Examples of Modern Standard Arabic

Example Verb meaning Example of...
(1)
ملأ الرجل الكأس بماء
Malaʾa rraǧulu lkaʾsa bimāʾin.
malaʾa
fill.PRF.3SG.M
r-raǧul-u
ART-man.M-NOM
l-kaʾs-a
ART-glass.F-ACC
bi-māʾ-in
with-water.M-GEN.IDEF
‘The man filled the glass with water.’
FILL a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc (bi+3)
(2)
ملأ الرجل الكأس من ماء
Malaʾa rraǧulu lkaʾsa min māʾin.
malaʾa
fill.PRF.3SG.M
r-raǧul-u
ART-man.M-NOM
l-kaʾs-a
ART-glass.F-ACC
min
from
māʾ-in
water.M-GEN.IDEF
‘The man filled the glass with water.’
FILL the Verb form malaʾa
(3)
امتلأت الكأس ماءا
Imtalaʾat alkaʾsu māʾan.
imtalaʾat
fill.VIII.ACAUS.PRF.3SG.F
al-kaʾs-u
ART-glass.F-NOM
māʾ-an
water.M-ACC.IDEF
‘The glass filled up with water.’
FILL an Alternation:
Stem VIII Anticausative
(4)
عرف الولد البنت
ʿArifa lwaladu lbinta.
ʿarifa
know.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
l-bint-a
ART-girl.F-ACC
‘The boy knew the girl.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc
(5)
ألا تخاف من الحرب؟
ʾAlā taḫāfu min alḥarbi?
ʾa-lā
Q-NEG
taḫāfu
fear.IPFV.2SG.M
min
from
al-ḥarb-i
ART-war.F-GEN
‘Aren't you afraid of the war?’
FEAR an Alternation:
Prepositional (min 'from') / Accusative Object Alternation
(6)
ألا تخاف الموت مثلنا
ʾAlā taḫāfu lmauta mit̠lanā?
ʾa-lā
Q-NEG
taḫāfu
fear.IPFV.2SG.M
l-maut-a
ART-death.M-ACC
mit̠la-nā
like-1PL
‘And you aren't afraid of death like us?’
FEAR a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc
(7)
أكل الولد التفاحة
ʾAkala lwaladu ttuffāḥata.
ʾakala
eat.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
t-tuffāḥat-a
ART-apple.F-ACC
‘The boy ate the apple.’
EAT a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc
(8)
نظر الرجل الى الولد
Naẓara lwaladu ʾilâ rraǧuli.
naẓara
look.at.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
ʾilâ
to
r-raǧul-i
ART-man.M-GEN
‘The boy looked at the man.’
LOOK AT a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom ʾilâ+2
(9)
رأى الرجل الطفل
Raʾâ rraǧulu ṭṭifla.
raʾâ
see.PRF.3SG.M
r-raǧul-u
ART-man.M-NOM
ṭ-ṭifl-a
ART-child.M-ACC
‘The man saw the child.’
SEE a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc
(10)
بحث الرجل عن الولد
Baḥat̠a rraǧulu ʿan alwaladi.
baḥat̠a
search.PRF.3SG.M
r-raǧul-u
ART-man.M-NOM
ʿan
about
al-walad-i
ART-boy.M-GEN
‘The man searched for the boy.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom ʿan+2
(11)
قتل الولد الحية بالعصا
Qatala lwaladu lḥayyata bi-lʿaṣâi.
qatala
kill.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
l-ḥayyat-a
ART-snake.F-ACC
bi-l-ʿaṣâ-i
with-ART-stick.F-GEN
‘The boy killed the snake with the stick.’
KILL a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc (bi+3)
(12)
قال الرجل لصديقه مرأتي في البيت
Qāla rraǧulu liṣadīqihi: "marʾatī fī lbayti".
qāla
say.PRF.3SG.M
r-raǧul-u
ART-man.M-NOM
li-ṣadīq-i-hi
for-friend.M-GEN-3SG.M
marʾat-ī
woman.F-1SG.NOM
in
l-bayt-i
ART-house.M-GEN
‘The man said to his friend: "my wife is at home".’
SAY a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom li+2 UTT3
(13)
غسات البنت الطفل
Ġasalat albintu ṭṭifla.
ġasalat
wash.PRF.3SG.F
al-bint-u
ART-girl.F-NOM
ṭ-ṭifl-a
ART-child.M-ACC
‘The girl washed the child.’
WASH a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc
(14)
هل لقيت أمك صديقتها
Hal laqiyat ʾummuka ṣadīqatahā?
hal
Q
laqiyat
meet.PRF.3SG.F
ʾumm-u-ka
mother.F-NOM-2SG.M
ṣadīqat-a-hā
friend.F-ACC-3SG.F
‘Did your mother meet her friend?’
MEET a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc
(15)
حكى الولد للبنت حكاية
Ḥakâ lwaladu lilbinti ḥikāyatan.
ḥakâ
tell.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
li-l-bint-i
for-ART-girl.F-GEN
ḥikāyat-an
story.F-ACC.IDEF
‘The boy told the girl a story.’
TELL a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom (li+2) 3-acc
(16)
حكى االولد على البنت حكاية
Ḥakâ lwaladu ʿalâ lbinti ḥikāyatan.
ḥakâ
tell.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
ʿalâ
on
l-bint-i
ART-girl.F-GEN
ḥikāyat-an
story.F-ACC.IDEF
‘The boy told the girl a story.’
TELL the Verb form ḥakâ
(17)
مات الرجل في مستشفى
Māta rraǧulu fī mustašfâ.
māta
die.PRF.3SG.M
r-raǧul-u
ART-man.M-NOM
in
mustašfâ
hospital.M.GEN.IDEF
‘The man died in a hospital.’
DIE a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom
(18)
سأل الولد أصدقاءه نقودا
Saʾala lwaladu ʾaṣdiqāʾahu nuqūdan.
saʾala
ask.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
ʾaṣdiqāʾ-a-hu
friend.M.PL-ACC-3SG.M
nuqūd-an
money.F-ACC.IDEF
‘The boy asked his friends for money.’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom (2-acc) 3-acc
(19)
صاحت الأم على أطفالها
Ṣāḥat alʾummu ʿalâ ʾaṭfālihā.
ṣāḥat
shout.PRF.3SG.F
al-ʾumm-u
ART-mother.F-NOM
ʿalâ
on
ʾaṭfāl-i-hā
child.M.PL-GEN-3SG.F
‘The mother shouted at her children.’
SCREAM a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom (ʿalâ+2)
(20)
بنى أبي بيتا من الخشب
Banâ ʾabī baytan min alḫašabi.
banâ
build.PRF.3SG.M
ʾab-ī
father.M-1SG.NOM
bayt-an
house.M-ACC.IDEF
min
from
al-ḫašab-i
ART-wood.M-GEN
‘My father built a house out of (the) wood.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc (min+3)
(21)
ملأ الرجل الكس ماء
Malaʾa rraǧulu lkaʾsa māʾan.
malaʾa
fill.PRF.3SG.M
r-raǧul-u
ART-man.M-NOM
l-kaʾs-a
ART-glass.F-ACC
māʾ-an
water.M-ACC.IDEF
‘The man filled the glass with water.’
FILL an Alternation:
Locative Alternation 1
(22)
أكل الرجل الطفل جبزا
ʾAkkala rraǧulu ṭṭifla ḫubzan.
ʾakkala
eat.II.CAUS.PRF.3SG.M
r-raǧul-u
ART-man.M-NOM
ṭ-ṭifl-a
ART-child.M-ACC
ḫubz-an
bread.M-ACC.IDEF
‘The man fed the child with bread.’
EAT an Alternation:
Stem II Causative
(23)
عانقت الأم طفلها
ʿĀnaqat lʾummu ṭiflahā.
ʿānaqat
hug.PRF.3SG.F
al-ʾumm-u
ART-mother.F-NOM
ṭifl-a-hā
child.M-ACC-3SG.F
‘The mother hugged her child.’
HUG a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc
(24)
تعانقنا
Taʿānaqnā.
taʿānaqnā
hug.VI.RECP.PRF.1PL
‘We hugged each other.’
HUG an Alternation:
Stem VI Reciprocal
(25)
تناظرنا
Tanāẓarnā.
tanāẓarnā
look.at.VI.RECP.PRF.1SG
‘We looked at each other.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Stem VI Reciprocal
(26)
لماذا لا تخرج وتريني نفسك؟
Limād̠ā lā taḫruǧu waturīnī nafsaka?
li-mād̠ā
for-what
NEG
taḫruǧu
go.out.IPFV.2SG.M
wa-turī-nī
and-see.IV.CAUS.IPFV.2SG.M-1SG
nafs-a-ka
self-ACC-2SG.M
‘Why don't you go out and show me yourself?’
SEE an Alternation:
Stem IV Causative
(27)
تراءى الولدان
Tarāʾâ lwaladāni.
tarāʾâ
see.VI.RECP.3SG.M
l-walad-āni
ART-boy.M-DU.NOM
‘The two boys saw each other. / The two boys met each other.’
SEE an Alternation:
Stem VI Reciprocal
(28)
تراءى لالناس فرحا
Tarāʾâ linnāsi fariḥan.
tarāʾâ
show.VI.REFL.3.SG.M
li-n-nās-i
for-ART-people-GEN
fariḥ-an
happy-ACC.IDEF
‘He showed himself happy for the people./ He pretended to be happy to the people.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Stem VI Reflexive
(29)
أنزلق رأسي على كتفها وشممت رائحة السترة الصوفية البيضاء
Inzalaqa raʾsī ʿalâ katifihā wašamamtu rāʾihata ssutrati ṣṣūfīyati lbayḍāʾ.
inzalaqa
slip.PRF.3SG.M
raʾs-ī
head.M-1SG.NOM
ʿalâ
on
katif-i-hā
shoulder.M-GEN-3SG.F
wa-šamamtu
and-smell.PRF.1SG
rāʾihat-a
smell.F-ACC
s-sutrat-i
ART-jacket.F-GEN
ṣ-ṣūfīy-at-i
ART-wool-F-GEN
l-bayḍāʾ
ART-white.F.GEN
‘My head slipped on her shoulder and I smelled the white woollen jacket.’
SMELL a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc
(30)
شمم اللص الشرطي مخدرا
Šammama lliṣṣu ššurṭiya muḫaddiran.
šammama
smell.lI.CAUS.3SG.M
l-liṣṣ-u
ART-thief.M-NOM
š-šurṭiy-a
ART-policeman.M-ACC
muḫaddir-an
drug.M-ACC.IDEF
‘The thief made the policeman smell the drug.’
SMELL an Alternation:
Stem II Causative
(31)
خوفت البنت الطفل
Ḫawwafat albintu ṭṭifla.
ḫawwafat
fear.II.CAUS.INT.PRF.3SG.F
al-bint-u
ART-girl.F-NOM
ṭ-ṭifl-a
ART-child.M-ACC
‘The girl scared the child.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Stem II Causative
(32)
أخاف البنت الطفل
ʾaḫāfat albintu ṭṭifla.
ʾaḫāfat
fear.IV.CAUS.PRF.3SG.F
al-bint-u
ART-girl.F-NOM
ṭ-ṭifl-a
ART-child.M-ACC
‘The girl frightened the child.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Stem IV Causative
(33)
يحب الولد لعبته الجديدة
Yuḥibbu lwaladu luʿbatahu lǧadīdata.
yuḥibbu
like.IV.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
luʿbat-a-hu
play.F-ACC-3SG.M
l-ǧadīd-at-a
ART-new-F-ACC
‘The boy likes his new toy.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc
(34)
حبب الرجل بحديثه لإبنه السفر إلى الخارج
Ḥabbaba rraǧulu biḥadīt̠ihi liʾibnihi ssafara ʾilâ lḫāriǧi.
ḥabbaba
like.II.CAUS.PRF.3SG.M
r-raǧul-u
ART-man.M-NOM
bi-ḥadīt̠-i-hi
with-narration.M-GEN-3SG.M
li-ʾibn-i-hi
for-son.M-GEN-3SG.M
s-safar-a
ART-trip.M-ACC
ʾilâ
to
l-ḫāriǧ-i
ART-abroad.M-GEN
‘With his narration the man made the trip abroad desirable for his son.’
LIKE an Alternation:
Stem II Causative
(35)
تحابوا في الله
Taḥābbū fī llāhi!
taḥābbū
like.VI.RECP.IMP.2PL.M
in
l-lāh-i
ART-God.M-GEN
‘Love each other because of God!’
LIKE an Alternation:
Stem VI Reciprocal
(36)
عرف الرخل الشرط بما حدث
ʿArrafa rraǧulu ššurṭata bimā ḥadat̠a.
ʿarrafa
know.II.CAUS.PRF.3SG.M
r-raǧul-u
ART-man.M-NOM
š-šurṭat-a
ART-police.F-ACC
bi-mā
with-what
ḥadat̠a
happen.PRF.3SG.M
‘The man informed the police about what has happened.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Stem II Causative
(37)
تعارف زيد وعمر
Taʿārafa zaydun wa-ʿamrun.
taʿārafa
know.VI.RECP.PRF.3SG.M
zayd-un
Zayd-NOM.IDEF
wa-ʿamr-un
and-Amr-NOM.IDEF
‘Zaid and Amr got to know each other.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Stem VI Reciprocal
(38)
فكر الأم في أطفالها
Fakkarat alʾummu fī ʾaṭfālihā.
fakkara
think.II.PRF.3SG.F
al-ʾumm-u
ART-mother.F-NOM
in
ʾaṭfāl-i-hā
child.M.PL-GEN-3SG.F
‘The mother thought about her children.’
THINK a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom fī+2
(39)
البست البنت الطفل
ʾalbasat albintu ṭṭifla.
ʾalbasat
dress.IV.CAUS.PRF.3SG.F
al-bint-u
ART-girl.F-NOM
ṭ-ṭifl-a
ART-child.M-ACC
‘The girl dressed the child.’
DRESS a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc
(40)
لبس الوبد الحقيقة على أبه
Labbasa lwaladu lḥaqīqata ʿalâ ʾabihi.
labbasa
dress.II.CAUS.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
l-ḥaqīqat-a
ART-truth.F-ACC
ʿalâ
on
ʾab-i-hi
father.M-GEN-3SG.M
‘The boy hid the truth from his father (lit. The boy dressed (=covered) the truth from his father.).’
DRESS the Verb form ʾalbasa
(41)
تلبس به جن
Talabbasa bihi ǧinnun.
talabbasa
dress.V.ACAUS.PRF.3SG.M
bi-hi
with-3SG.M
ǧinn-un
spirit.M-NOM.IDEF
‘He was possessed by a spirit.’
DRESS the Verb form ʾalbasa
(42)
تلبس لالسفر
Talabbasa lissafari.
talabbasa
dress.V.REFL.PRF.3SG.M
li-s-safar-i
for-ART-trip.M-GEN
‘He dressed for the trip.’
DRESS the Verb form ʾalbasa
(43)
تآ كلت السيارة من الصدأ
Taʾākalat assayyāratu min aṣṣadaʾi.
taʾākalat
eat.VI.PASS.PRF.3SG.F
as-sayyārat-u
ART-car.F-NOM
min
from
aṣ-ṣadaʾ-i
ART-rust.M-GEN
‘The car has been eaten away by rust.’
EAT an Alternation:
Stem VI Passive
(44)
تخوفت فرنسا من أزمة أقتصادية
Taḫawwafat firansā min ʾazmatin ʾiqtiṣādīyatin.
taḫawwafat
frighten.V.REFL.PRF.3SG.F
firansā
France.F
min
from
ʾazmat-in
crisis.F-GEN.IDEF
ʾiqtiṣādiy-at-in
economical-F-GEN.IDEF
‘France feared an economic crisis.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Stem V Reflexive
(45)
تحبب الرئيس ألى شعبه في خطاته الآخر
Taḥabbaba rraʾīsu ʾilâ šaʿabihi fī ḫiṭābihi lʾāḫiri.
taḥabbaba
make.like.V.REFL.PRF.3SG.M
r-raʾīs-u
ART-president.M-NOM
ʾilâ
to
šaʿab-i-hi
people.M-GEN-3SG.M
in
ḫiṭāb-i-hi
speech.M-GEN-3SG.M
l-ʾāḫir-i
ART-last.M-GEN
‘The president made himself popular with his people through his last speech.’
LIKE the Verb form ʾaḥabba
(46)
تباحث الوزير الفلسطيني والوزير المصري إرتفاع العيار
Tabāḥat̠a lwazīru lfilisṭīniyu walwazīru lmiṣriyu ʾirtifāʿa lʿasāri.
tabāḥat̠a
search.VI.RECP.PRF.3SG.M
l-wazīr-u
ART-minister.M-NOM
l-filisṭīniy-u
ART-palestinian.M-NOM
wa-l-wazīr-u
and-ART-minister.M-NOM
l-miṣriy-u
ART-egyptian.M-NOM
ʾirtifāʿ-a
raising.M-ACC
l-ʿasār-i
ART-price.M-GEN
‘The Palestinian and the Egyptian Prime Minister discussed the increase of prices.’
SEARCH FOR the Verb form baḥat̠a
(47)
اغتسل الولد
Iġtasala lwaladu.
iġtasala
wash.VIII.REFL.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
‘The boy washed (himself).’
WASH an Alternation:
Stem VIII Reflexive
(48)
حلق الرجل لحيته
Ḥalaqa rraǧulu liḥyatahu.
ḥalaqa
shave.PRF.3SG.M
r-raǧul-u
ART-man.M-NOM
liḥyat-a-hu
beard.F-ACC-3SG.M
‘The man shaved his beard.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc
(49)
ساعد الرجل إبنه في عمله
Sāʿada rraǧulu ʾibnahu fī ʿamalihi.
sāʿada
help.III.PRF.3SG.M
r-raǧul-u
ART-man.M-NOM
ʾibn-a-hu
son.M-ACC-3SG.M
in
ʿamal-i-hi
work.M-GEN-3SG.M
‘The man helped his son with his work.’
HELP a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc
(50)
تبع الرجل البنت
Tabiʿa rraǧulu lbinta.
tabiʿa
follow.PRF.3SG.M
r-raǧul-u
ART-man.M-NOM
l-bint-a
ART-girl.F-ACC
‘The man followed the girl.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc
(51)
أتبع الشرطة مخبرا وراء الإرحابي
ʾAtbaʿat aššurṭatu muḫbiran warāʾa lʾirhābiya.
ʾatbaʿat
follow.IV.CAUS.PRF.3SG.F
aš-šurṭat-u
ART-police.F-NOM
muḫbir-an
detective.M-ACC.IDEF
warāʾa
after
l-ʾirhābiy-a
ART-terrorist.M-ACC
‘The police made a detective follow the terrorist.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
Stem IV Causative
(52)
تتابعت الأحداث بسرعة
Tatābaʿat alʾaḥdāt̠u bisurʿatin.
tatābaʿat
follow.VI.RECP.PRF.3SG.F
al-ʾaḥdāt̠-u
ART-event.M.PL-NOM
bi-surʿat-in
with-speed.F-GEN.IDEF
‘The events followed quickly one after another.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
Stem VI Reciprocal
(53)
تكلم الرجل مع الولد عن البنت
Takallama rraǧulu maʿa lwaladi ʿan albinti.
takallama
speak.V.PRF.3SG.M
r-raǧul-u
ART-man.M-NOM
maʿa
with
l-walad-i
ART-boy.M-GEN
ʿan
about
al-bint-i
ART-girl.F-GEN
‘The man talked to the boy about the girl.’
TALK a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom maʿa+2 ʿan+3
(54)
تكلم الرجل مع الولد على البنت
Takallama rraǧulu maʿa lwaladi ʿalâ albinti.
takallama
speak.V.PRF.3SG.M
r-raǧul-u
ART-man.M-NOM
maʿa
with
l-walad-i
ART-boy.M-GEN
ʿalâ
on
al-bint-i
ART-girl.F-GEN
‘The man talked to the boy about the girl.’
TALK the Verb form takallama
(55)
تساءل الرجل عما سيحدث له
Tasāʾala rraǧulu ʿammā sayaḥdut̠u lahu.
tasāʾala
ask.V.REFL.PRF.3SG.M
r-raǧul-u
ART-man.M-NOM
ʿammā
after.what
sa-yaḥdut̠u
FUT-happen.IPFV.3SG.M
la-hu
for-3SG.M
‘The man asked himself what will happen to him.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Stem VI Reflexive
(56)
ساءلت الشرطة الرجل طيلة اليوم
Sāʾalat aššurṭatu rraǧula ṭīlata alyawmi.
sāʾalat
ask.III.REP.PRF.3SG.F
aš-šurṭat-u
ART-police.F-NOM
r-raǧul-a
ART-man.M-ACC
ṭīlat-a
all.F-ACC
l-yawm-i
ART-day.M-GEN
‘The police interrogated the man all day long.’
ASK FOR the Verb form saʾala
(57)
تلاقى عمر وصديقه في مقهى
Talāqâ ʿumarun wa-ṣadīquhu fī maqhâ.
talāqâ
meet.VI.RECP.PRF.3SG.M
ʿumar-un
Umar-NOM.IDEF
wa-ṣadīq-u-hu
and-friend.M-NOM-3SG.M
in
maqhâ
cafeteria.M.GEN.IDEF
‘Umar and his friend met in a cafeteria.’
MEET the Verb form laqiya
(58)
سمت الأم طفلها محد
Sammat alʾummu ṭiflahā muḥammadan.
sammat
name.II.PRF.3SG.F
al-ʾumm-u
ART-mother.F-NOM
ṭifl-a-hā
child.M-ACC-3SG.F
muḥammad-an
Muhammad-ACC.IDEF
‘The mother named her child Muhammad.’
NAME a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc 3-acc
(59)
تسمى محد
Tasammâ muḥammadun.
tasammâ
name.V.PASS.PRF.3SG.M
muḥammad-un
Muhammad-NOM.IDEF
‘He was named Muhammad.’
NAME an Alternation:
Stem V Anticausative
(60)
إنبنى المنزل على أساس ضعيف
ʾInbanâ lmanzil-u ʿalâ ʾasāsin ḍaʿīfin.
ʾinbanâ
build.VII.PASS.PRF.3SG.M
l-manzil-u
ART-house.M-NOM
ʿalâ
on
ʾasās-in
basement.M-GEN.IDEF
ḍaʿīf-in
weak-GEN.IDEF
‘The house was built on weak foundations.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Stem VII Passive
(61)
كسر الولد النافذة بالحجر
Kasara lwaladu nnāfid̠ata bilḥaǧari.
kasara
break.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
n-nāfid̠at-a
ART-window.F-ACC
bi-l-ḥaǧar-i
with-ART-stone.M-GEN
‘The boy broke the window with the stone.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc (bi+3)
(62)
غسلت الأم إبنها
Ġassalat alʾummu ʾibnahā.
ġassalat
wash.II.INT.PRF.3SG.F
al-ʾumm-u
ART-mother.F-NOM
ʾibn-a-hā
son.M-ACC-3SG.F
‘The mother washed her son thoroughly.’
WASH the Verb form ġasala
(63)
صيحت الأم جيرانها على السارق
Ṣayyaḥat alʾummu ǧīrānahā ʿalâ ssāriqi.
ṣayyaḥat
shout.II.CAUS.PRF.3SG.F
al-ʾumm-u
ART-mother.F-NOM
ǧīrān-a-hā
neighbour.M-ACC-3SG.F
ʿalâ
on
s-sāriq-i
ART-thief.M-GEN
‘The mother let her neighbour shout at the thief.’
SCREAM an Alternation:
Stem II Causative
(64)
كسر الولد الكأس
Kassara lwaladu lkaʾsa.
kassara
break.II.INT.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
l-kaʾs-a
ART-glass.F-ACC
‘The boy broke the glass in pieces.’
BREAK the Verb form kasara
(65)
تكسرت الكأس
Takassarat alkaʾsu.
takassarat
break.into.pieces.V.ACAUS.PRF.3SG.F
al-kaʾs-u
ART-glass.F-NOM
‘The glass broke into pieces.’
BREAK the Verb form kasara
(66)
انكسرت الكأس
Inkasara-t lkaʾsu.
inkasarat
break.VII.PASS/ACAUS.PRF.3SG.F
l-kaʾs-u
ART-glass.F-NOM
‘The glass was broken. / The glass broke.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Stem VII Passive
(67)
اعتنق عمر وصديقه
Iʿtanaqa ʿamrun waṣadīquhu.
iʿtanaqa
hug.VIII.RECP.PRF.3SG.M
ʿamr-un
Amr-NOM.IDEF
wa-ṣadīq-u-hu
and-friend.M-NOM-3SG.M
‘Amr and his friend hugged each other.’
HUG an Alternation:
Stem VIII Reciprocal
(68)
قتل الملك شعبه
Qattala lmaliku šaʿabahu.
qattala
kill.II.INT.PRF.3SG.M
l-malik-u
ART-king.M-NOM
šaʿab-a-hu
people.M-ACC-3SG.M
‘The king slaughtered his people.’
KILL the Verb form qatala
(69)
قاتل أعداءه
Qātala ʾaʿdāʾahu.
qātala
kill.III.REP.PRF.3SG.M
ʾaʿdāʾ-a-hu
rival.M.PL-ACC-3SG.M
‘He fought against his rivals.’
KILL the Verb form qatala
(70)
تقاتل مع أعداءه
Taqātala maʿa ʾaʿdāʾihi.
taqātala
kill.VI.RECP.PRF.3SG.M
maʿa
with
ʾaʿdāʾ-i-hi
rival.M.PL-GEN-3SG.M
‘He fought his rivals (and they fought him).’
KILL the Verb form qatala
(71)
اقتتل مع أعداءه
Iqtatala maʿa ʾaʿdāʾihi.
iqtatala
kill.VIII.RECP.PRF.3SG.M
maʿa
with
ʾaʿdāʾ-i-hi
rival.M.PL-GEN-3SG.M
‘He fought/killed his rivals (and they fought him). / He fought with his rivals.’
KILL an Alternation:
Stem VIII Reciprocal
(72)
ضرب الولد الحية بالعصى
Ḍaraba lwaladu lḥayyata bilʿaṣâi.
ḍaraba
beat.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
l-ḥayyat-a
ART-snake.F-ACC
bi-l-ʿaṣâ-i
with-ART-stick.F-GEN
‘The boy beat the snake with the stick .’
BEAT a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc (bi+3)
(73)
تضارب المتلاكمان خارج حلبة الصراع
Taḍāraba lmutalākimāni ḫāriǧa ḥalabati ṣṣirāʿi.
taḍāraba
beat.VI.RECP.PRF.3SG.M
l-mutalākim-āni
ART-boxer.M-DU.NOM
ḫāriǧ-a
outside.M-ACC
ḥalabat-i
arena.F-GEN
ṣ-ṣirāʿ-i
ART-battle.M-GEN
‘The boxers beat each other outside of the battle arena.’
BEAT the Verb form ḍaraba
(74)
لطم الولد البنت بيده على وجهها
Laṭama lwaladu lbinta biyadihi ʿalâ waǧhihā.
laṭama
hit.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
l-bint-a
ART-girl.F-ACC
bi-yad-i-hi
with-hand.F-GEN-3SG.M
ʿalâ
on
waǧh-i-hā
face.M-GEN-3SG.F
‘The boy hit the girl with his hand on her face.’
HIT a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc (bi+3)
(75)
تلاطم الولدان
Talāṭama lwaladāni.
talāṭama
hit.VI.RECP.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-āni
ART-boy.M-DU.NOM
‘The two boys hit each other.’
HIT an Alternation:
Stem VI Reciprocal
(76)
التطمت السفينة بالأمواج
Iltaṭamat assafīnatu bilʾamwāǧi.
iltaṭamat
hit.VIII.RECP.PRF.3SG.F
as-safīnat-u
ART-ship.F-NOM
bi-l-ʾamwāǧ-i
with-ART-wave.F.PL-GEN
‘The ship collided with the waves.’
HIT an Alternation:
Stem VIII Reciprocal
(77)
لمس الولد الحية بالعصا
Lamasa lwaladu lḥayyata bilʿaṣâi.
lamasa
touch.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
l-ḥayyat-a
ART-snake.F-ACC
bi-l-ʿaṣâ-i
with-ART-stick.F-GEN
‘The boy touched the snake with the stick.’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc (bi+3)
(78)
تلامست أياديكم
Talāmasat ʾayādīkum.
talāmasat
touch.VI.RECP.PRF.3SG.F
ʾayādī-kum
hand.F.PL-2PL.M
‘Your hands touched (each other).’
TOUCH an Alternation:
Stem VI Reciprocal
(79)
تلمس الرجل طريقه في ظلام
Talammasa rraǧulu ṭarīqahu fī ẓẓalāmi.
talammasa
touch.V.GRA.PRF.3SG.M
r-raǧul-u
ART-man.M-NOM
ṭarīq-a-hu
way.M-ACC-3SG.M
in
ẓ-ẓalām-i
ART-darkness.M-GEN
‘The man groped his way in the dark.’
TOUCH the Verb form lamasa
(80)
قطع الولد الخبز بالسكين
Qaṭaʿa lwaladu lḫubza bissikkīni.
qaṭaʿa
cut.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
l-ḫubz-a
ART-bread.M-ACC
bi-s-sikkīn-i
with-ART-knife.M-GEN
‘The boy cut the bread with the knife.’
CUT a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc (bi+3)
(81)
قطع الطفل يده بسكين
Qaṭṭaʿa ṭṭiflu yadahu bissikkīni.
qaṭṭaʿa
cut.II.INT.PRF.3SG.M
ṭ-ṭifl-u
ART-child.M-NOM
yad-a-hu
hand.F-ACC-3SG.M
bi-s-sikkīn-i
with-ART-knife.M-GEN
‘The child cut into his hand deeply with the knife.’
CUT the Verb form qaṭaʿa
(82)
قطعت أمي بصلا االشربة
Qaṭṭaʿat ʾummī baṣalan liššurbati.
qaṭṭaʿat
cut.II.INT.PRF.3SG.F
ʾumm-ī
mother.F-1SG.NOM
baṣal-an
onion.F.PL-ACC.IDEF
li-š-šurbat-i
for-ART-soup.F-GEN
‘My mother cut onions for the soup.’
CUT the Verb form qaṭaʿa
(83)
تقطعت بصل
Taqaṭṭaʿat baṣalun.
taqaṭṭaʿat
cut.in.pieces.V.PASS.PRF.3SG.F
baṣal-un
onion.F.PL-NOM.IDEF
‘Onion has been cut (into pieces).’
CUT the Verb form qaṭaʿa
(84)
نزعت البنت الصبحة من الكتاب
Nazaʿat albintu ṣṣafḥata min alkitābi.
nazaʿat
tear.PRF.3SG.F
al-bint-u
ART-girl.F-NOM
ṣ-ṣafḥat-a
ART-page.F-ACC
min
from
al-kitāb-i
ART-book.M-GEN
‘The girl tore the page from the book.’
TEAR a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc (min+3)
(85)
أخفت البنت الكتاب على المعلم
ʾAḫfat albintu lkitāba ʿalâ lmuʿallimi.
ʾaḫfat
hide.IV.CAUS.PRF.3SG.F
al-bint-u
ART-girl.F-NOM
l-kitāb-a
ART-book.M-ACC
ʿalâ
on
l-muʿallim-i
ART-teacher.M-GEN
‘The girl hid the book from the teacher.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc ʿalâ+3
(86)
أعطت البنت الكتاب لالمعلم
ʾAʿṭat albintu lkitāba lilmuʿallimi.
ʾaʿṭat
give.PRF.3SG.F
al-bint-u
ART-girl.F-NOM
l-kitāb-a
ART-book.M-ACC
li-l-muʿallim-i
for-ART-teacher.M-GEN
‘The girl gave the book to the teacher.’
GIVE a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom (li+2) 3-acc
(87)
أعطت البنت المعلم الكتاب
ʾAʿṭat albintu lmuʿallima lkitāba.
ʾaʿṭat
give.PRF.3SG.F
al-bint-u
ART-girl.F-NOM
l-muʿallim-a
ART-teacher.M-ACC
l-kitāb-a
ART-book.M-ACC
‘The girl gave the book to the teacher.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Theme / Recipient Alternation - Prepositional (li+ 'to') / Accusative Object
(88)
أرت البنت الكتاب لالمعلم
ʾArat albintu lkitāba lilmuʿallimi.
ʾarat
see.IV.CAUS.PRF.3SG.F
al-bint-u
ART-girl.F-NOM
l-kitāb-a
ART-book.M-ACC
li-l-muʿallim-i
for-ART-teacher.M-GEN
‘The girl showed the book to the teacher.’
SEE an Alternation:
Stem IV Causative
(89)
أرسل البنت الكتاب إلى المعلم
ʾArsalat albintu lkitāba ʾilâ lmuʿallimi.
ʾarsala.t
send.IV.PRF.3SG.F
al-bint-u
ART-girl.F-NOM
l-kitāb-a
ART-book.M-ACC
ʾilâ
to
l-muʿallim-i
ART-teacher.M-GEN
‘The girl sent the book to the teacher.’
SEND a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc (ʾilâ+3)
(90)
تراسل الولد وصديقته سرا
Tarāsala lwaladu waṣṣadīqatahu siran.
tarāsala
correspond.VI.RECP.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
wa-ṣ-ṣadīqat-a-hu
and-ART-friend.F-ACC-3SG.M
sir-an
secret.M-ACC.IDEF
‘The boy and his girlfriend were corresponding with each other secretly.’
SEND the Verb form ʾarsala
(91)
حمل أبي أمتعاتي إلى السيرة
Ḥamala ʾabī ʾamtiʿātī ʾilâ ssayyārati.
ḥamala
carry.PRF.3SG.M
ʾab-ī
father.M-1SG.NOM
ʾamtiʿāt-ī
luggage.F.PL-1SG.ACC
ʾilâ
to
s-sayyārat-i
ART-car.F-GEN
‘My father carried my luggage to the car.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc (ʾilâ+3)
(92)
حمل الرجل القش على الجمل
Ḥammala rraǧulu lqišša ʿalâ lǧamali.
ḥammala
carry.II.CAUS.PRF.3SG.M
r-raǧul-u
ART-man.M-NOM
l-qišš-a
ART-hay.M-ACC
ʿalâ
on
l-ǧamal-i
ART-camel.M-GEN
‘The man loaded the hay on the camel.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Stem II Causative
(93)
حمل الرجل الجمل بالقش
Ḥammala rraǧulu lǧamala bilqišši.
ḥammala
carry.II.CAUS.PRF.3SG.M
r-raǧul-u
ART-man.M-NOM
l-ǧamal-a
ART-camel.M-ACC
bi-l-qišš-i
with-ART-hay.M-GEN
‘The man loaded the camel with hay.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Stem II Causative
(94)
على صديقه أن يتحمل النفقات
ʿAlâ ṣadīqī ʾan yataḥammala nnafaqāti.
ʿalâ
on
ṣadīq-i-hi
friend.M-GEN-3SG.M
ʾan
CONJ
yataḥammala
load.V.ACAUS.SUBJ.3SG.M
n-nafaqāti
ART-expense.F.PL.ACC
‘His friend has to carry the expenses (lit. It is on his friend, that he carries the expenses.).’
LOAD an Alternation:
Stem V Anticausative
(95)
شحن الرحل العرب بالقش
Šaḥana rraǧulu lʿarabata bilqišši.
šaḥana
load.PRF.3SG.M
r-raǧul-u
ART-man.M-NOM
l-ʿarabat-a
ART-truck.F-ACC
bi-l-qišš-i
with-ART-hay.M-GEN
‘The man loaded the truck with hay.’
LOAD a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc (bi+3)
(96)
شحن الرجل القش على العرب
Šaḥana rraǧulu lqišša ʿalâ lʿarabati.
šaḥana
load.PRF.3SG.M
r-raǧul-u
ART-man.M-NOM
l-qišš-a
ART-hay.M-ACC
ʿalâ
on
l-ʿarabat-i
ART-truck.F-GEN
‘The man loaded the truck with hay.’
LOAD the Verb form šaḥana
(97)
شحن الرجل العربة قشا
Šaḥana rraǧulu lʿarabata qiššan.
šaḥana
load.PRF.3SG.M
r-raǧul-u
ART-man.M-NOM
l-ʿarabat-a
ART-truck.F-ACC
qišš-an
hay.M-ACC.IDEF
‘The man loaded the truck with hay.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Locative Alternation 1
(98)
رمى الومد النافذة بحجر
Ramâ lwaladu nnāfid̠ata biḥaǧarin.
ramā
throw.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
n-nāfid̠at-a
ART-window.F-ACC
bi-ḥaǧar-in
with-stone.M-GEN.IDEF
‘The boy threw a stone into the window.’
THROW an Alternation:
Locative Alternation 2
(99)
رمى الوبد حجرا على النافذة
Ramâ lwaladu ḥaǧaran ʿalâ nnāfid̠ati.
ramā
throw.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
ḥaǧar-an
stone.M-ACC.IDEF
ʿalâ
on
n-nāfid̠at-i
ART-window.F-GEN
‘The boy threw a stone into the window.’
THROW a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc LOC3
(100)
رمى الولد بحجر على النافذة
Ramâ lwaladu biḥaǧarin ʿalâ nnāfid̠ati.
ramā
throw.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
bi-ḥaǧar-in
with-stone.M-GEN.IDEF
ʿalâ
on
n-nāfid̠at-i
ART-window.F-GEN
‘The boy threw a stone into the window.’
THROW the Verb form ramâ
(101)
ترامى المتظاهرون والشرطة بالأحجار
Tarāmâ lmutaẓāhirūna waššurṭatu bilʾaḥaǧāri.
tarāmâ
throw.VI.RECP.PRF.3SG.M
l-mutaẓāhir-ūna
ART-protester.M-PL.NOM
wa-š-šurṭat-u
and-ART-police.F-NOM
bi-l-ʾaḥaǧār-i
with-ART-stone.M.PL-GEN
‘The protesters and the police threw stones at each other.’
THROW an Alternation:
Stem VI Reciprocal
(102)
إرتمى الإبن في ذراعي أمه
Irtamâ lʾibnu fī d̠arāʿay ʾummihi.
irtamâ
throw.VIII.REFL.PRF.3SG.M
l-ʾibn-u
ART-son.M-NOM
in
d̠arāʿ-ay
arm.M-DU.GEN
ʾumm-i-hi
mother.F-GEN-3SG.M
‘The son threw himself into the arms of his mother.’
THROW an Alternation:
Stem VIII Reflexive
(103)
ربط الرجل الحسان إلى الشجرة بالحبل
Rabaṭa rraǧulu lḥisāna ʾilâ ššaǧarati biḥablin.
rabaṭa
tie.PRF.3SG.M
r-raǧul-u
ART-man.M-NOM
l-ḥisān-a
ART-horse.M-ACC
ʾilâ
to
š-šaǧarat-i
ART-tree.F-GEN
bi-ḥabl-in
with-rope.M-GEN.IDEF
‘The man tied the horse to the tree with a rope.’
TIE a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc (ʾilâ+3) (bi+4)
(104)
هل ارتبطت المظاهرات في العراق بالإنتخابات
Hal irtabaṭat almuẓāharātu fī lʿirāq bilʾintiḫābāti?
hal
Q
irtabaṭa.t
tie.VIII.ACAUS.PRF.3SG.F
al-muẓāharāt-u
ART-demonstration.F.PL-NOM
in
l-ʿirāq-i
ART-Iraq-GEN
bi-l-ʾintiḫābāt-i
with-ART-election.F.PL-GEN
‘Were the demonstrations in Iraq related to the elections? (= Were the demonstrations triggered by the elections?)?’
TIE an Alternation:
Stem VIII Anticausative
(105)
يرتبط الفرق والأمية في مصر
Yartabiṭu lfaqru walʾummīyatu fī miṣri.
yartabiṭu
tie.VIII.RECP.IPFV.3SG.M
l-faqr-u
ART-povertry.M-NOM
wa-l-ʾummīyat-u
and-ART-illiteracy.F-NOM
in
miṣr-i
Egypt-GEN
‘The poverty and illiteracy in Egypt are related (to each other).’
TIE an Alternation:
Stem VIII Reciprocal
(106)
Waḍaʿa rraǧulu lkitāba ʿalā ṭṭāwilati.
waḍaʿa
put.PRF.3SG.M
r-raǧul-u
ART-man.M-NOM
l-kitāb-a
ART-book.M-ACC
ʿalâ
on
ṭ-ṭāwilat-i
ART-table.F-GEN
‘The man put the book on the table.’
PUT a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc LOC3
(107)
صب الرجل ماء في الكأس
Ṣabba rraǧulu māʾan fī lkaʾsi.
ṣabba
pour.PRF.3SG.M
r-raǧul-u
ART-man.M-NOM
māʾ-an
water.M-ACC.IDEF
in
l-kaʾs-i
ART-glass.F-GEN
‘The man poured water into the glass.’
POUR a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc LOC3
(108)
انصب ماء في الكأس
Inṣabba lmāʾu fī lkaʾsi.
inṣabba
pour.VII.PASS.PRF.3SG.M
l-māʾ-u
ART-water.M-NOM
in
l-kaʾs-i
ART-glass.F-GEN
‘The water was poured into the glass.’
POUR an Alternation:
Stem VII Passive
(109)
تصبب العرق من جنبه
Taṣabbaba lʿarqu min ǧanbihi.
taṣabbaba
pour.V.ACAUS.PRF.3SG.M
l-ʿarq-u
ART-sveat.M-NOM
min
from
ǧanb-i-hi
forehead.M-GEN-3SG.M
‘The sweat dripped from his forehead.’
POUR an Alternation:
Stem V Anticausative
(110)
غطى الرجل الطفل بالغطاء
Ġaṭṭā rraǧulu ṭṭifla bilġiṭāʾi.
ġaṭṭā
cover.II.PRF.3SG.M
r-raǧul-u
ART-man.M-NOM
ṭ-ṭifl-a
ART-child.M-ACC
bi-l-ġiṭāʾ-i
with-ART-blanket.M-GEN
‘The man covered the child with the blanket.’
COVER a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc (bi+3)
(111)
تغطا الطفل بالغطاء
Taġaṭṭā ṭṭiflu bilġiṭāʾi.
taġaṭṭā
cover.V.REFL.PRF.3SG.M
ṭ-ṭifl-u
ART-child.M-NOM
bi-l-ġiṭāʾ-i
with-ART-blanket.M-GEN
‘The child covered itself with the blanket.’
COVER an Alternation:
Stem V Reflexive
(112)
رمشت البنت
Ramašat albintu.
ramašat
blink.PRF.3SG.F
al-bint-u
ART-girl.F-NOM
‘The girl blinked.’
BLINK a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom
(113)
سعل الرجل
Saʿala rraǧulu.
saʿala
cough.PRF.3SG.M
r-raǧul-u
ART-man.M-NOM
‘The man coughed.’
COUGH a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom
(114)
تسلق الولد الشجرة
Tasallaqa lwaladu ššaǧarata.
tasallaqa
climb.V.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
š-šaǧarat-a
ART-tree.F-ACC
‘The boy climbed up the tree.’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc
(115)
جرى الولد الخائف إلى البيت
Ǧarâ lwaladu lḫāʾifu ʾilâ lbayti.
ǧarâ
run.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
l-ḫāʾif-u
ART-frightened.M-NOM
ʾilâ
to
l-bayt-i
ART-house.M-GEN
‘The frightened boy ran into the house.’
RUN a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom
(116)
جراه إلى البيت
Ǧarrāhu ʾilâ lbayti.
ǧarrā-hu
run.II.CAUS.PRF.3SG.M-3SG.M
ʾilâ
to
l-bayt-i
ART-house.M-GEN
‘He let him run to/into the house.’
RUN an Alternation:
Stem II Causative
(117)
أجرت الحكومة المصرية إنتخابات جديدة
ʾAǧrat lḥukūmatu lmiṣrīyatu ʾintiḫābātin ǧadīdatan.
ʾaǧrat
run.IV.CAUS.PRF.3SG.F
l-ḥukūmat-u
ART-government.F-NOM
l-miṣrīyat-u
ART-egyptian.F-NOM
ʾintiḫābātin
election.F.PL.ACC.IDEF
ǧadīd-at-an
new-F-ACC.IDEF
‘The Egyptian government ran new elections.’
RUN an Alternation:
Stem IV Causative
(118)
جلس في مقهى مع صديقه
Ǧalasa fī maqhâ maʿa ṣadīqihi.
ǧalasa
sit.PRF.3SG.M
in
maqhâ
cafeteria.M.GEN.IDEF
maʿa
with
ṣadīq-i-hi
friend.M-GEN-3SG.M
‘He sat (down) in a cafe with his friend.’
SIT a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom (LOC2)
(119)
أجلس ضيوفه على مقائد
ʾaǧlasa ḍuyūfahu fī ʿalâ mqāʾid-i.
ʾaǧlasa
sit.IV.CAUS.PRF.3SG.M
ḍuyūf-a-hu
guest.M.PL-ACC-3SG.M
ʿalâ
on
maqāʾid-i
chair.M.PL-GEN
‘He let his guests sit on chairs.’
SIT an Alternation:
Stem IV Causative
(120)
قفز الطفل من الشجرة إلى الأرض
Qafaza ṭṭiflu min aššaǧarati ʿalâ lʾarḍi.
qafaza
jump.PRF.3SG.M
ṭ-ṭifl-u
ART-child.M-NOM
min
from
aš-šaǧarat-i
ART-tree.F-GEN
ʿalâ
on
l-ʾarḍ-i
ART-ground.F-GEN
‘The child jumped from the tree to the ground.’
JUMP a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom
(121)
غنت الأم
Ġannat alʾummu.
ġannat
sing.II.PRF.3SG.F
al-ʾumm-u
ART-mother.F-NOM
‘The mother sang.’
SING a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom
(122)
غنت الأم أغنية لالطفلها
Ġannat alʾummu ʾuġniyata liṭṭiflihā.
ġannat
sing.II.PRF.3SG.F
al-ʾumm-u
ART-mother.F-NOM
ʾuġniyat-an
song.F-ACC.IDEF
li-ṭ-ṭifl-i-hā
for-ART-child.M-GEN-3SG.F
‘The mother sang a song for her child.’
SING an Alternation:
Object Adding Alternation
(123)
ذهب الولد إلى السوق
D̠ahaba lwaladu ʾilâ ssūqi.
d̠ahaba
go.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
ʾilâ
to
s-sūq-i
ART-market.M-GEN
‘The boy went to the market.’
GO a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom ʾilâ+2
(124)
أذهبت ال أم لاولد إلى السوق
ʾAd̠habat alʾummu lwalada ʾilâ ssūqi.
ʾad̠habat
go.IV.CAUS.PRF.3SG.F
al-ʾumm-u
ART-mother.F-NOM
l-walad-a
ART-boy.M-ACC
ʾilâ
to
s-sūq-i
ART-market.M-GEN
‘The mother made the boy go to the market.’
GO an Alternation:
Stem IV Causative
(125)
غادر الولد البيت
Ġādara lwaladu lbayta.
ġādara
leave.III.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
l-bayt-a
ART-house.M-ACC
‘The boy left the house.’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc
(126)
غادر القطار إلى العاسمة
Ġādara lwaladu ʾilâ lʿāsimati.
ġādara
leave.III.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
ʾilâ
to
l-ʿāsimat-i
ART-capital.F-GEN
‘The boy has gone to the capital.’
LEAVE a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom ʾilâ+2
(127)
عاشت صديقتي في القاهرة سنة
ʿāšat ṣadīqatī fī lqāhira sanatan.
ʿāšat
live.PRF.3SG.F
ṣadīqat-ī
friend.F-1SG.NOM
in
l-qāhirat-i
ART-Qairo.F-GEN
sanat-an
year.F-ACC.IDEF
‘My girlfriend lived in Qairo for a year.’
LIVE a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom fī+2
(128)
عيش صديقه على نفقاته
ʿayyaša ṣadīqahu ʿalâ nafaqātihi.
ʿayyaša
live.II.CAUS.PRF.3SG.M
ṣadīq-a-hu
friend.M-ACC-3SG.M
ʿalâ
on
nafaqāt-i-hi
expense.F.PL-GEN-3SG.M
‘He let his friend live at his expense.’
LIVE an Alternation:
Stem II Causative
(129)
تعايش المسلمون والمسيحسيون في مصر
Taʿāyaša lmuslimūna walmasīḥiyūna fī miṣri.
taʿāyaša
live.VI.RECP.PRF.3SG.M
l-muslim-ūna
ART-muslim.M-PL.NOM
wa-l-masīḥiy-ūna
and-ART-christ.M-PL.NOM
in
miṣr-i
Egypt-GEN
‘The Muslims and Christians lived together in Egypt.’
LIVE the Verb form ʿāša
(130)
ضحك الطفل عليك
Ḍaḥika ṭṭiflu ʿalayka.
ḍaḥika
laugh.PRF.3SG.M
ṭ-ṭifl-u
ART-child.M-NOM
ʿalay-ka
on-2SG.M
‘The child laughed about you.’
LAUGH a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom
(131)
ضحك الطفل منك
Ḍaḥika ṭṭiflu minka.
ḍaḥika
laugh.PRF.3SG.M
ṭ-ṭifl-u
ART-child.M-NOM
min-ka
from-2SG.M
‘The child laughed about you.’
LAUGH the Verb form ḍaḥika
(132)
ضحكه بحديثه
Ḍaḥḥakahu biḥadīt̠ihi.
ḍaḥḥaka-hu
laugh.II.CAUS.INT.PRF.3SG.M-3SG.M
bi-ḥadīt̠-i-hi
with-narration.M-GEN-3SG.M
‘He made him laugh a lot with his talk.’
LAUGH an Alternation:
Stem II Causative
(133)
أضحكه بحديثه
ʾAḍḥḥakahu biḥadīt̠ihi.
ʾaḍḥḥaka-hu
laugh.IV.CAUS.PRF.3SG.M-3SG.M
bi-ḥadīt̠-i-hi
with-narration.M-GEN-3SG.M
‘He made him laugh with his talk.’
LAUGH an Alternation:
Stem IV Causative
(134)
تضاحك الأطفال من معلمهم
Taḍāḥaka lʾaṭfālu min almuʿallimihim.
taḍāḥaka
laugh.VI.RECP.PRF.3SG.M
l-ʾaṭfāl-u
ART-child.M.PL-NOM
min
from
al-muʿallim-i-him
ART-teacher.M-GEN-3PL.M
‘The children laughed about their teacher together.’
LAUGH the Verb form ḍaḥika
(135)
استضحكه صديقه
Istaḍḥakahu ṣadīquhu.
istaḍḥaka-hu
laugh.X.CAUS.PRF-3SG.M
ṣadīq-u-hu
friend.M-NOM-3SG.M
‘His friend made him laugh (against his will).’
LAUGH an Alternation:
Stem X Causative
(136)
صرخت البنت من الخوف
Ṣaraḫat albintu min alḫawfi.
ṣaraḫat
scream.PRF.3SG.F
al-bint-u
ART-girl.F-NOM
min
from
al-ḫawf-i
ART-fear.M-GEN
‘The girl cried because of fear.’
SCREAM a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom
(137)
في تلك السنة أمطرت في أيلول
Fī tilka ssanati ʾamṭarat fī ʾaylūlin.
in
tilka
that.SG.F
s-sanat-i
ART-year.F-GEN
ʾamṭarat
rain.IV.PRF.3SG.F
in
ʾaylūl-in
September-GEN.IDEF
‘That year it rained in September.’
RAIN the Verb form ʾamṭarat
(138)
امطرت السماء
ʾAmṭarat assamāʾu.
ʾamṭarat
rain.IV.PRF.3SG.F
as-samāʾ-u
ART-sky.F-NOM
‘It rained (lit. The sky rained.).’
RAIN a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom
(139)
يغلي الماء
Yaġlī almāʾu.
yaġlī
boil.IPFV.3SG.M
al-māʾ-u
ART-water.M-NOM
‘The water boils.’
BOIL a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom
(140)
تغلي الأم ماءا لالشاي
Tuġlī lʾummu māʾan liššāy.
tuġlī
boil.IV.CAUS.IPFV.3SG.F
l-ʾumm-u
ART-mother.F-NOM
māʾ-an
water.M-ACC.IDEF
li-š-šāy
for-ART-tea.M.GEN
‘The mother boils water for tea.’
BOIL an Alternation:
Stem IV Causative
(141)
يتألم من يده
Yataʾallamu min yadihi.
yataʾallamu
hurt.V.ACAUS.IPFV.3SG.M
min
from
yad-i-hi
hand.F-GEN-3SG.M
‘He feels pain in his hand (= his hand hurts).’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom min+2
(142)
تؤلم الولد يده
Tuʾlimu lwalada yaduhu.
tuʾlimu
hurt.IV.CAUS.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-a
ART-boy.M-ACC
yad-u-hu
hand.F-NOM-3SG.M
‘The boy's hand hurts. lit. 'The hand causes the boy to hurt'.’
FEEL PAIN the Verb form taʾallama
(143)
ألمت المرة ولدها بالكلماتها
ʾAllamat almarʾatu lwalada bikalimātihā.
ʾallamat
hurt.II.CAUS.INT.PRF.3SG.F
al-marʾat-u
ART-woman.F-NOM
l-walad-a
ART-boy.M-ACC
bi-kalimāt-i-hā
with-word.F.PL-GEN-3SG.F
‘The woman hurt the boy with her words.’
FEEL PAIN the Verb form taʾallama
(144)
شعر بالبرد
Šaʿara bilbardi.
šaʿara
feel.PRF.3SG.M
bi-l-bard-i
with-ART-cold.M-GEN
‘He was cold. (= he felt cold).’
FEEL COLD a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom
(145)
موت الرجل اللص
Mawwata rraǧulu lliṣṣa.
mawwata
die.II.CAUS.INT.PRF.3SG.M
r-raǧul-u
ART-man.M-NOM
l-liṣṣ-a
ART-thief.M-ACC
‘The man killed the thief.’
DIE an Alternation:
Stem II Causative
(146)
أمات الرجل اللص
ʾAmāta rraǧulu lliṣṣa.
ʾamāta
die.IV.CAUS.PRF.3SG.M
r-raǧul-u
ART-man.M-NOM
l-liṣṣ-a
ART-thief.M-ACC
‘The man killed the thief.’
DIE an Alternation:
Stem IV Causative
(147)
تماوت اللص أمام الشرطة
Tamāwata lliṣṣu ʾamāma ššurṭati.
tamāwata
die.VI.SIM.PRF.3SG.M
l-liṣṣ-u
ART-thief.M-NOM
ʾamāma
in.front.of
š-šurṭat-i
ART-police.F-GEN
‘The thief pretended to be dead in front of the police.’
DIE the Verb form māta
(148)
لعبت البنت مع أخيها
Laʿabat albintu maʿa ʾaḫīhā.
laʿabat
play.PRF.3SG.F
al-bint-u
ART-girl.F-NOM
maʿa
with
ʾaḫ-ī-hā
brother.M-GEN-3SG.F
‘The girl played with her brother.’
PLAY a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom
(149)
تلاعب الرئيس المصري تنبائج الإنتخابات
Talāʿaba rraʾīsu lmiṣriyu binaāʾiǧi alʾintiḫābāti.
talāʿaba
play.VI.SIM.PRF.3SG.M
r-raʾīs-u
ART-president.M-NOM
l-miṣriy-u
ART-egyptian.M-NOM
bi-natāʾiǧ-i
with-result.F.PL-GEN
l-ʾintiḫābāt-i
ART-election.F.PL-GEN
‘The Egyptian president manipulated the results of the election.’
PLAY the Verb form laʿaba
(150)
أنا حزين
ʾAnā ḥazīnun.
ʾanā
1SG
ḥazīn-un
sad-NOM.IDEF
‘I am sad.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
V 1-nom
(151)
أنا جائع
ʾAnā ǧāʾiʿun.
ʾanā
1SG
ǧāʾiʿ-un
hungry-NOM.IDEF
‘I'm hungry.’
BE HUNGRY a Coding frame:
V 1-nom
(152)
تدحرجت الكرة على الأرض
Tadaḥraǧat alkurratu ʿalâ lʾarḍi.
tadaḥraǧat
roll.II.PRF.3SG.F
al-kurrat-u
ART-ball.F-NOM
ʿalâ
on
l-ʾarḍ-i
ART-ground.F-GEN
‘The ball rolled on the ground.’
ROLL a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom
(153)
غرقت السفينة في المحيط
Ġariqat assafīnatu fī lmuḥṭīṭi.
ġariqat
sink.PRF.3SG.F
as-safīnat-u
ART-ship.F-NOM
in
l-muḥīṭ-i
ART-ocean.M-GEN
‘The ship sank into the ocean.’
SINK a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom
(154)
غرق الجيش سفينة العدو
Ġarraqa lǧayšu safīnata lʿaduwi.
ġarraqa
sink.II.CAUS.INT.PRF.3SG.M
l-ǧayš-u
ART-army.M-NOM
safīnat-a
ship.F-ACC
l-ʿaduw-i
ART-enemy.M-GEN
‘The army sank the ship of the enemy.’
SINK an Alternation:
Stem II Causative
(155)
أغرق الجيش يفينة العدو
ʾaġraqa lǧayšu safīnata lʿaduwi.
ʾaġraqa
sink.IV.CAUS.INT.PRF.3SG.M
l-ǧayš-u
ART-army.M-NOM
safīnat-a
ship.F-ACC
l-ʿaduw-i
ART-enemy.M-GEN
‘The army sank the ship of the enemy.’
SINK an Alternation:
Stem IV Causative
(156)
تحترق الدار
Taḥtariqu ddāru.
taḥtariqu
burn.VIII.ACAUS.IPFV.3SG.F
d-dār-u
ART-house.F-NOM
‘The house is burning.’
BURN a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom
(157)
حرق الجيش سفينة العدو
Ḥarraqa lǧayšu safīnata lʿaduwi.
ḥarraqa
burn.II.INT.PRF.3SG.M
l-ǧayš-u
ART-army.M-NOM
safīnat-a
ship.F-ACC
l-ʿaduw-i
ART-enemy.M-GEN
‘The army burned the ship of the enemy. (intensive).’
BURN the Verb form iḥtaraqa
(158)
تحرق خوفا من العدو
Taḥarraqa ḫawfan min alʿaduwi.
taḥarraqa
burn.VIII.ACAUS.PRF.3SG.M
ḫawf-an
fear.M-ACC.IDEF
min
from
al-ʿaduw-i
ART-enemy.M-GEN
‘He was burning with fear of the enemy.’
BURN the Verb form iḥtaraqa
(159)
طحن النساء البذرة بالمدقة
Ṭaḥanat annisāʾu lbud̠ūra bilmidaqati.
ṭaḥanat
grind.PRF.3SG.F
an-nisāʾ-u
ART-women.F.PL-NOM
l-bud̠ūr-a
ART-seed.M.PL-ACC
bi-l-midaqat-i
with-ART-pestle.F-GEN
‘The women ground the seeds with the pestle.’
GRIND a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc (bi+3)
(160)
ميسحت البنت الوسح من الطاولة
Masaḥat albintu lwasḥa ʿan aṭṭāwilati.
masaḥat
wipe.PRF.3SG.F
al-bint-u
ART-girl.F-NOM
l-wasḥ-a
ART-dirt.M-ACC
ʿan
about
aṭ-ṭāwilat-i
ART-table.F-GEN
‘The girl wiped the dirt from the table.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc (ʿan+3)
(161)
مسحت البنت يدسها بالمنديل
Massaḥat albintu yadayhā fī lmindīli.
massaḥat
wipe.INT.PRF.3SG.F
al-bint-u
ART-girl.F-NOM
yad-ay-hā
hand.F-DU.ACC-3SG.F
bi-l-mindīl-i
with-ART-handkerchief.M-GEN
‘The girl (strongly) wiped her hands with the handkerchief.’
WIPE the Verb form masaḥa
(162)
تمسح الكلب على الشجر
Tamassaḥa lkalbu ʿalâ ššaǧarati.
tamassaḥa
wipe.V.REFL.PRF.3SG.M
l-kalb-u
ART-dog.M-NOM
ʿalâ
on
š-šaǧarat-i
ART-tree.F-GEN
‘The dog rubbed against the tree.’
WIPE the Verb form masaḥa
(163)
ينبش الوبد حفرة
Yanbašu lwaladu ḥafratan.
yanbašu
dig.IPFV.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
ḥafrat-an
trench.F-ACC.IDEF
‘The boy digs a trench.’
DIG an Alternation:
Object Adding Alternation
(164)
يحفر الولد حفرة بحث عن الذهب
Yaḥfaru lwaladu ḥafratan baḥt̠an ʿan ald̠ahabi.
yaḥfaru
dig.IPFV.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
ḥafrat-an
trench.F-ACC.IDEF
baḥt̠-an
search.VN-ACC.IDEF
ʿan
about
al-d̠ahab-i
ART-gold.M-GEN
‘The boy digs a trench (searching) for gold.’
DIG an Alternation:
Object Adding Alternation
(165)
انحفر الحفرة
Inḥafarat alḥafratu.
inḥafarat
dig.VII.PASS.PRF.3SG.F
al-ḥafrat-u
ART-trench.F-NOM
‘The trench was excavated.’
DIG an Alternation:
Stem VII Passive
(166)
دحر الولد البنت في البكرة
Daḥara lwaladu lbinta fī lburkati.
daḥara
push.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
l-bint-a
ART-girl.F-ACC
in
l-burkat-i
ART-lake.F-GEN
‘The boy pushed the girl into the lake.’
PUSH a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc LOC3
(167)
تداحر المسافرون عند باب الطائرة
Tadāḥara lmusāfirūna ʿinda bābi ṭṭāʾirati.
tadāḥara
push.VI.RECP.PRF.3SG.M
l-musāfir-ūna
ART-passenger.M-PL.NOM
ʿinda
at
bāb-i
door.M-GEN
ṭ-ṭāʾirat-i
ART-plane.F-GEN
‘The travelers have been jostling at the door of the aircraft (= push each other).’
PUSH an Alternation:
Stem VI Reciprocal
(168)
اندحر الجيش من بغداد
Indaḥara lǧayšu min baġdādi.
indaḥara
push.VII.PASS.PRF.3SG.M
l-ǧayš-u
ART-army.M-NOM
min
from
baġdād-i
Bagdad-GEN
‘The army was pushed out of Baghdad.’
PUSH an Alternation:
Stem VII Passive
(169)
أحضرت البنت الكتاب إلى المعلم
ʾaḥḍarat albintu lkitāba ʾilâ lmuʿallimi.
ʾaḥḍarat
come.IV.CAUS.PRF.3SG.F
al-bint-u
ART-girl.F-NOM
l-kitāb-a
ART-book.M-ACC
ʾilâ
to
l-muʿallim-i
ART-teacher.M-GEN
‘The girl brought the book to the teacher.’
BRING a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc (ʾilâ+3)
(170)
سرق الاص النقود من المرأة
Saraqa lliṣṣu nnuqūda min almarʾati.
saraqa
steal.PRF.3SG.M
l-liṣṣ-u
ART-thief.M-NOM
n-nuqūd-a
ART-money.F-ACC
min
from
al-marʾat-i
ART-woman.F-GEN
‘The thief stole the money from the woman.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc (min+3)
(171)
انسرقت النقود
Insaraqat annuqūdu.
insaraqat
steal.VII.PASS.PRF.3SG.F
an-nuqūd-u
ART-money.F-NOM
‘The money was stolen.’
STEAL an Alternation:
Stem VII Passive
(172)
علم المرأة البنت أغنية
ʿAllamat almarʾatu lbinta ʾuġniyatan.
ʿallamat
know.II.CAUS.INT.PRF.3SG.F
al-marʾat-u
ART-woman.F-NOM
l-bint-a
ART-girl.F-ACC
ʾuġniyat-an
song.F-ACC.IDEF
‘The woman taught the girl a song.’
TEACH an Alternation:
Stem II Causative
(173)
أعلم الصحوبي زميله بنتائج الأنتخابات
ʾAʿlama ṣṣuḥūfiyu zamīlahu binatāʾiǧi lʾintiḫābāti.
ʾaʿlama
know.IV.CAUS.PRF.3SG.M
ṣ-ṣuḥūfiy-u
ART-journalist.M-NOM
zamīl-a-hu
colleague.M-ACC-3SG.M
bi-natāʾiǧ-i
with-result.F.PL-GEN
l-ʾintiḫābāt-i
ART-election.F.PL-GEN
‘The journalist informed his colleague about the results of the elections.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Stem IV Causative
(174)
تعلم الطالب الدرس من الكتاب
Taʿallama ṭṭālibu ddarsa min alkitābi.
taʿallama
teach.V.PASS.PRF.3SG.M
ṭ-ṭālib-u
ART-student.M-NOM
d-dars-a
ART-lesson.M-ACC
min
from
al-kitāb-i
ART-book.M-GEN
‘The student learned the lesson from the book.’
TEACH an Alternation:
Stem V Reflexive
(175)
تعالم عمر أمام زيد
Taʿālama ʿumarun ʾamāma zaydin.
taʿālama
know.VI.SIM.PRF.3SG.M
ʿumar-un
Umar-NOM.IDEF
ʾamāma
in.front.of
zayd-in
Zayd-GEN.IDEF
‘Umar pretended to be clever in front of Zayd.’
KNOW the Verb form ʿalima
(176)
استعلم الصحوفي من زميله بنتائج الأنتخابات
Istaʿlama ṣṣuḥūfiyu min zamīlihi binatāʾiǧi lʾintiḫābāti.
istaʿlama
know.X.CAUS.PRF.3SG.M
ṣ-ṣuḥūfiy-u
ART-journalist.M-NOM
min
from
zamīl-i-hi
colleague.M-GEN-3SG.M
bi-natāʾiǧ-i
with-result.F.PL-GEN
l-ʾintiḫābāt-i
ART-election.F.PL-GEN
‘The journalist informed his colleague about the results of the elections.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Stem X Causative
(177)
سمع الولد أغنية أمه
Samiʿa lwaladu ʾuġniyata ʾummihi.
samiʿa
hear.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
ʾuġniyat-a
song.F-ACC
ʾumm-i-hi
mother.F-GEN-3SG.M
‘The boy heard the song of his mother.’
HEAR a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc
(178)
سمع الولد البنت أغنية
Sammaʿa lwaladu lbinta ʾuġniyatan.
sammaʿa
hear.II.CAUS.INT.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
l-bint-a
ART-girl.F-ACC
ʾuġniyat-an
song.F-ACC.IDEF
‘The boy made the girl listen to a song.’
HEAR an Alternation:
Stem II Causative
(179)
أسمع الوبد البنت أغنية
ʾasmaʿa lwaladu lbinta ʾuġniyatan.
ʾasmaʿa
hear.IV.CAUS.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
l-bint-a
ART-girl.F-ACC
ʾuġniyat-an
song.F-ACC.IDEF
‘The boy let the girl listen to a song.’
HEAR an Alternation:
Stem IV Causative
(180)
طبحت الأم طعاما لذيذا
Ṭabaḫat alʾummu ṭaʿāman lad̠īd̠an.
ṭabaḫat
cook.PRF.3SG.F
al-ʾumm-u
ART-mother.F-NOM
ṭaʿām-an
meal.M-ACC.IDEF
lad̠īd̠-an
delicious-ACC.IDEF
‘The mother cooked a delicious meal.’
COOK a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc
(181)
بكت البنت من الألم
Bakat albintu min alʾalami.
bakat
cry.PRF.3SG.F
al-bint-u
ART-girl.F-NOM
min
from
al-ʾalam-i
ART-pain.M-GEN
‘The girl was crying in pain.’
CRY a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom
(182)
أبكى صديقه
ʾAbkâ ṣadīqahu.
ʾabkâ
cry.IV.CAUS.PRF.3SG.M
ṣadīq-a-hu
friend.M-ACC-3SG.M
‘He made his friend cry.’
CRY an Alternation:
Stem IV Causative
(183)
تباكى أمام أليه
Tabākâ ʾamāma ʾabīhi.
tabākâ
cry.VI.SIM.PRF.3SG.M
ʾamāma
in.front.of
ʾab-ī-hi
father.M-GEN-3SG.M
‘He feigned crying in front of his father.’
CRY the Verb form bakâ
(184)
سقط الولد من الجدار
Saqaṭa lwaladu min alǧidāri.
saqaṭa
fall.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
min
from
al-ǧidār-i
ART-wall.M-GEN
‘The boy fell from the wall.’
FALL a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom
(185)
أسقط الولد الكتاب من الطاولة
ʾAsaqaṭa lwaladu lkitāba min aṭṭāwilati.
ʾasaqaṭa
fall.IV.CAUS.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
l-kitāb-a
ART-book.M-ACC
min
from
aṭ-ṭāwilat-i
ART-table.F-GEN
‘The boy let the book fall from the table.’
FALL an Alternation:
Stem IV Causative
(186)
أراد صديقي السفر إلى الخارج
ʾArāda ṣadīqī ssafara ʾilâ lḫāriǧi.
ʾarāda
want.IV.PRF.3SG.M
ṣadīq-ī
friend.M-1SG.NOM
s-safar-a
ART-trip.M-ACC
ʾilâ
to
l-ḫāriǧ-i
ART-abroad.M-GEN
‘My friend wants to go abroad (lit. My friend wants the trip to abroad.).’
WANT a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc
(187)
أظهر بطاقته
ʾAẓhara biṭāqatahu.
ʾaẓhara
appear.IV.CAUS.PRF.3SG.M
biṭāqat-a-hu
identity.card.F-ACC-3SG.M
‘He showed his identity card.’
APPEAR an Alternation:
Stem IV Causative
(188)
تظاهر أنه مجنون
Taẓāhara ʾannahu maǧnūnun.
taẓāhara
appear.VI.SIM.PRF.3SG.M
ʾanna-hu
CONJ-3SG.M
maǧnūn-un
mad.M-NOM.IDEF
‘He pretended to be mad.’
APPEAR the Verb form ẓahara
(189)
صنع الورد طاولة من الحشب
Ṣanaʿa lwaladu ṭāwilatan min alḫašabi.
ṣanaʿa
make.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
ṭāwilat-an
table.F-ACC.IDEF
min
from
al-ḫašab-i
ART-wood.M-GEN
‘The boy made a table out of the wood.’
MAKE a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc (min+3)
(190)
صنت الشركة هواتفا نقالة
Ṣannaʿat ššarikatu hawātifan naqālatan.
ṣannaʿat
make.II.INT.PRF.3SG.F
š-šarikat-u
ART-company.F-NOM
hawātif-an
telephone.M.PL-ACC.IDEF
naqālat-an
portable.F-ACC.IDEF
‘The company produced cell phones.’
MAKE the Verb form ṣanaʿa
(191)
حصل البنت على كتاب من أمها
Ḥaṣalat albintu ʿalâ kitābin min ʾummihā.
ḥaṣalat
recieve.PRF.3SG.F
al-bint-u
ART-girl.F-NOM
ʿalâ
on
kitāb-in
book.M-GEN.IDEF
min
from
ʾumm-i-hā
mother.F-GEN-3SG.F
‘The girl got a book from her mother.’
GET a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom ʿalâ+2 min+3
(192)
حصل الكاتب جوازا كثيرتا
Ḥaṣṣala lkātibu ǧawāzan kat̠īratan.
ḥaṣṣala
recieve.II.INT.PRF.3SG.M
l-kātib-u
ART-writer.M-NOM
ǧawāz-an
award.F.PL-ACC.IDEF
kat̠īr-at-an
many-F-ACC.IDEF
‘The writer collected many awards.’
GET the Verb form ḥaṣala
(193)
تحصل بقعة من المطر
Taḥaṣṣala buqʿatun min almaṭari.
taḥaṣṣala
receive.V.REFL.PRF.3SG.F
buqʿat-un
pool.F-NOM.IDEF
min
from
al-maṭar-i
ART-rain.M-GEN
‘A pool arose out of rain.’
GET the Verb form ḥaṣala
(194)
أخذ الولد الكتاب منصديقه
ʾaḫad̠a lwaladu lkitāba min ṣadīqihi.
ʾaḫad̠a
take.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
l-kitāb-a
ART-book.M-ACC
min
from
ṣadīq-i-hi
friend.M-GEN-3SG.M
‘The boy took the book from his friend.’
TAKE a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc (min+3)
(195)
نزع المعلم الولد ورقة من كتابه
Nazzaʿa lmuʿallimu lwalada waraqatan min kitābihi.
nazzaʿa
tear.II.CAUS.INT.PRF.3SG.M
l-muʿallim-u
ART-teacher.M-NOM
l-walad-a
ART-boy.M-ACC
waraqat-an
sheet.F-ACC.IDEF
min
from
kitāb-i-hi
book.M-GEN-3SG.M
‘The teacher made the boy tear out a page from his book.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Stem II Causative
(196)
قشر الولد البرتقالة
Qaššara lwaladu lburtuqālata.
qaššara
peel.II.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
l-burtuqālat-a
ART-orange.F-ACC
‘The boy was peeling the orange.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc
(197)
قشر الولد قسورا من السمكة
Qaššara lwaladu qušūran min assamakati.
qaššara
peel.II.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
qušūr-an
scale.M.PL-ACC.IDEF
min
from
as-samakat-i
ART-fish.F-GEN
‘The boy peeled some scales off the fish.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Locative Alternation 3
(198)
يتقشر جلده من الجفاف
Yataqaššaru ǧilduhu min alǧifāfi.
yataqaššaru
peel.V.REFL.IPFV.3SG.M
ǧild-u-hu
skin.M-NOM-3SG.M
min
from
al-ǧifāf-i
ART-dryness.M-GEN
‘His skin peels off because of the dryness.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Stem V Anticausative
(199)
بخفى اللص وراء خدار
Taḫaffâ lliṣṣu warāʾa ǧidārin.
taḫaffâ
hide.V.REFL.PRF.3SG.M
l-liṣṣ-u
ART-thief.M-NOM
warāʾa
after
ǧidār-in
wall.M-GEN.IDEF
‘The thief hid behind a wall.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Stem V Reflexive
(200)
تختفى صديقي فترة طويلة
Iḫtafâ ṣadīqī fatratan ṭawīlatan.
iḫtafâ
hide.VIII.ACAUS/REFL.PRF.3SG.M
ṣadīq-ī
friend.M-1SG.NOM
fatrat-an
time.F-ACC.IDEF
ṭawīl-at-an
long-F-ACC.IDEF
‘My friend disappeared for a long time. / My friend is hidden for a long time. / My friend hides himself for a long time.’
HIDE an Alternation:
Stem VIII Reflexive
(201)
استصرخ زيد عمرا
Istaṣraḫa zaydun ʿamran.
istaṣraḫa
scream.X.CAUS.PRF.3SG.M
zayd-un
Zayd-NOM.IDEF
ʿamr-an
'Amr-ACC.IDEF
‘Zaid shouted " 'Amr". / Zaid called 'Amr to help.’
SCREAM the Verb form ṣaraḫa
(202)
حلق الرجل
Ḥalaqa rraǧulu.
ḥalaqa
shave.PRF.3SG.M
r-raǧul-u
ART-man.M-NOM
‘The man shaved.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
Object Omission Alternation
(203)
قال الرجل كلمة جميلة
Qāla rraǧulu kalimatan ǧamīlatan.
qāla
say.PRF.3SG.M
r-raǧul-u
ART-man.M-NOM
kalimat-an
word.F-ACC.IDEF
ǧamīl-at-an
nice-F-ACC.IDEF
‘The man said a nice word.’
SAY the Verb form qāla
(204)
ظهر رجل غريب في الباب
Ẓ̣ahara raǧulun ġarībun fī lbābi.
ẓahara
appear.PRF.3SG.M
raǧul-un
man.M-NOM.IDEF
ġarīb-un
strange-NOM.IDEF
in
l-bāb-i
ART-door.M-GEN
‘A strange man appeared in the door.’
APPEAR a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom
(205)
انقطع بصل
ʾInqaṭaʿat baṣalun.
ʾinqaṭaʿat
cut.VII.PASS.3SG.F
baṣal-un
onion.F.PL-NOM.IDEF
‘Onion has been cut.’
CUT an Alternation:
Stem VII Passive
(206)
أرى المعلم الأطفال الكتاب
ʾArâ lmuʿallimu lʾaṭfāla lkitāba.
ʾarâ
see.IV.CAUS.PRF.3SG.M
l-muʿallim-u
ART-teacher.M-NOM
l-ʾaṭfāl-a
ART-child.M.PL-ACC
l-kitāb-a
ART-book.M-ACC
‘The teacher showed the book to the children.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Theme / Recipient Alternation - Prepositional (li+ 'to') / Accusative Object
(207)
علم البنت النتاءج الامتحان
ʿAlimat albintu natāʾiǧa lʾimtiḥāni.
ʿalimat
know.PRF.3SG.F
al-bint-u
ART-girl.F-NOM
natāʾiǧ-a
result.F.PL-ACC
l-ʾimtiḥān-i
ART-exam.M-GEN
‘The girl knew the results of the exam.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom 2-acc
(208)
علم البنت بنتاءج الامتحان
ʿAlimat albitu binatāʾiǧi lʾimtiḥāni.
ʿalimat
know.PRF.3SG.F
al-bint-u
ART-girl.F-NOM
bi-natāʾiǧ-i
with-result.F.PL-GEN
l-ʾimtiḥān-i
ART-exam.M-GEN
‘The girl knew the results of the exam.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Prepositional (bi+) / Accusative object Alternation
(209)
سمع الولد بالاغنية
Samiʿa lwaladu bilʾuġniyati.
samiʿa
hear.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
bi-l-ʾuġniyat-i
with-ART-song.F-GEN
‘The boy heard about the song.’
HEAR an Alternation:
Prepositional (bi+) / Accusative object Alternation
(210)
عرف الولد بالبنت
ʿArifa lwaladu bilbinti.
ʿarifa
know.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
bi-l-bint-i
with-ART-girl.F-GEN
‘The boy knew about the girl.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Prepositional (bi+) / Accusative object Alternation
(211)
استتبع الشرطي المتظاهر
Istatbaʿa ššurṭiyu lmutaẓāhira.
istatbaʿa
follow.X.CAUS.PRF.3SG.M
š-šurṭiy-u
ART-policeman.M-NOM
l-mutaẓāhir-a
ART-protester.M-ACC
‘The policeman requested the protester to follow him.’
FOLLOW an Alternation:
Stem X Causative
(212)
تقاتل الجنود
Taqātala lǧunūdu.
taqātala
kill.VI.RECP.PRF.3SG.M
l-ǧunūd-u
ART-soldier.M.PL-NOM
‘The soldiers fought each other.’
KILL the Verb form qatala
(213)
انقطعت الحبل
Inqaṭaʿa lḥablu.
inqaṭaʿa
cut.VII.ACAUS.PRF.3SG.M
l-ḥabl-u
ART-rope.M-NOM
‘The rope tore.’
CUT an Alternation:
Stem VII Anticausative
(214)
انسصب الماء
Inṣabba lmāʾu ʿalâ lʾarḍi.
inṣabba
pour.VII.ACAUS.PRF.3SG.M
l-māʾ-u
ART-water.M-NOM
ʿalâ
on
l-ʾarḍ-i
ART-ground.F-GEN
‘The water poured on the ground.’
POUR an Alternation:
Stem VII Anticausative
(215)
اضطرب الأمواج
Iḍṭarabat alʾamwāǧu.
iḍṭarabat
hit.VIII.RECP.3SG.F
al-ʾamwāǧ-u
ART-wave.F.PL-NOM
‘The waves crushed.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Stem VIII Reciprocal
(216)
التقى الولدان
Iltaqâ lwaladāni.
iltaqâ
meet.VIII.RECP.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-āni
ART-boy.M-DU.NOM
‘The two boys met.’
MEET an Alternation:
Stem VIII Reciprocal
(217)
انطبجت الشربة بسرعة
Inṭabaḫat aššurbatu bisurʿatin.
inṭabaḫat
cook.VII.PASS.3SG.F
aš-šurbat-u
ART-soup.F-NOM
bi-surʿat-in
with-speed.F-GEN.IDEF
‘The soup was cooked quickly.’
COOK an Alternation:
Stem VII Passive
(218)
أكل الولد
ʾAkala l-walad-u.
ʾakala
eat.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
‘The boy ate.’
EAT an Alternation:
Object Omission Alternation
(219)
يحفر الولد
Yaḥfaru lwaladu.
yaḥfaru
dig.IPFV.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
‘The boy digs.’
DIG a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom
(220)
ينبش الولد
Yanbašu lwaladu.
yanbašu
dig.IPFV.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
‘The boy digs.’
DIG a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom
(221)
ينبش الولد حفرة بحثا عن خاتمه
Yanbašu lwaladu ḥafratan baḥt̠an ʿan ḫātimihi.
yanbašu
dig.IPFV.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
ḥafrat-an
trench.F-ACC.IDEF
baḥt̠-an
search.VN-ACC.IDEF
ʿan
about
ḫātim-i-hi
ring.M-GEN-3SG.M
‘The boy dug (by hand) a ditch, looking for his ring.’
DIG an Alternation:
Object Adding Alternation
(222)
سرق الرجل أمام عيوننا
Saraqa rraǧulu ʾamāma ʿuyūninā.
saraqa
steal.PRF.3SG.M
r-raǧul-u
ART-man.M-NOM
ʾamāma
in.front.of
ʿuyūn-i-nā
eye.F.PL-GEN-1PL
‘The man stole in front of our eyes.’
STEAL an Alternation:
Object Omission Alternation
(223)
طبخت الأم كل اليوم
Ṭabaḫat alʾummu kulla lyawmi.
ṭabaḫat
cook.PRF.3SG.F
al-ʾumm-u
ART-mother.F-NOM
kull-a
all-ACC
l-yawm-i
ART-day.M-GEN
‘The mother cooked all day.’
COOK an Alternation:
Object Omission Alternation
(224)
سرق اللس المرأة
Saraqa lliṣṣu lmarʾata.
saraqa
steal.PRF.3SG.M
l-liṣṣ-u
ART-thief.M-NOM
l-marʾat-a
ART-woman.F-ACC
‘The thief stole from the women.’
STEAL an Alternation:
Theme / Source Alternation - Prepositional (min+ 'from') Accusative Object
(225)
سرق الاس من المرأة
Saraqa lliṣṣu min almarʾati.
saraqa
steal.PRF.3SG.M
l-liṣṣ-u
ART-thief.M-NOM
min
from
al-marʾat-i
ART-woman.F-GEN
‘The thief stole from the woman.’
STEAL an Alternation:
Theme / Source Alternation - Prepositional (min+ 'from') Accusative Object
(226)
شعر الولد بالبرد
Šaʿara lwaladu bilbardi.
šaʿara
feel.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
bi-l-bard-i
with-ART-cold.M-GEN
‘The boy felt cold.’
FEEL COLD a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom
(227)
الولد صياد
Alwaladu ṣayyādun.
al-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
ṣayyād-un
hunter.M-NOM.IDEF
‘The boy is a hunter.’
BE A HUNTER a Coding frame:
V 1-nom
(228)
كان الولد صيادا
Kāna lwaladu ṣayyādan.
kāna
be.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
ṣayyād-an
hunter.M-ACC.IDEF
‘The boy was a hunter.’
BE A HUNTER a Coding frame:
V 1-nom
(229)
سيكون الولد صيادا
Sayakūnu lwaladu ṣayyādan.
sa-yakūnu
FUT-be.IPFV.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
ṣayyād-an
hunter.M-ACC.IDEF
‘The boy will be a hunter.’
BE A HUNTER a Coding frame:
V 1-nom
(230)
ليس الولد صيادا
Laysa lwaladu ṣayyādan.
laysa
be.NEG.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
ṣayyād-an
hunter.M-ACC.IDEF
‘The boy is not a hunter.’
BE A HUNTER a Coding frame:
V 1-nom
(231)
الولد جائع
Alwaladu ǧāʾiʿun.
al-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
ǧāʾiʿ-un
hungry-NOM.IDEF
‘The boy is hungry.’
BE HUNGRY a Coding frame:
V 1-nom
(232)
كان الولد جائعا
Kāna lwaladu ǧāʾiʿan.
kāna
be.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
ǧāʾiʿ-an
hungry-ACC.IDEF
‘The boy was hungry.’
BE HUNGRY the Verb form ǧāʾiʿun
(233)
سيكن الولد جائعا
Sayakūnu lwaladu ǧāʾiʿan.
sa-yakūnu
FUT-be.IPFV.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
ǧāʾiʿ-an
hungry-ACC.IDEF
‘The boy will be hungry.’
BE HUNGRY the Verb form ǧāʾiʿun
(234)
ليست البنت جائعتا
Laysat albintu ǧāʾiʿatan.
laysat
be.NEG.3SG.F
al-bint-u
ART-girl.F-NOM
ǧāʾiʿ-at-an
hungry-F-ACC.IDEF
‘The girl is not hungry.’
BE HUNGRY the Verb form ǧāʾiʿun
(235)
الملابس جافة
Almalābisu ǧāffatun.
al-malābis-u
ART-dress.F.PL-NOM
ǧāff-at-un
dry-F-NOM.IDEF
‘The clothes are dry.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
V 1-nom
(236)
كانت الملابس جافتا
Kānat lmalābisu ǧāffatan.
kānat
be.PRF.3SG.F
l-malābis-u
ART-dress.F.PL-NOM
ǧāff-at-an
dry-F-ACC.IDEF
‘The clothes were dry.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
V 1-nom
(237)
ستكون الملابس جافتا
Satakūnu lmalābisu ǧāffatan.
sa-takūnu
FUT-be.IPFV.3SG.F
l-malābis-u
ART-dress.F.PL-NOM
ǧāff-at-an
dry-F-ACC.IDEF
‘The clothes will be dry.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
V 1-nom
(238)
ليست الملابس جافتا
Laysat almalābisu ǧāffatan.
laysat
be.NEG.3SG.F
al-malābis-u
ART-dress.F.PL-NOM
ǧāff-at-an
dry-F-ACC.IDEF
‘The clothes are not dry.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
V 1-nom
(239)
الولد حزين
Alwaladu ḥazīnun.
al-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
ḥazīn-un
sad-NOM.IDEF
‘The boy is sad.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
V 1-nom
(240)
كان الولد حزينا
Kāna lwaladu ḥazīnan.
kāna
be.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
ḥazīn-an
sad-ACC.IDEF
‘The boy was sad.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
V 1-nom
(241)
سيكون الولد حزينا
Sayakūnu lwaladu ḥazīnan.
sa-yakūnu
FUT-be.IPFV.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
ḥazīn-an
sad-ACC.IDEF
‘The boy will be sad.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
V 1-nom
(242)
ليس الولد حزينا
Laysa lwaladu ḥazīnan.
laysa
be.NEG.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
ḥazīn-an
sad-ACC.IDEF
‘The boy is not sad.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
V 1-nom
(243)
البنت مريضة
Albintu marīḍatun.
al-bint-u
ART-girl.F-NOM
marīḍ-at-un
sick-F-NOM.IDEF
‘The girl is sick.’
BE ILL a Coding frame:
V 1-nom
(244)
كانت البنت مريضتا
Kānat albintu marīḍatan.
kānat
be.PRF.3SG.F
al-bint-u
ART-girl.F-NOM
marīḍ-at-an
sick-F-ACC.IDEF
‘The girl was sick.’
BE ILL a Coding frame:
V 1-nom
(245)
ستكون البنت مريضتا
Satakūnu lbintu marīḍatan.
sa-takūnu
FUT-be.IPFV.3SG.F
l-bint-u
ART-girl.F-NOM
marīḍ-at-an
sick-F-ACC.IDEF
‘The girl will be sick.’
BE ILL a Coding frame:
V 1-nom
(246)
ليست البنت مريضتا
Laysat albintu marīḍatan.
laysat
be.NEG.3SG.F
al-bint-u
ART-girl.F-NOM
marīḍ-at-an
sick-F-ACC.IDEF
‘The girl is not sick.’
BE ILL a Coding frame:
V 1-nom
(247)
جاء الولد بالكتاب إلى البنت
Ǧāʾa lwaladu bilkitābi ʾilâ lbinti.
ǧāʾa
come.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
bi-l-kitāb-i
with-ART-book.M-GEN
ʾilâ
to
l-bint-i
ART-girl.F-GEN
‘The boy brought the book to the girl.’
COME (2) an Alternation:
Caused Motion Alternation
(248)
جاء الولد إلى البنت
Ǧāʾa lwaladu ʾilâ lbinti.
ǧāʾa
come.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
ʾilâ
to
l-bint-i
ART-girl.F-GEN
‘The boy came to the girl.’
COME (2) a Coding frame:
V.subj[1] 1-nom ʾilâ+2
(249)
جاء الوبد البيت
Ǧāʾa lwaladu lbayta.
ǧāʾa
come.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
l-bayt-a
ART-house.M-ACC
‘The boy came to the house.’
COME (2) an Alternation:
Goal Alternation - Prepositional (ʾilâ+ 'to') / Accusative Object
(250)
ذهب الولد بالكتاب إلى البنت
D̠ahaba lwaladu bilkitābi ʾilâ lbinti.
d̠ahaba
go.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
bi-l-kitāb-i
with-ART-book.M-GEN
ʾilâ
to
l-bint-i
ART-girl.F-GEN
‘The boy brought the book to the girl. / The boy went with the book to the girl.’
GO an Alternation:
Caused Motion Alternation
(251)
جرى الولد بالكتاب إلى البنت
Ǧarâ lwaladu bilkitābi ʾilâ lbinti.
ǧarâ
run.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
bi-l-kitāb-i
with-ART-book.M-GEN
ʾilâ
to
l-bint-i
ART-girl.F-GEN
‘The boy brought the book to the girl. / The boy run with the book to the girl.’
RUN an Alternation:
Caused Motion Alternation
(252)
قال اللجل لصديقه إنه مريض
Qāla rraǧulu liṣadīqihi ʾinnahu marīḍun.
qāla
say.PRF.3SG.M
r-raǧul-u
ART-man.M-NOM
li-ṣadīq-i-hi
for-friend.M-GEN-3SG.M
ʾinna-hu
CONJ-3SG.M
marīḍ-un
sick-NOM.IDEF
‘The man told to his friend, that he is ill.’
SAY the Verb form qāla
(253)
غادر الولد من البيت
Ġādara lwaladu min albayti.
ġādara
leave.III.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
min-al-bayt-i
from-ART-house.M-GEN
‘The boy left the house.’
LEAVE an Alternation:
Prepositional (min 'from') / Accusative Object Alternation
(254)
خافت البنت
Ḫāfat albintu.
ḫāfat
fear.PRF.3SG.F
al-bint-u
ART-girl.F-NOM
‘The girl was afraid.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Object Omission Alternation
(255)
Ǧāʾa lwaladu bi-māʾin ʾilâ ʾaḫīhi.
ǧāʾa
come.PRF.3SG.M
l-walad-u
ART-boy.M-NOM
bi-māʾ-in
with-water.M-GEN.IDEF
ʾilâ
to
ʾaḫ-ī-hi
brother.M-GEN-3SG.M
‘The boy brought his brother water. /lit. The boy came with water to his brother.’
COME (2) an Alternation:
Caused Motion Alternation