Causative with yowal

Description

Intransitive compound verbs formed with the auxiliary verb yaqal ‘to happen’ derive transitives by changing the auxiliary verb to yowal ‘to do’.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
HUG aⁿło yoc'al N
(48)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
aⁿło
embrace(IV).ABS
y-oc'-iyo
IV-fill-PST
‘The boy hugged the girl.’
RUN č'an yaɣal N
(45)
öždi
boy.ERG
yiƛa
fast
č'an
run(IV).ABS
y-aɣo-s
IV-take-PRS
‘The boy is running fast.’
RUN č'änaɣal N
(119)
öždi
boy.ERG
yiƛa
fast
č'anaɣo-š
run-PRS
‘The boy runs fast.’
NAME caaⁿ gulal N
(31)
Mähmäd-i
Magomed-ERG
öždi-ƛ'a
boy.OBL-SUP
Murad
Murad
caaⁿ
name(IV).ABS
gul-lo
put(IV)-PST
‘Magomed called his son Murad.’
BE A HUNTER no verbal counterpart N
POUR git'al N
(20)
kibba
girl.ERG
wedra-la-ʔ
bucket-OBL-INESS
łi
water(IV).ABS
git'-iyo
pour(II/IV)-PST
‘The girl poured water into the bucket.’
LOOK AT goc'oqal N
(28)
öžö
boy.ABS
kibba-qa
girl.OBL-POSS
goc'oq-iyo
look(I)-PST
‘The boy looked at the girl.’
PUT gulal N
(21)
öždi
boy.ERG
istoli-ya-ƛ'a
table-OBL-SUP
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
gul-iyo
put(IV)-PST
‘The boy put the book on the table.’
RAIN no verbal counterpart N
SINK ɣanq'iziyaqal R
(42)
gama
boat(III).ABS
ɣanq'izi<b>aq-iyo
sink<III>-PST
‘The boat sank.’

(222)
öždi
boy.ERG
gama
boat(III).ABS
ɣanq'izi<b>oo-yo
make.sink<III>-PST
‘The boy made the boat sink.’
BOIL ɣayƛal N
(53)
łi
water.ABS
ɣayƛo-s
boil-PRS
‘The water boils.’
ASK FOR harziyowal N
(55)
ist'i
brother.ERG
isi-qa
sister-POSS
okko
money(IV).ABS
harzi<y>oo-yo
ask<IV>-PST
‘The brother asked his sister for the money.’
GRIND haʔal N
(106)
öždi
boy.ERG
qibo
wheat.ABS
haʔo-s
grind-PRS
habo-ƛ'a
mill-SUP
‘The boy grinds the wheat on the mill.’
COOK helal N
(41)
kibba
girl.ERG
xo
meat.ABS
hele-yo
boil-PST
‘The girl cooked (boiled) the meat.’
FEAR hic'al N
(5)
kid
girl.ABS
c'o-y-qa
fire-OBL-POSS
hič'e-š
fear-PRS
‘The girl fears the fire.’
FRIGHTEN hič'egolal N
(6)
kibba
girl.ERG
öžö
boy(I).ABS
hič'e-gol-ca
fear-MAKE(I)-PRS
‘The girl frightens the boy.’
ROLL k'äyƛäl N
(44)
örrä
wheel.ABS
k'äyƛö-š
turn.round-PRS
‘The wheel is rolling.’
PLAY k'isal N
(73)
kid
girl.ABS
nänilaɬ
doll.INTER
k'isa-s
play-PRS
‘The girl plays with the doll.’
BE ILL k'ok'al N
(10)
kid
girl.ABS
k'ok'o-na
be.ill-CVB
gey
be.PRS
‘The girl is ill.’
(35)
iyo-s
mother-GEN1
q'äm
head.ABS
k'ok'o-s
hurt-PRS
‘The mother's head is aching.’
SING no verbal counterpart N
MEET keziyaqal M
(51)
öždi-l
boy.OBL-DAT
kid
girl(II).ABS
kezi<y>aq-iyo
meet<II>-PST
‘The boy met the girl.’
HELP komak bowal N
(12)
kibba
girl.ERG
iyo-l
mother-LAT
komak
help(III).ABS
b-oo-yo
III-do-PST
‘The girl helped her mother.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) kusuʔal N
(50)
öždi
boy.ERG
bab
beard.ABS
kusuʔ-iyo
shave-PST
‘The boy shaved his beard.’
SCREAM lalaƛal N
(29)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-ƛ'a
girl.OBL-SUP
lalaƛo-yo
shout-PST
‘The boy shouted at the girl.’
DRESS łič'elal N
(191)
kibba
girl.ERG
iyod
mother.INSTR
kunta
dress.ABS
isi-ƛ'a
sister-SUP
łič'e-ll-iyo
put.on-CAUS-PST
‘The girl dressed the sister with the mother's help.’
LAUGH łowal N
(74)
kid
girl.ABS
łowa-s
laugh-PRS
‘The girl laughs.’
SMELL mäh biq'al N
(49)
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
k'ima-li-s
cheese-OBL-GEN1
mäh
smell(III).ABS
b-iq'e-yo
III-know-PST
‘The girl smelled the cheese.’
TEACH małciyowal N
(118)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
ʔarab
Arabic
mic
language(III).ABS
małci<b>oo-s
teach<III>-PRS
‘The boy teaches the Arabic language to the girl.’
FOLLOW müɣäƛ yeⁿƛ'al N
(24)
öžö
boy(I).ABS
kibba-ɣoy
girl.OBL-COMIT
müɣäƛ
after
Ø-eⁿƛ'e-š
I-go-PRS
‘The boy follows the girl.’
GIVE niƛal N
(59)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
t'ek
book.ABS
niƛ-iyo
give-PST
‘The boy gave the book to the girl.’
SAY nisal N
(13)
kibba
girl.ERG
abo-qa
father-POSS
dil-na
1SG.LAT-and
niƛ-a-ƛo
give-IMP-QUOT
niso-yo
say-PST
‘The girl said to the father: "Give me as well!".’
WASH nizal N
(7)
kibba
girl.ERG
łic'o
clothes.ABS
nizaa-yo
wash-PST
‘The girl washes the clothes.’
PEEL no verbal counterpart N
CLIMB no verbal counterpart N
BUILD no verbal counterpart N
BE HUNGRY nukal N
(37)
kid
girl.ABS
nuko-yo
be.hungry-PST
‘The girl was hungry.’
COUGH öhƛäl N
(38)
kibba
girl.ERG
öhƛö-yo
cough-PST
‘The girl coughed.’
LIVE ömrö bowal N
(78)
öždi
boy.ERG
äƛ-a-ʔ
village-OBL-INESS
ömrö
life(III).ABS
b-oo-s
III-do-PRS
‘The boy lives in the village.’
BLINK häydä pacpaƛal N
(39)
öždi-s
boy.OBL-GEN1
häy-dä
eye-PL
pacpaƛo-s
blink-PRS
‘The boys eyes are blinking.’
SIT q'ey yecal N
(18)
kid
girl(II).ABS
q'ey
on.the.ground
y-eče-na
II-be-CVB
gey
be.PRS
‘The girl is sitting.’
BE DRY qoqal N
(79)
mizo
ground.ABS
qoqo-na
dry-CVB
gey
be.PRS
‘The ground is dry.’
HEAR tuqal N
(54)
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
quy
noise.ABS
tuq-iyo
hear-PST
‘The girl heard the noise.’
BE SAD urɣelliƛ'a yaqal N
(33)
öžö
boy.ABS
urɣel-li-ƛ'a
thought-OBL-SUP
gey
be.PRS
‘The boy is sad.’
THINK urɣeziyaqal R
(26)
öžö
boy(I).ABS
kibba-ƛ'a-s
girl.OBL-SUP-ABL
urɣezi<Ø>aq-iyo
think<I>-PST
‘The boy thinks about the girl.’

(113)
öždi
boy.ERG
iyo
mother(II).ABS
kibba-ƛ'a-s
girl.OBL-SUP-ABL
urɣezi<y>oo-yo
think.about<II>-PST
‘The boy made mother think about the girl.’
(167)
öždi
boy.ERG
xabar
story(III).ABS
urɣezi<b>oo-yo
think.about<III>-PST
‘The boy made up the story.’
TELL xabar meyal N
(14)
uštel-li
teacher-ERG
q'owa-l
children-LAT
xabar
story(III).ABS
m-ee-yo
III-let.out-PST
‘The teacher told a story to the children.’
(107)
kibba
girl.ERG
hini-la
REFL-GEN2
gedi-s
cat.OBL-GEN1
öždi-l
boy.OBL-LAT
xabar
story(III).ABS
m-eh-ca
III-let.out-PRS
‘The girl talks to the boy about her cat.’
SEARCH FOR xalbowal N
(27)
kibba
girl.ERG
t'ek
book.ABS
xalboo-yo
search-PST
‘The girl looked for the book.’
BEAT yäƛ'elal N
(57)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
k'obala
stick(III).ABS
b-äƛ'el-lo
III-hit-PST
‘The boy hit the girl with the stick.’
FEEL COLD yäč’ɬal N
(34)
öžö
boy(I).ABS
Ø-äč’-ɬ-iyo
I-cold-INCH-PST
‘The boy got cold.’
CLEAN yaⁿcolal N
(97)
öždi
boy.ERG
istoli-ya-ƛ'a-s
table-OBL-SUP-ABL
čaq'i
ink(IV).ABS
y-aⁿco-l-ca
IV-clean-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy wipes the ink off the table.’
BRING yaq'al N
(83)
kibba
girl.ERG
iyo-l
mother-LAT
žamɣo
sorrel(III).ABS
b-aq'o-yo
III-bring-PST
‘The girl brought sorrel to the mother.’
LIKE yat'al N
(4)
öždi-l
boy.OBL-LAT
kid
girl(II).ABS
y-at'-ca
II-like-PRS
‘The boy likes the girl.’
DIG yäxäl N
(80)
öždi
boy.ERG
mäče
ground(III).ABS
b-äx-čä
III-dig-PRS
‘The boy digs the ground.’
TEAR yäxelal N
(32)
kibba
girl.ERG
kunta-la-ł-co
dress-OBL-INTER-ABL
ɣeč'i
tissue(IV).ABS
y-äxe-l-ca
IV-tear-CAUS-PRS
‘The girl tears the tissue from the dress.’
SEE yegaal N
(2)
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
iyo
mother(II).ABS
y-egaa-yo
II-see-PST
‘The girl saw her mother.’
SHOW yegalal N
(77)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-ega-l-ca
IV-see-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy shows a book to the girl.’
BURN yek'al N
(36)
hudo
firewood(III).ABS
b-ek'e-š
III-burn-PRS
‘The firewood is burning.’
FALL yekal N
(15)
öžö
boy(I).ABS
xöx-ƛ'ä-š
tree.OBL-SUP-ABL
Ø-ek-iyo
I-fall-PST
‘The boy fell from the tree.’
GO yeⁿƛ'al (1) N
(108)
kid
girl(II).ABS
y-eⁿƛ'e-š
II-go-PRS
biƛo-ɣa
house-APUD
‘The girl goes home.’
LEAVE yeⁿƛ'al (2) N
(43)
öžö
boy(I).ABS
äƛ-a-ʔ-aš
village-OBL-IN-ABL
Ø-eⁿƛ'e-yo
I-go-PST
‘The boy left the village.’
TOUCH yeⁿxelal N
(62)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
koo
hand(IV).ABS
y-eⁿxe-l-ca
IV-touch-CAUS-PRS
‘The boy touches the girl with his hand.’
SEND yeⁿyal N
(71)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
diʔi
flower(IV).ABS
y-eⁿe-yo
IV-send-PST
‘The boy sent the girl the flower (for permanent possession).’
CARRY yezal N
(75)
öždi
boy.ERG
q'ac'icco
rucksack(IV).ABS
iyo-l
mother-LAT
y-eže-š
IV-carry-PRS
‘The boy carried the rucksack for the mother.’
KILL yiƛ'al (1) N
(17)
öždi
boy.ERG
bekela
snake(III).ABS
k'obala-li-d
stick-OBL-INSTR
b-iƛ'e-yo
III-kill-PST
‘The boy killed the snake with the stick.’
THROW yiƛ'al (2) N
(86)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-l
girl.OBL-LAT
burti
ball(III).ABS
b-iƛ'e-yo
III-throw-PST
‘The boy threw the ball to the girl (so as to hit her).’
(89)
öždi
boy.ERG
istoli-ya-ƛ'a
table-OBL-SUP
q'alam
pencil(III).ABS
b-iƛ'e-yo
III-throw-PST
‘The boy threw the pencil on the table.’
TIE yiⁿcal N
(19)
öždi
boy.ERG
waya
cow(III).ABS
sabali-ya-d
rope-OBL-INSTR
m-ico-yo
III-tie-PST
xöx-i-ł
tree-OBL-INTER
‘The boy tied the cow to the tree with the rope.’
KNOW yiq'al N
(3)
abo-l
father-LAT
teli
many
xabar-la
story-PL
y-iyaq'e-š
NHPL-know.PL-PRS
‘The father knows many stories.’
TALK yiq'lašal N
(266)
kid
girl(II).ABS
abo-qa
father-POSS
y-iq'laše-š
II-talk-PRS
‘The girl talks to her father.’
GET yiqal N
(82)
öždi-l
boy.OBL-LAT
kibba-qa-s
girl.OBL-POSS-ABL
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-iqo-yo
IV-get-PST
‘The boy got the book from the girl.’
BREAK yišelal N
(56)
öždi
boy.ERG
xäbä-lä-d
foot-OBL-INSTR
c'ika
glass(III).ABS
b-iše-ll-o
III-break-CAUS-PST
‘The boy broke the glass with his foot.’
CRY yiyaal N
(9)
kid
girl(II).ABS
y-iya-s
II-cry-PRS
‘The girl cries.’
FILL yoc'lal N
(40)
kibba
girl.ERG
łii-s
water-GEN1
wedra
bucket(III).ABS
b-oc'-il-ca
III-fill-CAUS-PRS
‘The girl fills the bucket with the water.’
JUMP yogic'al N
(65)
öžö
boy(I).ABS
Ø-ogic'-iyo
I-jump-PST
‘The boy jumped.’
TAKE yokčal N
(30)
kibba
girl.ERG
iyo-qa-s
mother-POSS-ABL
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-okči-yo
IV-take-PST
‘The girl took the book from the mother.’
APPEAR yoⁿq'al N
(47)
boq
sun(III).ABS
m-oq'o-yo
III-come-PST
‘The sun appeared.’
LOAD yoⁿsal N
(22)
öždi
boy.ERG
hudo
firewood(III).ABS
mašina-l-ƛ'a
car-OBL-SUP
m-oso-yo
III-collapse-PST
‘The boy loaded the firewood onto the car.’
COVER yoq'olal N
(64)
kibba
girl.ERG
öždi-ƛ'a
boy.OBL-SUP
yurɣan
blanket(III).ABS
m-oq'o-l-ca
III-come-CAUS-PRS
‘The girl covers the boy with the blanket.’
MAKE yowal N
(52)
kibba
girl.ERG
simindi-ya-la
maize-OBL-GEN2
hät't'ä-š
flour.OBL-GEN1
bäbä
bread(III).ABS
b-oo-s
III-do-PRS
‘The girl makes the bread out of maize flour.’
CUT yüč'al N
(23)
öždi
boy.ERG
c'it'-a-d
knife-OBL-INSTR
bäbä
bread(III).ABS
b-üč'-iyo
III-cut-PST
‘The boy cut the bread with the knife.’
DIE yuɣal N
(16)
iyo
mother(II).ABS
y-uɣo-yo
II-die-PST
‘The mother died.’
HIDE yuⁿcal (1) N
(25)
öždi
boy.ERG
isi-l-co
sister-OBL-ABL
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-uⁿco-yo
IV-hide-PST
‘The boy hid the book from his sister.’
STEAL yuⁿcal (2) N
(85)
öždi
boy.ERG
kibba-qa-s
girl.OBL-POSS-ABL
t'ek
book(IV).ABS
y-uⁿco-yo
IV-steal-PST
‘The boy stole the book from the girl.’
EAT yüⁿqal N
(1)
öždi
boy.ERG
bäbä
bread(III).ABS
m-üq-iyo
III-eat-PST
‘The boy ate bread.’
PUSH zistuqlal N
(90)
öždi
boy.ERG
ƛ'alo
stone(IV).ABS
zistuqil-ca
push(IV)-PRS
‘The boy pushes the stone.’