Alternations of Balinese

Alternations
Alternation name Description Examples Verbs
C
y
(105)
Buahe ento ajenga teken anake muani cenik ento.
buah=e
fruit=DEF
ento
that
ajeng=a
eat=PASS
teken
by
anak=e
person=DEF
muani
male
cenik
small
ento
that
‘The fruit was eaten by the boy.’
45
C
y
(150)
Buahe ento kaajeng teken anake muani cenik ento.
buah=e
fruit=DEF
ento
that
ka=ajeng
PASS=eat
teken
by
anak=e
person=DEF
muani
male
cenik
small
ento
that
‘The fruit was eaten by the boy.’
47
C
y
(198)
Buahe ento suba maajeng.
buah=e
fruit=DEF
ento
that
suba
already
ma=ajeng
RES=eat
‘The fruit had been eaten.’
21
C
y This is a kind of instrumental applicative, which uses causative morphology, however. The event is coded as a caused motion involving an instrument as a causee Theme.
(71)
Anake muani cenik ento nglempagang tungked ke lelipine ento.
anak=e
person=DEF
muani
male
cenik
small
ento
that
nglempag=ang
hit=CAUS
tungked
stick
ke
to
lelipi=ne
snake=DEF
ento
that
‘The boy hit the snake with a stick (lit. The boy hit the stick to /against the snake.).’
5
C
y Contrary to the -in locative applicative that aligns a Ground expression with the Object, the -ang derivation aligns a Figure with the Object. This causative construction aligns with the Object the Theme Figure of a caused motion.
(70)
Memene ngelutang panakne ke bapane.
meme=ne
mother=DEF
ngelut=ang
hug=CAUS
panak=ne
child=3POSS
ke
to
bapa=ne
father=DEF
‘The mother made the child hug the father.’
10
C
y the former oblique argument becomes a direct object
(88)
Anake muani ento nyemakin timpalne pipise ento.
anak=e
person=DEF
muani
male
ento
that
nyemak=in
take=LOC
timpal=ne
friend=3POSS
pipis=e
money=DEF
ento
that
‘The man took the money from his friend.’
8
C
y the former object becomes an oblique argument and the former oblique becomes an object
(93)
Anake muani cenik ento ngentungin jendelane ento (aji) bola.
anak=e
person=DEF
muani
male
cenik
small
ento
that
ngentung=in
throw=LOC
jendela=ne
window=DEF
ento
that
aji
with
bola
ball
‘The boy threw the ball into the window.’
3
C
y
(99)
Ketut malaibin jaranne ento.
Ketut
Ketut
malaib=in
run=LOC
jaran=ne
horse=DEF
ento
that
‘Ketut runs from the horse.’
2