Antipassive 2 Alternation C

Description

The antipassive 2 has reflexive meaning. This is only found in the one verb nizaal ‘to wash’. Note that this verb also has a semantically regular antipassive, see Antipassive 1.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
RUN č'änaɣal N
(119)
öždi
boy.ERG
yiƛa
fast
č'anaɣo-š
run-PRS
‘The boy runs fast.’
WASH nizal R
(7)
kibba
girl.ERG
łic'o
clothes.ABS
nizaa-yo
wash-PST
‘The girl washes the clothes.’

(302)
kid
girl
niza-laa-yo.
wash-ANTIP-PST
‘The girl washed herself.’
SCREAM lalaƛal N
(29)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-ƛ'a
girl.OBL-SUP
lalaƛo-yo
shout-PST
‘The boy shouted at the girl.’
FRIGHTEN hič'egolal N
(6)
kibba
girl.ERG
öžö
boy(I).ABS
hič'e-gol-ca
fear-MAKE(I)-PRS
‘The girl frightens the boy.’
ROLL k'äyƛäl N
(44)
örrä
wheel.ABS
k'äyƛö-š
turn.round-PRS
‘The wheel is rolling.’
HUG aⁿło yoc'al N
(48)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
aⁿło
embrace(IV).ABS
y-oc'-iyo
IV-fill-PST
‘The boy hugged the girl.’
RUN č'an yaɣal N
(45)
öždi
boy.ERG
yiƛa
fast
č'an
run(IV).ABS
y-aɣo-s
IV-take-PRS
‘The boy is running fast.’
NAME caaⁿ gulal N
(31)
Mähmäd-i
Magomed-ERG
öždi-ƛ'a
boy.OBL-SUP
Murad
Murad
caaⁿ
name(IV).ABS
gul-lo
put(IV)-PST
‘Magomed called his son Murad.’
BE A HUNTER no verbal counterpart N
POUR git'al N
(20)
kibba
girl.ERG
wedra-la-ʔ
bucket-OBL-INESS
łi
water(IV).ABS
git'-iyo
pour(II/IV)-PST
‘The girl poured water into the bucket.’
LOOK AT goc'oqal N
(28)
öžö
boy.ABS
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
goc'oq-iyo
look(I)-PST
‘The boy looked at the girl.’
PUT gulal N
(21)
öždi
boy.ERG
istoli-ya-ƛ'a
table-OBL-SUP
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
gul-iyo
put(IV)-PST
‘The boy put the book on the table.’
RAIN no verbal counterpart N
SINK ɣanq'iziyaqal N
(42)
gama
boat(III).ABS
ɣanq'izi<b>aq-iyo
sink<III>-PST
‘The boat sank.’
BOIL ɣayƛal N
(53)
łi
water.ABS
ɣayƛo-s
boil-PRS
‘The water boils.’
ASK FOR harziyowal N
(55)
ist'i
brother.ERG
isi-qa
sister-POSS
okko
money(IV).ABS
harzi<y>oo-yo
ask<IV>-PST
‘The brother asked his sister for the money.’
GRIND haʔal N
(106)
öždi
boy.ERG
qibo
wheat.ABS
haʔo-s
grind-PRS
habo-ƛ'a
mill-SUP
‘The boy grinds the wheat on the mill.’
COOK helal N
(41)
kibba
girl.ERG
xo
meat.ABS
hele-yo
boil-PST
‘The girl cooked (boiled) the meat.’
FEAR hic'al N
(5)
kid
girl.ABS
c'o-y-qa
fire-OBL-POSS
hič'e-š
fear-PRS
‘The girl fears the fire.’
PLAY k'isal N
(73)
kid
girl.ABS
nänilaɬ
doll.INTER
k'isa-s
play-PRS
‘The girl plays with the doll.’
BE ILL k'ok'al N
(10)
kid
girl.ABS
k'ok'o-na
be.ill-CVB
gey
be.PRS
‘The girl is ill.’
(35)
iyo-s
mother-GEN1
q'äm
head.ABS
k'ok'o-s
hurt-PRS
‘The mother's head is aching.’
SING no verbal counterpart N
MEET keziyaqal N
(51)
öždi-l
boy.OBL-DAT
kid
girl(II).ABS
kezi<y>aq-iyo
meet<II>-PST
‘The boy met the girl.’
HELP komak bowal N
(12)
kibba
girl.ERG
iyo-l
mother-LAT
komak
help(III).ABS
b-oo-yo
III-do-PST
‘The girl helped her mother.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) kusuʔal N
(50)
öždi
boy.ERG
bab
beard.ABS
kusuʔ-iyo
shave-PST
‘The boy shaved his beard.’
DRESS łič'elal N
(191)
kibba
girl.ERG
iyod
mother.INSTR
kunta
dress.ABS
isi-ƛ'a
sister-SUP
łič'e-ll-iyo
put.on-CAUS-PST
‘The girl dressed the sister with the mother's help.’
LAUGH łowal N
(74)
kid
girl.ABS
łowa-s
laugh-PRS
‘The girl laughs.’
SMELL mäh biq'al N
(49)
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
k'ima-li-s
cheese-OBL-GEN1
mäh
smell(III).ABS
b-iq'e-yo
III-know-PST
‘The girl smelled the cheese.’
TEACH małciyowal N
(118)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
ʔarab
Arabic
mic
language(III).ABS
małci<b>oo-s
teach<III>-PRS
‘The boy teaches the Arabic language to the girl.’
FOLLOW müɣäƛ yeⁿƛ'al N
(24)
öžö
boy(I).ABS
kibba-ɣoy
girl.OBL-COMIT
müɣäƛ
after
Ø-eⁿƛ'e-š
I-go-PRS
‘The boy follows the girl.’
GIVE niƛal N
(59)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
t'ek
book.ABS
niƛ-iyo
give-PST
‘The boy gave the book to the girl.’
SAY nisal N
(13)
kibba
girl.ERG
abo-qa
father-POSS
dil-na
1SG.LAT-and
niƛ-a-ƛo
give-IMP-QUOT
niso-yo
say-PST
‘The girl said to the father: "Give me as well!".’
PEEL no verbal counterpart N
CLIMB no verbal counterpart N
BUILD no verbal counterpart N
BE HUNGRY nukal N
(37)
kid
girl.ABS
nuko-yo
be.hungry-PST
‘The girl was hungry.’
COUGH öhƛäl N
(38)
kibba
girl.ERG
öhƛö-yo
cough-PST
‘The girl coughed.’
LIVE ömrö bowal N
(78)
öždi
boy.ERG
äƛ-a-ʔ
village-OBL-INESS
ömrö
life(III).ABS
b-oo-s
III-do-PRS
‘The boy lives in the village.’
BLINK häydä pacpaƛal N
(39)
öždi-s
boy.OBL-GEN1
häy-dä
eye-PL
pacpaƛo-s
blink-PRS
‘The boys eyes are blinking.’
SIT q'ey yecal N
(18)
kid
girl(II).ABS
q'ey
on.the.ground
y-eče-na
II-be-CVB
gey
be.PRS
‘The girl is sitting.’
BE DRY qoqal N
(79)
mizo
ground.ABS
qoqo-na
dry-CVB
gey
be.PRS
‘The ground is dry.’
HEAR tuqal N
(54)
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
quy
noise.ABS
tuq-iyo
hear-PST
‘The girl heard the noise.’
BE SAD urɣelliƛ'a yaqal N
(33)
öžö
boy.ABS
urɣel-li-ƛ'a
thought-OBL-SUP
gey
be.PRS
‘The boy is sad.’
THINK urɣeziyaqal N
(26)
öžö
boy(I).ABS
kibba-ƛ'a-s
girl.OBL-SUP-ABL
urɣezi<Ø>aq-iyo
think<I>-PST
‘The boy thinks about the girl.’
TELL xabar meyal N
(14)
uštel-li
teacher-ERG
q'owa-l
children-LAT
xabar
story(III).ABS
m-ee-yo
III-let.out-PST
‘The teacher told a story to the children.’
(107)
kibba
girl.ERG
hini-la
REFL-GEN2
gedi-s
cat.OBL-GEN1
öždi-l
boy.OBL-LAT
xabar
story(III).ABS
m-eh-ca
III-let.out-PRS
‘The girl talks to the boy about her cat.’
SEARCH FOR xalbowal N
(27)
kibba
girl.ERG
t'ek
book.ABS
xalboo-yo
search-PST
‘The girl looked for the book.’
BEAT yäƛ'elal N
(57)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
k'obala
stick(III).ABS
b-äƛ'el-lo
III-hit-PST
‘The boy hit the girl with the stick.’
FEEL COLD yäč’ɬal N
(34)
öžö
boy(I).ABS
Ø-äč’-ɬ-iyo
I-cold-INCH-PST
‘The boy got cold.’
CLEAN yaⁿcolal N
(97)
öždi
boy.ERG
istoli-ya-ƛ'a-s
table-OBL-SUP-ABL
čaq'i
ink(IV).ABS
y-aⁿco-l-ca
IV-clean-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy wipes the ink off the table.’
BRING yaq'al N
(83)
kibba
girl.ERG
iyo-l
mother-LAT
žamɣo
sorrel(III).ABS
b-aq'o-yo
III-bring-PST
‘The girl brought sorrel to the mother.’
LIKE yat'al N
(4)
öždi-l
boy.OBL-LAT
kid
girl(II).ABS
y-at'-ca
II-like-PRS
‘The boy likes the girl.’
DIG yäxäl N
(80)
öždi
boy.ERG
mäče
ground(III).ABS
b-äx-čä
III-dig-PRS
‘The boy digs the ground.’
TEAR yäxelal N
(32)
kibba
girl.ERG
kunta-la-ł-co
dress-OBL-INTER-ABL
ɣeč'i
tissue(IV).ABS
y-äxe-l-ca
IV-tear-CAUS-PRS
‘The girl tears the tissue from the dress.’
SEE yegaal N
(2)
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
iyo
mother(II).ABS
y-egaa-yo
II-see-PST
‘The girl saw her mother.’
SHOW yegalal N
(77)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-ega-l-ca
IV-see-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy shows a book to the girl.’
BURN yek'al N
(36)
hudo
firewood(III).ABS
b-ek'e-š
III-burn-PRS
‘The firewood is burning.’
FALL yekal N
(15)
öžö
boy(I).ABS
xöx-ƛ'ä-š
tree.OBL-SUP-ABL
Ø-ek-iyo
I-fall-PST
‘The boy fell from the tree.’
GO yeⁿƛ'al (1) N
(108)
kid
girl(II).ABS
y-eⁿƛ'e-š
II-go-PRS
biƛo-ɣa
house-APUD
‘The girl goes home.’
LEAVE yeⁿƛ'al (2) N
(43)
öžö
boy(I).ABS
äƛ-a-ʔ-aš
village-OBL-IN-ABL
Ø-eⁿƛ'e-yo
I-go-PST
‘The boy left the village.’
TOUCH yeⁿxelal N
(62)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
koo
hand(IV).ABS
y-eⁿxe-l-ca
IV-touch-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy touches the girl with his hand.’
SEND yeⁿyal N
(71)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
diʔi
flower(IV).ABS
y-eⁿe-yo
IV-send-PST
‘The boy sent the girl the flower (for permanent possession).’
CARRY yezal N
(75)
öždi
boy.ERG
q'ac'icco
rucksack(IV).ABS
iyo-l
mother-LAT
y-eže-š
IV-carry-PRS
‘The boy carried the rucksack for the mother.’
KILL yiƛ'al (1) N
(17)
öždi
boy.ERG
bekela
snake(III).ABS
k'obala-li-d
stick-OBL-INSTR
b-iƛ'e-yo
III-kill-PST
‘The boy killed the snake with the stick.’
THROW yiƛ'al (2) N
(86)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
burti
ball(III).ABS
b-iƛ'e-yo
III-throw-PST
‘The boy threw the ball to the girl (so as to hit her).’
(89)
öždi
boy.ERG
istoli-ya-ƛ'a
table-OBL-SUP
q'alam
pencil(III).ABS
b-iƛ'e-yo
III-throw-PST
‘The boy threw the pencil on the table.’
TIE yiⁿcal N
(19)
öždi
boy.ERG
waya
cow(III).ABS
sabali-ya-d
rope-OBL-INSTR
m-ico-yo
III-tie-PST
xöx-i-ł
tree-OBL-INTER
‘The boy tied the cow to the tree with the rope.’
KNOW yiq'al N
(3)
abo-l
father-LAT
teli
many
xabar-la
story-PL
y-iyaq'e-š
NHPL-know.PL-PRS
‘The father knows many stories.’
TALK yiq'lašal N
(266)
kid
girl(II).ABS
abo-qa
father-POSS
y-iq'laše-š
II-talk-PRS
‘The girl talks to her father.’
GET yiqal N
(82)
öždi-l
boy.OBL-LAT
kibba-qa-s
girl.OBL-POSS-ABL
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-iqo-yo
IV-get-PST
‘The boy got the book from the girl.’
BREAK yišelal N
(56)
öždi
boy.ERG
xäbä-lä-d
foot-OBL-INSTR
c'ika
glass(III).ABS
b-iše-ll-o
III-break-CAUS-PST
‘The boy broke the glass with his foot.’
CRY yiyaal N
(9)
kid
girl(II).ABS
y-iya-s
II-cry-PRS
‘The girl cries.’
FILL yoc'lal N
(40)
kibba
girl.ERG
łii-s
water-GEN1
wedra
bucket(III).ABS
b-oc'-il-ca
III-fill-CAUS-PRS
‘The girl fills the bucket with the water.’
JUMP yogic'al N
(65)
öžö
boy(I).ABS
Ø-ogic'-iyo
I-jump-PST
‘The boy jumped.’
TAKE yokčal N
(30)
kibba
girl.ERG
iyo-qa-s
mother-POSS-ABL
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-okči-yo
IV-take-PST
‘The girl took the book from the mother.’
APPEAR yoⁿq'al N
(47)
boq
sun(III).ABS
m-oq'o-yo
III-come-PST
‘The sun appeared.’
LOAD yoⁿsal N
(22)
öždi
boy.ERG
hudo
firewood(III).ABS
mašina-l-ƛ'a
car-OBL-SUP
m-oso-yo
III-collapse-PST
‘The boy loaded the firewood onto the car.’
COVER yoq'olal N
(64)
kibba
girl.ERG
öždi-ƛ'a
boy.OBL-SUP
yurɣan
blanket(III).ABS
m-oq'o-l-ca
III-come-CAUS-PRS
‘The girl covers the boy with the blanket.’
MAKE yowal N
(52)
kibba
girl.ERG
simindi-ya-la
maize-OBL-GEN2
hät't'ä-š
flour.OBL-GEN1
bäbä
bread(III).ABS
b-oo-s
III-do-PRS
‘The girl makes the bread out of maize flour.’
CUT yüč'al N
(23)
öždi
boy.ERG
c'it'-a-d
knife-OBL-INSTR
bäbä
bread(III).ABS
b-üč'-iyo
III-cut-PST
‘The boy cut the bread with the knife.’
DIE yuɣal N
(16)
iyo
mother(II).ABS
y-uɣo-yo
II-die-PST
‘The mother died.’
HIDE yuⁿcal (1) N
(25)
öždi
boy.ERG
isi-l-co
sister-OBL-ABL
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-uⁿco-yo
IV-hide-PST
‘The boy hid the book from his sister.’
STEAL yuⁿcal (2) N
(85)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-qa-s
girl.OBL-POSS-ABL
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-uⁿco-yo
IV-steal-PST
‘The boy stole the book from the girl.’
EAT yüⁿqal N
(1)
öždi
boy.ERG
bäbä
bread(III).ABS
m-üq-iyo
III-eat-PST
‘The boy ate bread.’
PUSH zistuqlal N
(90)
öždi
boy.ERG
ƛ'alo
stone(IV).ABS
zistuqil-ca
push(IV)-PRS
‘The boy pushes the stone.’