an (SG) / oka (PL)

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Most Ainu verbs lack inherent aspectual characteristics, e.g. an EXIST.SG/APPEAR.SG(=become existing).

Coding frame

Complex Verb form

Examples

(145)
Tan kotan ta hempak pa ean ruwe an?
tan
this
kotan
village
ta
LOC
hempak
how.many
pa
year
e=an
2SG.S=exist.SG
ruwe
INF.EV
an
exist.SG
‘How many years have you lived in this village?’
(146)
Okkaypo tun pakno an ruwe ne noyne siran.
okkay-po
man-DIM
tu-n
two-thing.CL
pak-no
till-ADV
an
exist.SG
ruwe
INF.EV
ne
COP
noyne
seem
sir-an
ground/world-exist.SG
‘It seemed that there appeared two men (on the road).’

Verb meanings , Microroles , Coding sets and Argument types

# APPEAR LIVE Coding set Argument type
1 appearer liver subj.V S
2 appear location living place LOC L

Alternations

Alternation name Occurs Examples
C
N y
C
N y
C
R y
(325)
‘If (because of me) you are strongly criticized... / lit. If people's harsh voice exits towards you.’
C
R y
(324)
‘(You must live and come find me.) I have prayed to all of the Kamui living on the hunting fields.’
C
y
C
N y
C
N y
C
N y
C
N y
C
R y
(12)
‘Grandfather put the dish down on the ground.’