ƛ'ä
tree.OBL-SUP
ƛ'odo
upwards
Ø-eⁿƛ'e-ył-iyo
I-go-POT-PST
‘The boy could climb up the tree.’
CLIMB the Verb form no verbal counterpart
(262)
Abo qunnaʔ eⁿƛ'eyłiyo.
abo
father(I).ABS
qunnaʔ
farm.LOC
Ø-eⁿƛ'e-ył-iyo
I-go-POT-PST
‘The father could go to the farm.’
GO an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(263)
Kid q'ey yečeyłiyo.
kid
girl(II).ABS
q'ey
on.the.ground
y-eče-ył-iyo
II-sit-POT-PST
‘The girl could sit down.’
SIT an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(264)
Kid öždiɣoy k'isayłiyo.
kid
girl(II).ABS
öždi-ɣoy
boy.OBL-COMIT
k'isa-ył-iyo
play-POT-PST
‘The girl could play with the boy.’
PLAY an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(265)
Abo maʔišatlis urɣeziaqiyłiyo.
abo
father(I).ABS
maʔišatlis
family.OBL.GEN
urɣezi<Ø>aq-iył-iyo
think<I>-POT-PST
‘The father could think about his family.’
THINK an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(266)
Kid aboqa yiq'lašeš.
kid
girl(II).ABS
abo-qa
father-POSS
y-iq'laše-š
II-talk-PRS
‘The girl talks to her father.’
TALK a Coding frame:
1-abs 2-poss abs[1].V
(267)
Kid aboqa yiq'lašeyłiyo.
kid
girl(II).ABS
abo-qa
father-POSS
y-iq'laše-ył-iyo
II-talk-POT-PST
‘The girl could talk to her father.’
TALK an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(268)
Kibbaqa aboqa yiq'lašeyłiyo.
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
abo-qa
father-POSS
y-iq'laše-ył-iyo
II-talk-POT-PST
‘The girl could talk to her father.’
TALK an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(269)
Öžö mašinalƛ'a ogic'iyłiyo.
öžö
boy(I).ABS
mašina-l-ƛ'a
car-OBL-SUP
Ø-ogic'-iył-iyo
I-jump-POT-PST
‘The boy could jump on the car.’
JUMP an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(270)
Öždiqa kid mašinalƛ'a yogic'iyłiyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
kid
girl(II).ABS
mašina-l-ƛ'a
car-OBL-SUP
y-ogic'-iył-iyo
II-jump-POT-PST
‘The boy could make the girl jump on the car.’
JUMP an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(271)
Kibbaqa iyol mot'o begaayłiyo.
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
iyo-l
mother-LAT
mot'o
face(III).ABS
b-egaa-ył-iyo
III-see-POT-PST
‘The girl was no longer angry with her mother (lit. The girl showed her face to her mother.).’
SEE an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(272)
Kibbaqa vedra istoliyaʎ’a guliyłiyo.
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
vedra
basket.ABS
istoliyaʎ’a
table.SUP
gul-iył-iyo
put-POT-PST
‘The girl could put the basket on the table.’
PUT an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(273)
Aboqa kid hič'eyłiyo.
abo-qa
father-POSS
kid
girl.ABS
hič'e-ył-iyo
be.afraid-POT-PST
‘The father could scare the girl.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(274)
Kibbaqa k'imalis mäh biq'eyłiyo.
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
k'ima-li-s
cheese-OBL-GEN1
mäh
smell(III).ABS
b-iq'e-ył-iyo
III-know-POT-PST
‘The girl could smell the cheese.’
SMELL an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(275)
Kibbaqa abo nukoyłiyo.
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
abo
father.ABS
nuko-ył-iyo
be.hungry-POT-PST
‘The girl could make father hungry.’
BE HUNGRY an Alternation:
Potential Transitivizing Alternation
(276)
Kibbaqa iyo biƛoɣa yoⁿq'oyłiyo.
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
iyo
mother(II).ABS
biƛo-ɣa
house-APUD
y-oⁿq'o-ył-iyo
II-come-POT-PST
‘The girl could take the mother home.’
APPEAR an Alternation:
Potential Transitivizing Alternation
(277)
Öždiqa wo buɣoyɬiyo.
öždi-qa
boy-POSS
wo
dog(III).ABS
b-uɣo-yɬ-iyo
III-die-POT-PST
‘The boy could kill the dog.’
DIE an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(278)
Öždi ist'id kibbal k'obala mexellis.
öždi
boy.ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
k'obala
stick(III).ABS
m-exe-ll-is
III-touch-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy makes the brother touch the girl with the stick.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(279)
Öždiqa yiƛa č'an yaɣoyłiyo.
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
yiƛa
fast
č'an
run(IV).ABS
y-aɣo-ył-iyo
IV-take-POT-PST
‘The boy could run fast.’
RUN an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(280)
Öždi kibbad č'anaɣoylis.
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-d
girl.OBL-INSTR
č'anaɣo-yl-is
run-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy makes the girl run.’
RUN an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(281)
Öždi kibbad č'an yaɣoylis.
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-d
girl.OBL-INSTR
č'an
run(IV).ABS
y-aɣo-yl-is
IV-take-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy makes the girl run.’
RUN an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(282)
Kibba öžö aboqa iq'lašegolca.
kibba
girl.ERG
öžö
boy(I).ABS
abo-qa
father-POSS
Ø-iq'laše-gol-ca
I-talk-put-PRS
‘The girl makes the boy talk to the father.’
TALK an Alternation:
Causative with golal
(283)
Kibbaqa kuntalałco ɣeč'i yäxeyɬiyo.
Kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
kunta-l-ał-co
dress-OBL-INTER-ABL
ɣeč'i
tissue(IV).ABS
y-äxe-yɬ-iyo
IV-tear-POT-PST
‘The girl could tear the tissue from the dress.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(284)
Kibbaqa iyo kunta isiƛ'a łič'eyłiyo.
Kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
iyod
mother.INSTR
kunta
dress.ABS
isi-ƛ'a
sister-SUP
łič'e-ył-iyo
put.on-POT-PST
‘The girl could put on the dress on the sister with mother's help.’
DRESS an Alternation:
Potential Alternation
(285)
öžö xäbäläd c'ikalid išeldas.
öžö
boy(I)
xäbä-lä-d
foot-OBL-INSTR
c'ika-li-d
glass-OBL-INSTR
Ø-išel-da-s
I-break-ANTIP-PRS
‘The boy is busy breaking the glass with the foot.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(286)
Öžö yiƛa č'anad aɣoldas.
öžö
boy(I)
yiƛa
fast
č'an-a-d
run-OBL-INSTR
Ø-aɣo-l-da-s
I-take-CAUS-ANTIP-PRS
‘The boy is busy running fast.’
RUN an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(287)
Kid y-eⁿyaƛ'e-š biƛo-ɣa.
kid
girl(I)
y-eⁿ<ya>ƛ'e-š
II-go<ANTIP>-PRS
biƛo-ɣa
house-APUD
‘The girl is busy going home.’
GO an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(288)
Kid nänilaɬ k'iyasas.
kid
girl
nänilaɬ
doll.INTER
k'i<ya>sa-s
play<ANTIP>-PRS
‘The girl is busy playing with the doll.’
PLAY an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(289)
Öžö bekelalid k'obalalid iƛ'elas.
öžö
boy
bekela-li-d
snake-OBL-INSTR
k'obala-li-d
stick-OBL-INSTR
Ø-iƛ'e-la-s
I-kill-ANTIP-PRS
‘The boy is busy killing the snake withthe stick.’
KILL an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(290)
Kid k'atulad helelas.
kid
girl
k'atu-la-d
potato-OBL-INSTR
hele-la-s
cook-ANTIP-PRS
‘The girl is busy cooking potato.’
COOK an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(291)
öždis häydä pacpaƛoldas.
öždi-s
boy.OBL-GEN1
häy-dä
eye-PL
pacpaƛo-l-da-s
blink-CAUS-ANTIP-PRS
‘The boy's eyes are blinking.’
BLINK an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(292)
Kid iyod yegaaldas.
kid
girl
iyo-d
mother-INSTR
y-egaa-l-da-s
II-see-CAUS-ANTIP-PRS
‘The girl is busy showing the mother.’
SEE an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(293)
Kid łohdas.
kid
girl
łohda-s
laugh.ANTIP-PRS
‘The girl is busy laughing.’
LAUGH an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(294)
Kid öždid zistuqildas.
kid
girl(II)
öždi-d
boy.OBL-INSTR
zistuqil-da-s
push(II)-ANTIP-PRS
‘The girl is busy pushing the boy.’
PUSH an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(295)
Kid darslid yiq'eldas.
kid
girl(II)
darsbaad
lesson.PL.INSTR
y-iq'e-l-da-s
II-know-CAUS-ANTIP-PRS
‘The girl is busy learning the lessons.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(296)
Öžö äƛaʔaš eⁿyaƛ'eyo.
öžö
boy(I).ABS
äƛ-a-ʔ-aš
village-OBL-IN-ABL
Ø-eⁿ<ya>ƛ'e-yo
I-go<ANTIP>-PST
‘The boy is busy leaving the village.’
LEAVE an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(297)
Kid fenlid müč’lid qoqoldas.
kid
girl
fen-li-d
hair.drier-OBL-INSTR
müč’-li-d
hair-OBL-INSTR
qoqo-l-da-s
be.dry-CAUS-ANTIP-PSR
‘The girl is busy drying her hair with the hair-drier.’
BE DRY an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(298)
Kid łiid ɣayƛoldas.
kid
girl
łiid
water.INSTR
ɣayƛo-l-da-s
boil-CAUS-ANTIP-PRS
‘The girl is busy boiling the water.’
BOIL an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(299)
Kid łiis wedralad yoc'ildas.
kid
girl(II)
łiis
water.GEN1
wedra-la-d
bucket-OBL-INSTR
y-oc'il-da-s
II-fill-ANTIP-PRS
‘The girl is busy filling the bucket with the water.’
FILL an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(300)
Kid xöxƛ'äš eⁿšlid yekildas.
kid
girl(II)
xöx-ƛ'ä-š
tree.OBL-SUP-ABL
eⁿš-li-d
apple-OBL-INSTR
y-ek-il-da-s
II-fall-CAUS-ANTIP-PRS
‘The girl is busy throwing apples from the tree.’
FALL an Alternation:
Causative with -l/-ll
(301)
Öžö kibbaɣoy müɣäƛ eⁿyaƛ'eš.
öžö
boy(I).ABS
kibba-ɣoy
girl.OBL-COMIT
müɣäƛ
after
Ø-eⁿ<ya>ƛ'e-š
I-go<ANTIP>-PRS
‘The boy is busy following the girl.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation
(302)
Kid nizalaayo.
kid
girl
niza-laa-yo.
wash-ANTIP-PST
‘The girl washed herself.’
WASH an Alternation:
Antipassive 2 Alternation
(303)
Kid bäbäläd yohdas.
kid
girl(II)
bäbä-lä-d
bread-OBL-INSTR
y-oh-da-s
II-make-ANTIP-PRS
‘The girl is busy making bread.’
MAKE an Alternation:
Antipassive 1 Alternation