Potential Alternation C

Description

The Potential Alternation is a coded alternation (with the suffix -yɬ, -iyɬ after a consonant). The argument of the potential construction to which ability is assigned (i.e. the X of ‘X can Verb’) stands in the possessive case, corresponding to the ergative in the basic form.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
LOAD yoⁿsal R
(22)
öždi
boy.ERG
hudo
firewood(III).ABS
mašina-l-ƛ'a
car-OBL-SUP
m-oso-yo
III-collapse-PST
‘The boy loaded the firewood onto the car.’

(207)
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
hudo
firewood(III).ABS
mašina-l-ƛ'a
car-OBL-SUP
m-oso-ył-iyo
III-load-POT-PST
‘The boy could load the car with the firewood.’
EAT yüⁿqal R
(1)
öždi
boy.ERG
bäbä
bread(III).ABS
m-üq-iyo
III-eat-PST
‘The boy ate bread.’

(201)
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
bäbä
bread(III).ABS
m-üq-iył-iyo
III-eat-POT-PST
‘The boy could eat the bread.’
WASH nizal R
(7)
kibba
girl.ERG
łic'o
clothes.ABS
nizaa-yo
wash-PST
‘The girl washes the clothes.’

(203)
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
łic'o
clothes.ABS
niza-ył-iyo
wash-POT-PST
‘The girl could wash the clothes.’
SING no verbal counterpart R
(205)
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
iyo-l
mother-LAT
keč'
song.ABS
iƛe-ył-iyo
sing-POT-PST
‘The girl could sing a song to her mother.’
TIE yiⁿcal R
(19)
öždi
boy.ERG
waya
cow(III).ABS
sabali-ya-d
rope-OBL-INSTR
m-ico-yo
III-tie-PST
xöx-i-ł
tree-OBL-INTER
‘The boy tied the cow to the tree with the rope.’

(209)
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
waya
cow(III).ABS
sabali-ya-d
rope-OBL-INSTR
xöx-i-ł
tree-OBL-INTER
m-ico-ył-iyo
III-tie-POT-PST
‘The boy could tie the cow to the tree.’
POUR git'al R
(20)
kibba
girl.ERG
wedra-la-ʔ
bucket-OBL-INESS
łi
water(IV).ABS
git'-iyo
pour(II/IV)-PST
‘The girl poured water into the bucket.’

(211)
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
wedra-la-ʔ
bucket-OBL-INESS
łi
water(IV).ABS
git'-iył-iyo
pour(II/IV)-POT-PST
‘The girl could pour water into the bucket.’
THROW yiƛ'al (2) R
(86)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
burti
ball(III).ABS
b-iƛ'e-yo
III-throw-PST
‘The boy threw the ball to the girl (so as to hit her).’
(89)
öždi
boy.ERG
istoli-ya-ƛ'a
table-OBL-SUP
q'alam
pencil(III).ABS
b-iƛ'e-yo
III-throw-PST
‘The boy threw the pencil on the table.’

(213)
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
burti
ball(III).ABS
b-iƛ'e-ył-iyo
III-throw-POT-PST
‘The boy could throw the ball to the girl.’
BRING yaq'al R
(83)
kibba
girl.ERG
iyo-l
mother-LAT
žamɣo
sorrel(III).ABS
b-aq'o-yo
III-bring-PST
‘The girl brought sorrel to the mother.’

(215)
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
iyo-l
mother-LAT
žamɣo
sorrel(III).ABS
b-aq'o-ył-iyo
III-bring-POT-PST
‘The girl could bring sorrel to the mother.’
CARRY yezal R
(75)
öždi
boy.ERG
q'ac'icco
rucksack(IV).ABS
iyo-l
mother-LAT
y-eže-š
IV-carry-PRS
‘The boy carried the rucksack for the mother.’

(217)
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
q'ac'icco
rucksack(IV).ABS
iyo-l
mother-LAT
y-eže-ył-iyo
IV-carry-POT-PST
‘The boy could carry the rucksack to his mother.’
SEND yeⁿyal R
(71)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
diʔi
flower(IV).ABS
y-eⁿe-yo
IV-send-PST
‘The boy sent the girl the flower (for permanent possession).’

(219)
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
diʔi
flower(IV).ABS
y-eⁿe-ył-iyo
IV-send-POT-PST
‘The boy could send flowers to the girl.’
GIVE niƛal R
(59)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
t'ek
book.ABS
niƛ-iyo
give-PST
‘The boy gave the book to the girl.’

(221)
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
t'ek
book.ABS
niƛ-iył-iyo
give-POT-PST
‘The boy could give book to the girl.’
STEAL yuⁿcal (2) R
(85)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-qa-s
girl.OBL-POSS-ABL
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-uⁿco-yo
IV-steal-PST
‘The boy stole the book from the girl.’

(223)
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
kibba-qa-s
girl.OBL-POSS-ABL
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-uⁿco-ył-iyo
IV-steal-POT-PST
‘The boy could steal the book from the girl.’
HIDE yuⁿcal (1) R
(25)
öždi
boy.ERG
isi-l-co
sister-OBL-ABL
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-uⁿco-yo
IV-hide-PST
‘The boy hid the book from his sister.’

(225)
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
isi-l-co
sister-OBL-ABL
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-uⁿco-ył-iyo
IV-hide-POT-PST
‘The boy could hide the book from his sister.’
CUT yüč'al R
(23)
öždi
boy.ERG
c'it'-a-d
knife-OBL-INSTR
bäbä
bread(III).ABS
b-üč'-iyo
III-cut-PST
‘The boy cut the bread with the knife.’

(227)
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
c'it'-a-d
knife-OBL-INSTR
bäbä
bread(III).ABS
b-üč'-iył-iyo
III-cut-POT-PST
‘The boy could cut the bread with the knife.’
BEAT yäƛ'elal R
(57)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
k'obala
stick(III).ABS
b-äƛ'el-lo
III-hit-PST
‘The boy hit the girl with the stick.’

(229)
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
k'obala
stick(III).ABS
b-äƛ'e-ył-iyo
III-hit-POT-PST
‘The boy could hit the girl with the stick.’
KILL yiƛ'al (1) R
(17)
öždi
boy.ERG
bekela
snake(III).ABS
k'obala-li-d
stick-OBL-INSTR
b-iƛ'e-yo
III-kill-PST
‘The boy killed the snake with the stick.’

(230)
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
bekela
snake(III).ABS
k'obala-li-d
stick-OBL-INSTR
b-iƛ'e-ył-iyo
III-kill-POT-PST
‘The boy could kill the snake with the stick.’
SAY nisal R
(13)
kibba
girl.ERG
abo-qa
father-POSS
dil-na
1SG.LAT-and
niƛ-a-ƛo
give-IMP-QUOT
niso-yo
say-PST
‘The girl said to the father: "Give me as well!".’

(231)
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
abo-qa
father-POSS
dil-na
1SG.LAT-and
niƛ-a-ƛo
give-IMP-QUOT
niso-ył-iyo
say-POT-PST
‘The girl could say to the father: "Give me as well!".’
TELL xabar meyal R
(14)
uštel-li
teacher-ERG
q'owa-l
children-LAT
xabar
story(III).ABS
m-ee-yo
III-let.out-PST
‘The teacher told a story to the children.’
(107)
kibba
girl.ERG
hini-la
REFL-GEN2
gedi-s
cat.OBL-GEN1
öždi-l
boy.OBL-LAT
xabar
story(III).ABS
m-eh-ca
III-let.out-PRS
‘The girl talks to the boy about her cat.’

(232)
uštelli-qa
teacher.OBL-POSS
q'owa-l
children-LAT
xabar
story(III).ABS
m-ee-ył-iyo
III-let.out-POT-PST
‘The teacher could tell a story to the children.’
HELP komak bowal R
(12)
kibba
girl.ERG
iyo-l
mother-LAT
komak
help(III).ABS
b-oo-yo
III-do-PST
‘The girl helped her mother.’

(233)
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
iyo-l
mother-LAT
komak
help(III).ABS
b-oo-ył-iyo
III-do-POT-PST
‘The girl could help her mother.’
LIVE ömrö bowal R
(78)
öždi
boy.ERG
äƛ-a-ʔ
village-OBL-INESS
ömrö
life(III).ABS
b-oo-s
III-do-PRS
‘The boy lives in the village.’

(234)
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
äƛ-a-ʔ
village-OBL-INESS
ömrö
life(III).ABS
b-oo-ył-iyo
III-do-POT-PST
‘The boy could live in the village.’
BLINK häydä pacpaƛal N
(39)
öždi-s
boy.OBL-GEN1
häy-dä
eye-PL
pacpaƛo-s
blink-PRS
‘The boys eyes are blinking.’
TAKE yokčal R
(30)
kibba
girl.ERG
iyo-qa-s
mother-POSS-ABL
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-okči-yo
IV-take-PST
‘The girl took the book from the mother.’

(236)
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
iyo-qa-s
mother-POSS-ABL
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-okči-ył-iyo
IV-take-POT-PST
‘The girl could take the book from the mother.’
RUN č'änaɣal R
(119)
öždi
boy.ERG
yiƛa
fast
č'anaɣo-š
run-PRS
‘The boy runs fast.’

(237)
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
yiƛa
fast
č'anaɣo-ył-iyo
run-POT-PST
‘The boy could run fast.’
TEACH małciyowal R
(118)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
ʔarab
Arabic
mic
language(III).ABS
małci<b>oo-s
teach<III>-PRS
‘The boy teaches the Arabic language to the girl.’

(238)
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
ʔarab
Arabic
mic
language(III).ABS
małci<b>oo-ył-iyo
teach<III>-POT-PST
‘The boy could teach Arabic to the girl.’
NAME caaⁿ gulal R
(31)
Mähmäd-i
Magomed-ERG
öždi-ƛ'a
boy.OBL-SUP
Murad
Murad
caaⁿ
name(IV).ABS
gul-lo
put(IV)-PST
‘Magomed called his son Murad.’

(239)
Mähmäd-qa
Magomed-POSS
öždi-ƛ'a
boy.OBL-SUP
Murad
Murad
caaⁿ
name(IV).ABS
gul-iył-iyo
put(IV)-POT-PST
‘Magomed could name his son Murad.’
GRIND haʔal R
(106)
öždi
boy.ERG
qibo
wheat.ABS
haʔo-s
grind-PRS
habo-ƛ'a
mill-SUP
‘The boy grinds the wheat on the mill.’

(240)
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
qibo
wheat.ABS
habo-ƛ'a
mill-SUP
haʔo-ył-iyo
grind-POT-PST
‘The boy could grind the wheat on the mill.’
DIG yäxäl R
(80)
öždi
boy.ERG
mäče
ground(III).ABS
b-äx-čä
III-dig-PRS
‘The boy digs the ground.’

(241)
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
mäče
ground(III).ABS
b-äx-iył-iyo
III-dig-POT-PST
‘The boy could grind the ground.’
SEARCH FOR xalbowal R
(27)
kibba
girl.ERG
t'ek
book.ABS
xalboo-yo
search-PST
‘The girl looked for the book.’

(242)
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
t'ek
book.ABS
xalbo-ył-iyo
search-POT-PST
‘The girl could search for a book.’
ASK FOR harziyowal R
(55)
ist'i
brother.ERG
isi-qa
sister-POSS
okko
money(IV).ABS
harzi<y>oo-yo
ask<IV>-PST
‘The brother asked his sister for the money.’

(243)
ist'i-qa
brother.OBL-POSS
isi-qa
sister-POSS
okko
money(IV).ABS
harzi<y>oo-ył-iyo
ask<IV>-POT-PST
‘The boy could ask money from his sister.’
HUG aⁿło yoc'al R
(48)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
aⁿło
embrace(IV).ABS
y-oc'-iyo
IV-fill-PST
‘The boy hugged the girl.’

(244)
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
aⁿło
embrace(IV).ABS
y-oc'-iył-iyo
IV-fill-POT-PST
‘The boy could hug the girl.’
COUGH öhƛäl R
(38)
kibba
girl.ERG
öhƛö-yo
cough-PST
‘The girl coughed.’

(245)
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
öhƛö-ył-iyo
cough-POT-PST
‘The girl could cough.’
SCREAM lalaƛal R
(29)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-ƛ'a
girl.OBL-SUP
lalaƛo-yo
shout-PST
‘The boy shouted at the girl.’

(246)
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
kibba-ƛ'a
girl.OBL-SUP
lalaƛo-ył-iyo
shout-POT-PST
‘The boy could shout at the girl.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) kusuʔal R
(50)
öždi
boy.ERG
bab
beard.ABS
kusuʔ-iyo
shave-PST
‘The boy shaved his beard.’

(247)
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
bab
beard.ABS
kusuʔ-iył-iyo
shave-POT-PST
‘The boy could shave his beard.’
CRY yiyaal R
(9)
kid
girl(II).ABS
y-iya-s
II-cry-PRS
‘The girl cries.’

(248)
kid
girl(II).ABS
yuq'o
loud
y-iya-ył-iyo
II-cry-POT-PST
‘The girl could cry loud.’
(249)
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
yuq'o
loud
y-iya-ył-iyo
II-cry-POT-PST
‘The girl could cry loud.’
BE DRY qoqal N
(79)
mizo
ground.ABS
qoqo-na
dry-CVB
gey
be.PRS
‘The ground is dry.’
MAKE yowal R
(52)
kibba
girl.ERG
simindi-ya-la
maize-OBL-GEN2
hät't'ä-š
flour.OBL-GEN1
bäbä
bread(III).ABS
b-oo-s
III-do-PRS
‘The girl makes the bread out of maize flour.’

(252)
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
simindi-ya-la
maize-OBL-GEN2
hät't'ä-š
flour.OBL-GEN1
bäbä
bread(III).ABS
b-o-ył-iyo
III-do-POT-PST
‘The girl could make the bread out of maize flour.’
BURN yek'al N
(36)
hudo
firewood(III).ABS
b-ek'e-š
III-burn-PRS
‘The firewood is burning.’
FALL yekal N
(15)
öžö
boy(I).ABS
xöx-ƛ'ä-š
tree.OBL-SUP-ABL
Ø-ek-iyo
I-fall-PST
‘The boy fell from the tree.’
SINK ɣanq'iziyaqal N
(42)
gama
boat(III).ABS
ɣanq'izi<b>aq-iyo
sink<III>-PST
‘The boat sank.’
BOIL ɣayƛal N
(53)
łi
water.ABS
ɣayƛo-s
boil-PRS
‘The water boils.’
ROLL k'äyƛäl N
(44)
örrä
wheel.ABS
k'äyƛö-š
turn.round-PRS
‘The wheel is rolling.’
COOK helal R
(41)
kibba
girl.ERG
xo
meat.ABS
hele-yo
boil-PST
‘The girl cooked (boiled) the meat.’

(258)
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
xo
meat.ABS
hele-ył-iyo
cook-POT-PST
‘The girl could cook the meat.’
LOOK AT goc'oqal R
(28)
öžö
boy.ABS
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
goc'oq-iyo
look(I)-PST
‘The boy looked at the girl.’

(259)
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
goc'oq-iył-iyo
look-POT-PST
‘The boy could look at the girl.’
FOLLOW müɣäƛ yeⁿƛ'al R
(24)
öžö
boy(I).ABS
kibba-ɣoy
girl.OBL-COMIT
müɣäƛ
after
Ø-eⁿƛ'e-š
I-go-PRS
‘The boy follows the girl.’

(260)
öžö
boy(I).ABS
kibba-ɣoy
girl.OBL-COMIT
müɣäƛ
after
Ø-eⁿƛ'e-ył-iyo
I-go-POT-PST
‘The boy could follow the girl.’
CLIMB no verbal counterpart N
GO yeⁿƛ'al (1) R
(108)
kid
girl(II).ABS
y-eⁿƛ'e-š
II-go-PRS
biƛo-ɣa
house-APUD
‘The girl goes home.’

(262)
abo
father(I).ABS
qunnaʔ
farm.LOC
Ø-eⁿƛ'e-ył-iyo
I-go-POT-PST
‘The father could go to the farm.’
PLAY k'isal R
(73)
kid
girl.ABS
nänilaɬ
doll.INTER
k'isa-s
play-PRS
‘The girl plays with the doll.’

(264)
kid
girl(II).ABS
öždi-ɣoy
boy.OBL-COMIT
k'isa-ył-iyo
play-POT-PST
‘The girl could play with the boy.’
THINK urɣeziyaqal R
(26)
öžö
boy(I).ABS
kibba-ƛ'a-s
girl.OBL-SUP-ABL
urɣezi<Ø>aq-iyo
think<I>-PST
‘The boy thinks about the girl.’

(265)
abo
father(I).ABS
maʔišatlis
family.OBL.GEN
urɣezi<Ø>aq-iył-iyo
think<I>-POT-PST
‘The father could think about his family.’
TALK yiq'lašal R
(266)
kid
girl(II).ABS
abo-qa
father-POSS
y-iq'laše-š
II-talk-PRS
‘The girl talks to her father.’

(267)
kid
girl(II).ABS
abo-qa
father-POSS
y-iq'laše-ył-iyo
II-talk-POT-PST
‘The girl could talk to her father.’
(268)
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
abo-qa
father-POSS
y-iq'laše-ył-iyo
II-talk-POT-PST
‘The girl could talk to her father.’
JUMP yogic'al R
(65)
öžö
boy(I).ABS
Ø-ogic'-iyo
I-jump-PST
‘The boy jumped.’

(269)
öžö
boy(I).ABS
mašina-l-ƛ'a
car-OBL-SUP
Ø-ogic'-iył-iyo
I-jump-POT-PST
‘The boy could jump on the car.’
(270)
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
kid
girl(II).ABS
mašina-l-ƛ'a
car-OBL-SUP
y-ogic'-iył-iyo
II-jump-POT-PST
‘The boy could make the girl jump on the car.’
RUN č'an yaɣal R
(45)
öždi
boy.ERG
yiƛa
fast
č'an
run(IV).ABS
y-aɣo-s
IV-take-PRS
‘The boy is running fast.’

(279)
öždi-qa
boy.OBL-POSS
yiƛa
fast
č'an
run(IV).ABS
y-aɣo-ył-iyo
IV-take-POT-PST
‘The boy could run fast.’
SEE yegaal M
(2)
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
iyo
mother(II).ABS
y-egaa-yo
II-see-PST
‘The girl saw her mother.’
KNOW yiq'al N
(3)
abo-l
father-LAT
teli
many
xabar-la
story-PL
y-iyaq'e-š
NHPL-know.PL-PRS
‘The father knows many stories.’
LIKE yat'al N
(4)
öždi-l
boy.OBL-LAT
kid
girl(II).ABS
y-at'-ca
II-like-PRS
‘The boy likes the girl.’
FEAR hic'al R
(5)
kid
girl.ABS
c'o-y-qa
fire-OBL-POSS
hič'e-š
fear-PRS
‘The girl fears the fire.’

(273)
abo-qa
father-POSS
kid
girl.ABS
hič'e-ył-iyo
be.afraid-POT-PST
‘The father could scare the girl.’
FRIGHTEN hič'egolal N
(6)
kibba
girl.ERG
öžö
boy(I).ABS
hič'e-gol-ca
fear-MAKE(I)-PRS
‘The girl frightens the boy.’
CLEAN yaⁿcolal N
(97)
öždi
boy.ERG
istoli-ya-ƛ'a-s
table-OBL-SUP-ABL
čaq'i
ink(IV).ABS
y-aⁿco-l-ca
IV-clean-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy wipes the ink off the table.’
BE ILL k'ok'al N
(10)
kid
girl.ABS
k'ok'o-na
be.ill-CVB
gey
be.PRS
‘The girl is ill.’
(35)
iyo-s
mother-GEN1
q'äm
head.ABS
k'ok'o-s
hurt-PRS
‘The mother's head is aching.’
PEEL no verbal counterpart N
DIE yuɣal R
(16)
iyo
mother(II).ABS
y-uɣo-yo
II-die-PST
‘The mother died.’

(277)
öždi-qa
boy-POSS
wo
dog(III).ABS
b-uɣo-yɬ-iyo
III-die-POT-PST
‘The boy could kill the dog.’
SIT q'ey yecal R
(18)
kid
girl(II).ABS
q'ey
on.the.ground
y-eče-na
II-be-CVB
gey
be.PRS
‘The girl is sitting.’

(263)
kid
girl(II).ABS
q'ey
on.the.ground
y-eče-ył-iyo
II-sit-POT-PST
‘The girl could sit down.’
PUT gulal R
(21)
öždi
boy.ERG
istoli-ya-ƛ'a
table-OBL-SUP
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
gul-iyo
put(IV)-PST
‘The boy put the book on the table.’

(272)
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
vedra
basket.ABS
istoliyaʎ’a
table.SUP
gul-iył-iyo
put-POT-PST
‘The girl could put the basket on the table.’
DRESS łič'elal R
(191)
kibba
girl.ERG
iyod
mother.INSTR
kunta
dress.ABS
isi-ƛ'a
sister-SUP
łič'e-ll-iyo
put.on-CAUS-PST
‘The girl dressed the sister with the mother's help.’

(284)
Kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
iyod
mother.INSTR
kunta
dress.ABS
isi-ƛ'a
sister-SUP
łič'e-ył-iyo
put.on-POT-PST
‘The girl could put on the dress on the sister with mother's help.’
TEAR yäxelal R
(32)
kibba
girl.ERG
kunta-la-ł-co
dress-OBL-INTER-ABL
ɣeč'i
tissue(IV).ABS
y-äxe-l-ca
IV-tear-CAUS-PRS
‘The girl tears the tissue from the dress.’

(283)
Kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
kunta-l-ał-co
dress-OBL-INTER-ABL
ɣeč'i
tissue(IV).ABS
y-äxe-yɬ-iyo
IV-tear-POT-PST
‘The girl could tear the tissue from the dress.’
BE SAD urɣelliƛ'a yaqal R
(33)
öžö
boy.ABS
urɣel-li-ƛ'a
thought-OBL-SUP
gey
be.PRS
‘The boy is sad.’
FEEL COLD yäč’ɬal N
(34)
öžö
boy(I).ABS
Ø-äč’-ɬ-iyo
I-cold-INCH-PST
‘The boy got cold.’
BE HUNGRY nukal N
(37)
kid
girl.ABS
nuko-yo
be.hungry-PST
‘The girl was hungry.’
FILL yoc'lal N
(40)
kibba
girl.ERG
łii-s
water-GEN1
wedra
bucket(III).ABS
b-oc'-il-ca
III-fill-CAUS-PRS
‘The girl fills the bucket with the water.’
LEAVE yeⁿƛ'al (2) N
(43)
öžö
boy(I).ABS
äƛ-a-ʔ-aš
village-OBL-IN-ABL
Ø-eⁿƛ'e-yo
I-go-PST
‘The boy left the village.’
RAIN no verbal counterpart N
APPEAR yoⁿq'al N
(47)
boq
sun(III).ABS
m-oq'o-yo
III-come-PST
‘The sun appeared.’
SMELL mäh biq'al R
(49)
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
k'ima-li-s
cheese-OBL-GEN1
mäh
smell(III).ABS
b-iq'e-yo
III-know-PST
‘The girl smelled the cheese.’

(274)
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
k'ima-li-s
cheese-OBL-GEN1
mäh
smell(III).ABS
b-iq'e-ył-iyo
III-know-POT-PST
‘The girl could smell the cheese.’
MEET keziyaqal N
(51)
öždi-l
boy.OBL-DAT
kid
girl(II).ABS
kezi<y>aq-iyo
meet<II>-PST
‘The boy met the girl.’
HEAR tuqal N
(54)
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
quy
noise.ABS
tuq-iyo
hear-PST
‘The girl heard the noise.’
BREAK yišelal N
(56)
öždi
boy.ERG
xäbä-lä-d
foot-OBL-INSTR
c'ika
glass(III).ABS
b-iše-ll-o
III-break-CAUS-PST
‘The boy broke the glass with his foot.’
TOUCH yeⁿxelal N
(62)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
koo
hand(IV).ABS
y-eⁿxe-l-ca
IV-touch-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy touches the girl with his hand.’
COVER yoq'olal N
(64)
kibba
girl.ERG
öždi-ƛ'a
boy.OBL-SUP
yurɣan
blanket(III).ABS
m-oq'o-l-ca
III-come-CAUS-PRS
‘The girl covers the boy with the blanket.’
BUILD no verbal counterpart N
LAUGH łowal N
(74)
kid
girl.ABS
łowa-s
laugh-PRS
‘The girl laughs.’
SHOW yegalal N
(77)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-ega-l-ca
IV-see-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy shows a book to the girl.’
BE A HUNTER no verbal counterpart N
GET yiqal N
(82)
öždi-l
boy.OBL-LAT
kibba-qa-s
girl.OBL-POSS-ABL
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-iqo-yo
IV-get-PST
‘The boy got the book from the girl.’
PUSH zistuqlal N
(90)
öždi
boy.ERG
ƛ'alo
stone(IV).ABS
zistuqil-ca
push(IV)-PRS
‘The boy pushes the stone.’