Causative with -l/-ll C

Description

The causative suffix -l-/-ll- derives transitive verbs from intransitive or affective verbs, and ditransitive verbs from transitive verbs; in the latter, the causee appears in the Instrumental case.
The suffix
-k’- derives transitive verbs from intransitive inchoative verbs.
Intransitive compound verbs formed with the auxiliary verb
yaqal ‘to happen’ derive transitives by changing the auxiliary verb to yowal ‘to do’.
Some intransitive verbs do not use derivational suffixes but use morphologically unrelated stems to express transitive meaning.
A small group of intransitive verbs form transitives analytically with the verb
golal (gulal, gilal) 'put'.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
BOIL ɣayƛal R
(53)
łi
water.ABS
ɣayƛo-s
boil-PRS
‘The water boils.’

(110)
kibba
girl.ERG
łi
water.ABS
ɣayƛo-l-lo
boil-CAUS-PST
‘The girl boiled the water.’
FALL yekal R
(15)
öžö
boy(I).ABS
xöx-ƛ'ä-š
tree.OBL-SUP-ABL
Ø-ek-iyo
I-fall-PST
‘The boy fell from the tree.’

(111)
kibba
girl.ERG
öžö
boy(I).ABS
xöx-ƛ'ä-š
tree.OBL-SUP-ABL
Ø-ek-ill-o
I-fall-CAUS-PST
‘The girl made the boy fall from the tree.’
(300)
kid
girl(II)
xöx-ƛ'ä-š
tree.OBL-SUP-ABL
eⁿš-li-d
apple-OBL-INSTR
y-ek-il-da-s
II-fall-CAUS-ANTIP-PRS
‘The girl is busy throwing apples from the tree.’
ROLL k'äyƛäl R
(44)
örrä
wheel.ABS
k'äyƛö-š
turn.round-PRS
‘The wheel is rolling.’

(112)
öždi
boy.ERG
örrä
wheel.ABS
k'äyƛö-l-ca
roll-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy rolls the wheel.’
LOOK AT goc'oqal R
(28)
öžö
boy.ABS
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
goc'oq-iyo
look(I)-PST
‘The boy looked at the girl.’

(114)
öždi
boy.ERG
iyo-qa
mother-POSS
kid
girl(II).ABS
gič'eq-il-ca
look(II)-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy makes the girl look at the mother.’
(168)
öždi
boy.ERG
is
brother(I).ABS
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
goc'oq-ill-iyo
look(I)-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the brother look at the girl.’
BLINK häydä pacpaƛal R
(39)
öždi-s
boy.OBL-GEN1
häy-dä
eye-PL
pacpaƛo-s
blink-PRS
‘The boys eyes are blinking.’

(117)
öždi
boy.ERG
häy-dä
eye-PL
pacpaƛo-l-ca
blink-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy blinks his eyes.’
BURN yek'al R
(36)
hudo
firewood(III).ABS
b-ek'e-š
III-burn-PRS
‘The firewood is burning.’

(122)
kibba
girl.ERG
hudo
firewood(III).ABS
b-ek'e-l-ca
III-burn-CAUS-PRS
‘The girl burns the firewood.’
CRY yiyaal N
(9)
kid
girl(II).ABS
y-iya-s
II-cry-PRS
‘The girl cries.’
BEAT yäƛ'elal R
(57)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
k'obala
stick(III).ABS
b-äƛ'el-lo
III-hit-PST
‘The boy hit the girl with the stick.’

(199)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-d
girl.OBL-INSTR
gedil
cat.LAT
k'obala
stick(III).ABS
b-äƛ'el-l-iyo
III-hit-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the girl hit the cat with the stick.’
GIVE niƛal R
(59)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
t'ek
book.ABS
niƛ-iyo
give-PST
‘The boy gave the book to the girl.’

(200)
öždi
boy.ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
t'ek
book.ABS
niƛ-ill-iyo
give-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the brother give the book to the girl.’
TOUCH yeⁿxelal R
(62)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
koo
hand(IV).ABS
y-eⁿxe-l-ca
IV-touch-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy touches the girl with his hand.’

(278)
öždi
boy.ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
k'obala
stick(III).ABS
m-exe-ll-is
III-touch-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy makes the brother touch the girl with the stick.’
EAT yüⁿqal N
(1)
öždi
boy.ERG
bäbä
bread(III).ABS
m-üq-iyo
III-eat-PST
‘The boy ate bread.’
SEE yegaal M
(2)
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
iyo
mother(II).ABS
y-egaa-yo
II-see-PST
‘The girl saw her mother.’
KNOW yiq'al R
(3)
abo-l
father-LAT
teli
many
xabar-la
story-PL
y-iyaq'e-š
NHPL-know.PL-PRS
‘The father knows many stories.’

(124)
öždi
boy.ERG
dars
lesson(IV)
y-iq'e-l-ca
IV-know-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy learns a lesson.’
LIKE yat'al R
(4)
öždi-l
boy.OBL-LAT
kid
girl(II).ABS
y-at'-ca
II-like-PRS
‘The boy likes the girl.’

(153)
öždi
boy.ERG
kid
girl(II).ABS
y-at'-il-ca
II-like-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy likes the girl. (lit. The boy is cuddling the girl.).’
FEAR hic'al N
(5)
kid
girl.ABS
c'o-y-qa
fire-OBL-POSS
hič'e-š
fear-PRS
‘The girl fears the fire.’
FRIGHTEN hič'egolal R
(6)
kibba
girl.ERG
öžö
boy(I).ABS
hič'e-gol-ca
fear-MAKE(I)-PRS
‘The girl frightens the boy.’

(226)
kibba
girl.ERG
woyid
dog.INSTR
öžö
boy(I).ABS
hič'e-gol-ill-iyo
be.afraid-MAKE(I)-CAUS-PST
‘The girl scared the boy with the dog.’
WASH nizal R
(7)
kibba
girl.ERG
łic'o
clothes.ABS
nizaa-yo
wash-PST
‘The girl washes the clothes.’

(154)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-d
girl.OBL-INSTR
łic'o
clothes.ABS
niza-yl-iyo
wash-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the girl wash the clothes.’
SING no verbal counterpart R
(155)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-d
girl.OBL-INSTR
keč'
song.ABS
iƛe-ll-is
sing-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy makes the girl sing the song.’
CLEAN yaⁿcolal R
(97)
öždi
boy.ERG
istoli-ya-ƛ'a-s
table-OBL-SUP-ABL
čaq'i
ink(IV).ABS
y-aⁿco-l-ca
IV-clean-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy wipes the ink off the table.’
BE ILL k'ok'al R
(10)
kid
girl.ABS
k'ok'o-na
be.ill-CVB
gey
be.PRS
‘The girl is ill.’
(35)
iyo-s
mother-GEN1
q'äm
head.ABS
k'ok'o-s
hurt-PRS
‘The mother's head is aching.’

(116)
öždi
boy.ERG
iyo-s
mother-GEN1
q'äm
head.ABS
k'ok'o-l-ca
be.ill-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy troubles the mother.’
(156)
untila
disease.ERG
k'ok'o-l-lo
be.sick-CAUS-PST
maɣo
body
‘The disease made the body sick.’
PEEL no verbal counterpart N
HELP komak bowal R
(12)
kibba
girl.ERG
iyo-l
mother-LAT
komak
help(III).ABS
b-oo-yo
III-do-PST
‘The girl helped her mother.’

(157)
kibba
girl.ERG
iyo-l
mother-LAT
öždi-d
boy.OBL-INSTR
komak
help(III).ABS
b-oo-yl-iyo
III-do-CAUS-PST
‘The girl made the boy help the mother.’
SAY nisal R
(13)
kibba
girl.ERG
abo-qa
father-POSS
dil-na
1SG.LAT-and
niƛ-a-ƛo
give-IMP-QUOT
niso-yo
say-PST
‘The girl said to the father: "Give me as well!".’

(158)
kibba
girl.ERG
öždi-d
boy.OBL-INSTR
gedo-ƛo
cat-QUOT
niso-yl-iyo
say-CAUS-PST
‘The girl made the boy say 'cat'.’
TELL xabar meyal R
(14)
uštel-li
teacher-ERG
q'owa-l
children-LAT
xabar
story(III).ABS
m-ee-yo
III-let.out-PST
‘The teacher told a story to the children.’
(107)
kibba
girl.ERG
hini-la
REFL-GEN2
gedi-s
cat.OBL-GEN1
öždi-l
boy.OBL-LAT
xabar
story(III).ABS
m-eh-ca
III-let.out-PRS
‘The girl talks to the boy about her cat.’

(159)
uštel-li
teacher-ERG
q'owa-d
children-INSTR
hini-l
REFL-LAT
xabar
story(III).ABS
m-ee-yl-iyo
III-let.out-CAUS-PST
‘The teacher made the children tell him a story.’
(214)
kibba
girl.ERG
öždi-d
boy.OBL-INSTR
gedi-s
cat.OBL-GEN1
xabar
story(III).ABS
m-e-yl-iyo
III-let.out-CAUS-PST
‘The girl made the boy tell the story about the cat.’
TEACH małciyowal R
(118)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
ʔarab
Arabic
mic
language(III).ABS
małci<b>oo-s
teach<III>-PRS
‘The boy teaches the Arabic language to the girl.’

(160)
öždi
boy.ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
ʔarab
Arabic
mic
language(III).ABS
małci<b>oo-yl-iyo
teach<III>-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy made the brother teach the girl the Arabic language.’
GO yeⁿƛ'al (1) R
(108)
kid
girl(II).ABS
y-eⁿƛ'e-š
II-go-PRS
biƛo-ɣa
house-APUD
‘The girl goes home.’

(187)
öždi
boy.ERG
kid
girl(II).ABS
biƛo-ɣa
house-APUD
y-eⁿ-yl-iyo
II-let.out-CAUS-PST
‘The boy let the girl go home.’
DIE yuɣal R
(16)
iyo
mother(II).ABS
y-uɣo-yo
II-die-PST
‘The mother died.’

(161)
öždi
boy.ERG
wo
dog(III).ABS
b-uɣo-l-lo
III-die-CAUS-PST
‘The boy killed the dog.’
KILL yiƛ'al (1) R
(17)
öždi
boy.ERG
bekela
snake(III).ABS
k'obala-li-d
stick-OBL-INSTR
b-iƛ'e-yo
III-kill-PST
‘The boy killed the snake with the stick.’

(162)
öždi
boy.ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
bekela
snake(III).ABS
k'obala-li-d
stick-OBL-INSTR
b-iƛ'e-ll-iyo
III-kill-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the brother kill the snake with the stick.’
SIT q'ey yecal R
(18)
kid
girl(II).ABS
q'ey
on.the.ground
y-eče-na
II-be-CVB
gey
be.PRS
‘The girl is sitting.’

(132)
öždi
boy.ERG
kid
girl(II).ABS
q'ey
on.the.ground
y-eče-l-lo
II-stay-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the girl sit down.’
(163)
iyo
mother.ERG
kid
girl(II).ABS
q'ey
down
y-eče-l-lo
II-sit-CAUS-PST
‘The mother made the girl sit down.’
TIE yiⁿcal R
(19)
öždi
boy.ERG
waya
cow(III).ABS
sabali-ya-d
rope-OBL-INSTR
m-ico-yo
III-tie-PST
xöx-i-ł
tree-OBL-INTER
‘The boy tied the cow to the tree with the rope.’

(164)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-d
girl.OBL-INSTR
waya
cow(III).ABS
sabali-ya-d
rope-OBL-INSTR
xöx-i-ł
tree-OBL-INTER
m-ico-ll-iyo
III-tie-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the girl tie the cow to the tree with the rope.’
POUR git'al R
(20)
kibba
girl.ERG
wedra-la-ʔ
bucket-OBL-INESS
łi
water(IV).ABS
git'-iyo
pour(II/IV)-PST
‘The girl poured water into the bucket.’

(165)
kibba
girl.ERG
öždi-d
boy.OBL-INSTR
wedra-la-ʔ
bucket-OBL-INESS
łi
water(IV).ABS
git'-ill-iyo
pour(IV)-CAUS-PST
‘The girl made the boy pour water into the bucket.’
PUT gulal R
(21)
öždi
boy.ERG
istoli-ya-ƛ'a
table-OBL-SUP
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
gul-iyo
put(IV)-PST
‘The boy put the book on the table.’

(166)
öždi
boy.ERG
istoli-ya-ƛ'a
table-OBL-SUP
kibba-d
girl.OBL-INSTR
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
gul-ill-iyo
put(IV)-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the girl put the book on the table.’
LOAD yoⁿsal R
(22)
öždi
boy.ERG
hudo
firewood(III).ABS
mašina-l-ƛ'a
car-OBL-SUP
m-oso-yo
III-collapse-PST
‘The boy loaded the firewood onto the car.’

(175)
öždi
boy.ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
hudo
firewood(III).ABS
mašina-l-ƛ'a
car-OBL-SUP
m-oso-ll-iyo
III-collapse-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the brother load the car with the firewood.’
CUT yüč'al R
(23)
öždi
boy.ERG
c'it'-a-d
knife-OBL-INSTR
bäbä
bread(III).ABS
b-üč'-iyo
III-cut-PST
‘The boy cut the bread with the knife.’

(188)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-d
girl.OBL-INSTR
bäbä
bread(III).ABS
c'it'-a-d
knife-OBL-INSTR
b-üč'-ill-iyo
III-cut-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the girl cut the bread with the knife.’
FOLLOW müɣäƛ yeⁿƛ'al N
(24)
öžö
boy(I).ABS
kibba-ɣoy
girl.OBL-COMIT
müɣäƛ
after
Ø-eⁿƛ'e-š
I-go-PRS
‘The boy follows the girl.’
HIDE yuⁿcal (1) R
(25)
öždi
boy.ERG
isi-l-co
sister-OBL-ABL
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-uⁿco-yo
IV-hide-PST
‘The boy hid the book from his sister.’

(216)
öždi
boy.ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
isi-l-co
sister-OBL-ABL
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-uⁿco-yl-iyo
IV-hide-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the brother hide the book from his sister.’
THINK urɣeziyaqal N
(26)
öžö
boy(I).ABS
kibba-ƛ'a-s
girl.OBL-SUP-ABL
urɣezi<Ø>aq-iyo
think<I>-PST
‘The boy thinks about the girl.’
SEARCH FOR xalbowal R
(27)
kibba
girl.ERG
t'ek
book.ABS
xalboo-yo
search-PST
‘The girl looked for the book.’

(176)
kibba
girl.ERG
öždi-d
boy.OBL-INSTR
t'ek
book.ABS
xalbo-yl-iyo
search-CAUS-PST
‘The girl made the boy search for the book.’
DRESS łič'elal R
(191)
kibba
girl.ERG
iyod
mother.INSTR
kunta
dress.ABS
isi-ƛ'a
sister-SUP
łič'e-ll-iyo
put.on-CAUS-PST
‘The girl dressed the sister with the mother's help.’
SCREAM lalaƛal R
(29)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-ƛ'a
girl.OBL-SUP
lalaƛo-yo
shout-PST
‘The boy shouted at the girl.’

(192)
öždi
boy.ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
kibba-ƛ'a
girl.OBL-SUP
lalaƛo-ll-iyo
shout-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the brother shout at the girl.’
TAKE yokčal R
(30)
kibba
girl.ERG
iyo-qa-s
mother-POSS-ABL
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-okči-yo
IV-take-PST
‘The girl took the book from the mother.’

(178)
kibba
girl.ERG
öždi-d
boy.OBL-INSTR
iyo-qa-s
mother-POSS-ABL
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-okči-ll-iyo
IV-take-CAUS-PST
‘The girl made the boy take the book from the mother.’
NAME caaⁿ gulal R
(31)
Mähmäd-i
Magomed-ERG
öždi-ƛ'a
boy.OBL-SUP
Murad
Murad
caaⁿ
name(IV).ABS
gul-lo
put(IV)-PST
‘Magomed called his son Murad.’

(169)
Mähmäd-i
Magomed-ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
öždi-ƛ'a
boy.OBL-SUP
Murad
Murad
caaⁿ
name(IV).ABS
gul-ill-iyo
put(IV)-CAUS-PST
‘Magomed made his brother name his son Murad.’
TEAR yäxelal R
(32)
kibba
girl.ERG
kunta-la-ł-co
dress-OBL-INTER-ABL
ɣeč'i
tissue(IV).ABS
y-äxe-l-ca
IV-tear-CAUS-PRS
‘The girl tears the tissue from the dress.’
BE SAD urɣelliƛ'a yaqal R
(33)
öžö
boy.ABS
urɣel-li-ƛ'a
thought-OBL-SUP
gey
be.PRS
‘The boy is sad.’

(193)
öždi
boy.ERG
kid
girl(II).ABS
urɣel-li-ƛ'a
thought-OBL-SUP
y-ek-ill-iyo
II-fall-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the girl sad.’
FEEL COLD yäč’ɬal N
(34)
öžö
boy(I).ABS
Ø-äč’-ɬ-iyo
I-cold-INCH-PST
‘The boy got cold.’
BE HUNGRY nukal N
(37)
kid
girl.ABS
nuko-yo
be.hungry-PST
‘The girl was hungry.’
COUGH öhƛäl N
(38)
kibba
girl.ERG
öhƛö-yo
cough-PST
‘The girl coughed.’
FILL yoc'lal R
(40)
kibba
girl.ERG
łii-s
water-GEN1
wedra
bucket(III).ABS
b-oc'-il-ca
III-fill-CAUS-PRS
‘The girl fills the bucket with the water.’

(196)
kibba
girl.ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
łii-s
water-GEN1
wedra
bucket(III).ABS
b-oc'-ill-iyo
III-fill-CAUS2-PRS
‘The girl made the brother fill the bucket with the water.’
COOK helal R
(41)
kibba
girl.ERG
xo
meat.ABS
hele-yo
boil-PST
‘The girl cooked (boiled) the meat.’

(182)
kibba
girl.ERG
öždi-d
boy.OBL-INSTR
k'atu
potato.ABS
hele-ll-iyo
cook-CAUS-PST
‘The girl made the boy boil potatoes.’
SINK ɣanq'iziyaqal N
(42)
gama
boat(III).ABS
ɣanq'izi<b>aq-iyo
sink<III>-PST
‘The boat sank.’
LEAVE yeⁿƛ'al (2) N
(43)
öžö
boy(I).ABS
äƛ-a-ʔ-aš
village-OBL-IN-ABL
Ø-eⁿƛ'e-yo
I-go-PST
‘The boy left the village.’
RUN č'an yaɣal R
(45)
öždi
boy.ERG
yiƛa
fast
č'an
run(IV).ABS
y-aɣo-s
IV-take-PRS
‘The boy is running fast.’

(281)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-d
girl.OBL-INSTR
č'an
run(IV).ABS
y-aɣo-yl-is
IV-take-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy makes the girl run.’
RAIN no verbal counterpart R
APPEAR yoⁿq'al R
(47)
boq
sun(III).ABS
m-oq'o-yo
III-come-PST
‘The sun appeared.’

(126)
öždi
boy.ERG
kid
girl(II).ABS
biƛo-ɣa
house-APUD
y-oⁿq'o-l-lo
II-come-CAUS-PST
‘The boy accompanied girl to the house.’
HUG aⁿło yoc'al R
(48)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
aⁿło
embrace(IV).ABS
y-oc'-iyo
IV-fill-PST
‘The boy hugged the girl.’

(220)
öždi
boy.ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
aⁿło
embrace(IV).ABS
y-oc'-ill-iyo
IV-fill-CAUS-
‘The boy made the brother hug the girl.’
SMELL mäh biq'al R
(49)
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
k'ima-li-s
cheese-OBL-GEN1
mäh
smell(III).ABS
b-iq'e-yo
III-know-PST
‘The girl smelled the cheese.’

(148)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
k'ima-li-s
cheese-OBL-GEN1
mäh
smell(III).ABS
b-iq'e-l-lo
III-know-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the girl smell the cheese.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) kusuʔal R
(50)
öždi
boy.ERG
bab
beard.ABS
kusuʔ-iyo
shave-PST
‘The boy shaved his beard.’

(149)
abo
father.ERG
öždi-d
boy.OBL-INSTR
bab
beard.ABS
kusuʔ-l-iyo
shave-CAUS-PST
‘The father made the boy shave his beard.’
MEET keziyaqal N
(51)
öždi-l
boy.OBL-DAT
kid
girl(II).ABS
kezi<y>aq-iyo
meet<II>-PST
‘The boy met the girl.’
MAKE yowal R
(52)
kibba
girl.ERG
simindi-ya-la
maize-OBL-GEN2
hät't'ä-š
flour.OBL-GEN1
bäbä
bread(III).ABS
b-oo-s
III-do-PRS
‘The girl makes the bread out of maize flour.’

(128)
kibba
girl.ERG
iyo-d
mother-INSTR
simindi-ya-la
maize-OBL-GEN2
hät't'ä-š
flour.OBL-GEN1
bäbä
bread(III).ABS
b-oy-l-is
III-do-CAUS-PRS
‘The girl made the mother make the bread out of maize flour.’
(129)
öždi
boy.ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
miza-la
ground.OBL-GEN2
aguri-ya-s
brick-OBL-GEN1
biƛo
house(IV).ABS
y-oy-l-iyo
IV-do-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the brother make the house out of ground bricks.’
HEAR tuqal R
(54)
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
quy
noise.ABS
tuq-iyo
hear-PST
‘The girl heard the noise.’

(151)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
xabar
story.ABS
tuq-il-ca
hear-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy makes the girl listen to the story.’
ASK FOR harziyowal R
(55)
ist'i
brother.ERG
isi-qa
sister-POSS
okko
money(IV).ABS
harzi<y>oo-yo
ask<IV>-PST
‘The brother asked his sister for the money.’

(198)
ist'i
brother.ERG
isi-d
sister-INSTR
iyo-qa
mother-POSS
okko
money(IV).ABS
harzi<y>oo-yl-iyo
ask<IV>-CAUS-PST
‘The brother made the sister ask money from the mother.’
BREAK yišelal R
(56)
öždi
boy.ERG
xäbä-lä-d
foot-OBL-INSTR
c'ika
glass(III).ABS
b-iše-ll-o
III-break-CAUS-PST
‘The boy broke the glass with his foot.’
CLIMB no verbal counterpart N
COVER yoq'olal R
(64)
kibba
girl.ERG
öždi-ƛ'a
boy.OBL-SUP
yurɣan
blanket(III).ABS
m-oq'o-l-ca
III-come-CAUS-PRS
‘The girl covers the boy with the blanket.’

(202)
kibba
girl.ERG
iyo-d
mother-INSTR
öždi-ƛ'a
boy.OBL-SUP
yurɣan
blanket(III).ABS
m-oq'o-ll-iyo
III-come-CAUS2-PST
‘The girl made the mother cover the boy with the blanket.’
JUMP yogic'al R
(65)
öžö
boy(I).ABS
Ø-ogic'-iyo
I-jump-PST
‘The boy jumped.’

(204)
öždi
boy.ERG
kid
girl(II).ABS
y-ogic'-ill-o
II-jump-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the girl jump.’
BUILD no verbal counterpart N
SEND yeⁿyal R
(71)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
diʔi
flower(IV).ABS
y-eⁿe-yo
IV-send-PST
‘The boy sent the girl the flower (for permanent possession).’

(130)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-d
girl.OBL-INSTR
iyo-l
mother-LAT
diʔi
flower(IV).ABS
y-eⁿe-yl-iyo
IV-send-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the girl send a flower to the mother.’
PLAY k'isal N
(73)
kid
girl.ABS
nänilaɬ
doll.INTER
k'isa-s
play-PRS
‘The girl plays with the doll.’
LAUGH łowal N
(74)
kid
girl.ABS
łowa-s
laugh-PRS
‘The girl laughs.’
CARRY yezal R
(75)
öždi
boy.ERG
q'ac'icco
rucksack(IV).ABS
iyo-l
mother-LAT
y-eže-š
IV-carry-PRS
‘The boy carried the rucksack for the mother.’

(131)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-d
girl.OBL-INSTR
q'ac'icco
rucksack(IV).ABS
iyo-l
mother-LAT
y-eže-yl-is
IV-carry-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy made the girl carry the rucksack for the mother.’
SHOW yegalal R
(77)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-ega-l-ca
IV-see-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy shows a book to the girl.’

(206)
öždi
boy.ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-ega-ll-iyo
IV-see-CAUS2-PRS
‘The boy made the brother show the book to the girl.’
LIVE ömrö bowal R
(78)
öždi
boy.ERG
äƛ-a-ʔ
village-OBL-INESS
ömrö
life(III).ABS
b-oo-s
III-do-PRS
‘The boy lives in the village.’

(224)
öždi
boy.ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
äƛ-a-ʔ
village-OBL-INESS
ömrö
life(III).ABS
b-oo-yl-iyo
III-do-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy made the brother live in the village.’
BE DRY qoqal R
(79)
mizo
ground.ABS
qoqo-na
dry-CVB
gey
be.PRS
‘The ground is dry.’

(136)
öždi
boy.ERG
box
grass.ABS
qoqo-l-lo
dry-CAUS-PST
‘The boy dried the grass.’
DIG yäxäl R
(80)
öždi
boy.ERG
mäče
ground(III).ABS
b-äx-čä
III-dig-PRS
‘The boy digs the ground.’

(138)
kibba
girl.ERG
öždi-d
boy.OBL-INSTR
mäče
ground(III).ABS
b-äx-ill-is
III-dig-CAUS2-PRS
‘The girl makes the boy dig the ground.’
BE A HUNTER no verbal counterpart N
GET yiqal R
(82)
öždi-l
boy.OBL-LAT
kibba-qa-s
girl.OBL-POSS-ABL
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-iqo-yo
IV-get-PST
‘The boy got the book from the girl.’

(139)
öždi
boy.ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
kibba-qa-s
girl.OBL-POSS-ABL
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-iqo-l-lo
IV-get-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the brother get the book from the girl.’
BRING yaq'al R
(83)
kibba
girl.ERG
iyo-l
mother-LAT
žamɣo
sorrel(III).ABS
b-aq'o-yo
III-bring-PST
‘The girl brought sorrel to the mother.’

(208)
kibba
girl.ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
iyo-l
mother-LAT
žamɣo
sorrel(III).ABS
b-aq'o-ll-iyo
III-bring-CAUS-PST
‘The girl made the brother bring the sorrel to the mother.’
STEAL yuⁿcal (2) R
(85)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-qa-s
girl.OBL-POSS-ABL
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-uⁿco-yo
IV-steal-PST
‘The boy stole the book from the girl.’

(190)
öždi
boy.ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
kibba-qa-s
girl.OBL-POSS-ABL
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-uⁿco-ll-iyo
IV-steal-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the brother steal the book from the girl.’
THROW yiƛ'al (2) R
(86)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
burti
ball(III).ABS
b-iƛ'e-yo
III-throw-PST
‘The boy threw the ball to the girl (so as to hit her).’
(89)
öždi
boy.ERG
istoli-ya-ƛ'a
table-OBL-SUP
q'alam
pencil(III).ABS
b-iƛ'e-yo
III-throw-PST
‘The boy threw the pencil on the table.’

(210)
öždi
boy.ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
burti
ball(III).ABS
b-iƛ'e-ll-iyo
III-throw-CAUS-PST
‘The boy made the brother throw the ball to the girl.’
PUSH zistuqlal R
(90)
öždi
boy.ERG
ƛ'alo
stone(IV).ABS
zistuqil-ca
push(IV)-PRS
‘The boy pushes the stone.’

(212)
kibba
girl.ERG
öždi-d
boy.OBL-INSTR
ƛ'alo
stone.ABS
zistuqil-l-iyo
push-CAUS-PST
‘The girl made the boy push the stone.’
GRIND haʔal R
(106)
öždi
boy.ERG
qibo
wheat.ABS
haʔo-s
grind-PRS
habo-ƛ'a
mill-SUP
‘The boy grinds the wheat on the mill.’

(228)
öždi
boy.ERG
ist'i-d
brother.OBL-INSTR
qibo
wheat.ABS
haʔoy-l-iyo
grind-CAUS-PST
habo-ƛ'a
mill-SUP
‘The boy made the brother grind the wheat on the mill.’
TALK yiq'lašal N
(266)
kid
girl(II).ABS
abo-qa
father-POSS
y-iq'laše-š
II-talk-PRS
‘The girl talks to her father.’
RUN č'änaɣal R
(119)
öždi
boy.ERG
yiƛa
fast
č'anaɣo-š
run-PRS
‘The boy runs fast.’

(280)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-d
girl.OBL-INSTR
č'anaɣo-yl-is
run-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy makes the girl run.’