Examples of Ainu

Example Verb meaning Example of...
(1)
(Aekasi) cep aukosina p ne ápekor an pe... kasi wa amip kamure kane an.
a=ekasi
IND.A=grandfather
cep
fish
a=u-ko-sina
IND.A=REC-APPL.DAT-bind
p
NR
ne
COP
ápekor
as.if
an
exist.SG
pe
thing
kas-i
top-POSS
wa
ABL
amip
clothing
kamu-re
cover-CAUS
kane
while
an
exist.SG
‘(My grandfather) covered up something that looked like a bundle of fish with his clothing.’
COVER a Coding frame:
1 2 3 subj[1].obj[2].V
(2)
Ukamure.
u-kamu-re
REC-cover-CAUS
‘Lay one on top of another / (He/she) lays/laid (them/a thing) on top of another.’
COVER an Alternation:
Object-oriented reciprocal
(3)
Penampe chi-kurshutu kishma , tek kamure kane
Penampe ci kursutu kisma, tek kamure kane.
Penampe
Penampe
ci
penis
kursut-u
root-POSS
kisma
grab
tek
hand
kamu-re
cover-CAUS
kane
while
‘Penampe grabbed his penis and covered (it) with his hand.’
COVER a Coding frame:
1 2 3 subj[1].obj[2].V
(4)
Nea cep cip or ao.
nea
that
cep
fish
cip
boat
or
place
a=o
IND.A=put
‘She put the fish into the boat (and stood on the bow of the boat).’
LOAD a Coding frame:
1 2 3 subj[1].obj[2].V
(5)
Cikuni kotca ta seta asirkote wa an.
cikuni
tree
kotca
front
ta
LOC
seta
dog
a=sir-kot-e
IND.A=ground/world-be.attached.to-CAUS
wa
and
an
exist.SG
‘The dog is tied in front of the tree.’
TIE an Alternation:
Noun incorporation
(6)
Toan cikuni or un sirkote.
toan
that
cikuni
tree
or
place
un
ALL
sir-kot-e
ground/world-tie-CAUS
‘Tie (it) to the tree.’
TIE an Alternation:
Noun incorporation
(7)
Tar ari rekuci ansirkote hine.
tar
rope
ari
INST
rekut-i
throat-POSS
an=sir-kot-e
IND.A=ground/world-be.attached.to-CAUS
hine
and
‘(Since I cut his throat I could not carry him on my back, so) I tied his throat with a rope and (dragged him).’
TIE an Alternation:
Noun incorporation
(8)
Ratcako sum hene ponno oro ota wa uhuyka.
ratcako
lamp
sum
oil
hene
for.example
pon-no
little-ADV
or-o
place-POSS
o-ta
APPL.LOC-dig
wa
and
uhuy-ka
burn-CAUS
‘Pour at least some lamp oil there and light it.’
POUR an Alternation:
Direct causative
(9)
Amacirpehe ne a p, wakkata kusu pet or ta ran siri anukar yakun.
a=macirpe-he
IND.A=young.sister-POSS
ne
COP
a
PERF.SG
p
NR
wakka-ta
water-dig/draw
kusu
because
pet
river
or
place
ta
LOC
ran
descend.SG
siri
VIS.EV
a=nukar
IND.A=see
yak-un
if-COP
‘If I see my younger sister go down to the river to fetch some water...’
MEET the Verb form nukar
(10)
Sirkamure.
sir-kamu-re
ground/world-cover-CAUS
‘Cover ground with sth. / He/she covers/covered ground with it.’
COVER an Alternation:
Noun incorporation
(11)
Ayuputari ka posiresike.
a=yup-utar-i
IND.A=elder.brother-PL-POSS
ka
also
po-sir-e-sik-te
child-ground/world-APPL.INS-be.full-CAUS
‘My elder brothers also had many children.’
FILL the Verb form e-sik-te
(12)
Orano akor ekasi anak aoypepi sirka ta anu.
ora-no
then-ADV
a=kor
IND.A=have
ekasi
grandfather
anak
TOP
aoypepi
dish
sir-ka
ground/world-top
ta
LOC
an-u
exist.SG-CAUS
‘Grandfather put the dish down on the ground.’
PUT an Alternation:
Direct causative
(13)
Nea asikehe ape etok un anu. Oharkiso un aan.
nea
that
a=sike-he
IND.A=luggage-POSS
ape
fire
etok
front
un
ALL
an-u
exist.SG-CAUS
oharkiso
the.seat.to.the.left(south).of.the.hearth
un
ALL
a=an
sit.SG=IND.S
‘(The woman) placed my luggage at the upper seat of honor, and I sat at the lower seat of honor.’
PUT a Coding frame:
1 2 LOC3 subj[1].obj[2].V
(14)
Orowa mi pa p opitta akoanu hine.
or-o-wa
place-POSS-ABL
mi
wear
pa
PL
p
NR
opitta
all
a=ko-an-u
IND.A=APPL.DAT-exist.SG-CAUS
hine
and
‘I took off all her clothing (from her).’
PUT the Verb form an-u (SG) / ari (PL)
(15)
Sinnaycise eanu.
sinnay-cise
different-house
e-an-u
APPL.INS-exist.SG-CAUS
‘Put to a different house / He/she put him/her to a different house.’
PUT the Verb form an-u (SG) / ari (PL)
(16)
Akor ya asanke hine to kurka akoeyapkir.
a=kor
IND.A=have
ya
net
a=san-ke
IND.A=descend.SG-CAUS
hine
and
to
lake
kur-ka
shadow-top
a=ko-e-yapkir
IND.A=APPL.DAT-APPL.INS-throw
‘I took out my fish net and threw it to the lake.’
THROW an Alternation:
Dative applicative ko-
(17)
Panampe tane sioka un kunne katak eyapkir kusne.
Panampe
Panampe
tane
now
si-oka
REFL-behind
un
ALL
kunne
black
ka-tak
string-ball
e-yapkir
APPL.INS-throw
kus-ne
going.to-COP
‘Panampe was going to throw the ball of black string behind himself.’
THROW a Coding frame:
1 2 LOC3 subj[1].obj[2].V
(18)
Poro rokunto akar hine rokunto noski ta yayeyapkiran.
poro
big
rokunto
boat
a=kar
IND.A=make
hine
and
rokunto
boat
noski
middle
ta
LOC
yay-e-yapkir=an
REFL-APPL.INS-throw=IND.S
‘I made a big boat and threw myself to the middle of the boat.’
THROW an Alternation:
Reflexive
(19)
Pon cep ne korka arturere poka e=kor unarpe ko-ani wa ek.
pon
little
cep
fish
ne
COP
korka
but
arturere
half.POSS
poka
only
e=kor
2SG.A=have
unarpe
aunt
ko-ani
APPL.DAT-hold/carry.in.hands.SG
wa
and
ek
come.SG
‘It is a little fish but bring at least half of it to your grandmother.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1 2 3 subj[1].obj[2].V
(20)
Kon-kani pon ku kon-kani pon ay ci=uko-ani.
kon-kani
gold-metal
pon
little
ku
bow
kon-kani
gold-metal
pon
little
ay
arrow
ci=uko-ani
1PL.EXC.A=SOC-hold/carry.in.hands.SG
‘I (a god) took into my hands a small gold bow and a small gold arrow together.’
BRING the Verb form ko-ani (SG) / ko-anpa (PL)
(21)
Keraan pe ukoani.
keraan
be.delicious
pe
NR
u-ko-ani
REC-APPL.DAT-hold/carry.in.hands.SG
‘(They) brought delicious things to each other.’
BRING an Alternation:
Subject-oriented reciprocal
(22)
Ukoani.
uko-ani
SOC-hold/carry.in.hands.SG
‘They brought it together.’
BRING the Verb form ko-ani (SG) / ko-anpa (PL)
(23)
Kuneywa isimne an akusu ayuputari sorekusu cip sikno kane cep kor wa arki pa.
kuneywa
in.the.morning
isimne
next.day
an
exist.SG
akusu
then
a=yup-utar-i
IND.A=elder.brother-PL-POSS
sorekusu
especially
cip
boat
sik-no
be.full-ADV
kane
while
cep
fish
kor
have
wa
and
arki
come.PL
pa
PL
‘The next morning, older brothers brought home a boatful of fish.’
BRING a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(24)
Anna anak wakka kor wa ek, wa en=kore.
Anna
Anna
anak
TOP
wakka
water
kor
have
wa
and
ek
come.SG
wa
and
en=kor-e
1SG.O=have-CAUS
‘Anna brought me some water. /lit. Anna brought water and gave it to me.’
BRING the Verb form kor wa ek (SG) / arki (PL)
(25)
Aynu nimara Iskar emko kor nispa eun nea nispa kor pa p opitta rura pa.
aynu
human/Ainu
nimar-a
half-POSS
Iskar
Ishikari
emko
upstream
kor
have
nispa
rich.man
eun
DAT
nea
that
nispa
rich.man
kor
have
pa
PL
p
NR
opitta
all
rúra
carry
pa
PL
‘The (remaining) half of the Ainu carried all of that rich man’s belongings to the the rich man at Upstream Ishikari.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1 2+(e)un 3 subj[1].obj[3].V
(26)
Aynurakkur kamuy akarku an kusukeraypo akor turesi aikorura.
Aynurakkur
Ainurakkur
kamuy
god
a=karku
IND.A=nephew.POSS
an
exist.SG
kusu-keray-po
because-by.favour.of-DIM
a=kor
IND.A=have
turesi
younger.sister
a=i=ko-rura
IND.A=IND.O=APPL.DAT-carry
‘Thanks to my divine nephew Ainurakkur my younger sister has been carried to me.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Dative applicative ko-
(27)
Nea kotan pa un nispa macihi ewtanne kur, kotan pa un kur uni o p yayteknata cip or un rura.
nea
that
kotan
village
pa
upper.part
un
belong.to
nispa
rich.man
mac-ihi
wife-POSS
e-utar-ne
APPL.INS-kin-COP
kur
man
kotan
village
pa
upper.part
un
belong.to
kur
man
uni
house
o
put.in
p
NR
yayteknata
by.onself
cip
boat
or
place
un
ALL
rúra
carry
‘The man who married the wife of the elder from above the village carried the things from the house of the man from above the village to his boat.’
CARRY a Coding frame:
1 2+(e)un 3 subj[1].obj[3].V
(28)
Konto cepruraan.
konto
then
cep-rura=an
fish-carry=IND.S
‘Then I carried the fish.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Noun incorporation
(29)
Konto kotan kor utar ne yakka apumakore pa wa irura pa.
konto
then
kotan
village
kor
have
utar
PL
ne
COP
yak-ka
if-even
a=puma-kor-e
IND.A=wage-have-CAUS
pa
PL
wa
and
i-rura
APASS-carry
pa
PL
‘(I carried the things that the wise man had owned.) Then I paid the villagers and they carried (the things).’
CARRY an Alternation:
Antipassive
(30)
Ukorura.
uko-rura
SOC-carry
‘Bring sth/sb together. / He/She brought them together.’
CARRY the Verb form rúra
(31)
Ito enumitanne nesko ukorura.
Ito
Ito
enumitanne
honeysuckle
nesko
walnut
uko-rura
SOC-carry
‘Ito carried honeysuckle and walnut together.’
CARRY the Verb form rúra
(32)
Akon yupi siknure wa akor kotanu akor casi orura wa ikorpare yan.
a=kor
IND.A=have
yup-i
elder.brother-POSS
siknu-re
save-CAUS
wa
and
a=kor
IND.A=have
kotan-u
village-POSS
a=kor
IND.A=have
casi
castle
o-rura
APPL.LOC-carry
wa
and
i=kor-pa-re
IND.O=have-PL-CAUS
yan
IMP.POL
‘Please for my sake save my brother and carry him to my village and my castle.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Locative applicative o-
(33)
Seta oyakata eun arpare.
seta
dog
oyakata
master
eun
DAT
arpa-re
go.SG-CAUS
‘(He instructed us to) send him to the dog master.’
SEND an Alternation:
Direct causative
(34)
Ora suy mosirkarkamuy eun, sonkopayere hawe ene an hi.
ora
then
suy
again
mosir-kar-kamuy
world-make-god
eun
DAT
sonko-paye-re
message-go.PL-CAUS
hawe
REP.EV
ene
like.this
an
exist.SG
hi
NR
‘Then they send the following message to the world-creator god.’
SEND an Alternation:
Noun incorporation
(35)
Anna ninup enkore.
Anna
Anna
ninup
sewing
en=kor-e
1SG.O=have-CAUS
‘Anna gave me a sewing (lit. let me have a sewing).’
GIVE a Coding frame:
1 2 3 subj[1].obj[2].V
(36)
Itura utar apumakore sinep sinep ki ruwe ne hine ase.
i=tura
IND.O=accompany
utar
people
a=puma-kor-e
IND.A=wage-have-CAUS
sinep
one.thing.CL
sinep
one.thing.CL
ki
do.AUX
ruwe
INF.EV
ne
COP
hine
and
a=se
IND.A=carry
‘We paid each person who came with us to carry the things down.’
GIVE the Verb form kor-e (SG)/kor-pa-re (PL)
(37)
Akor ninup Anna kor ninup, aukorpare.
a=kor
IND.A=have
ninup
sewing
Anna
Anna
kor
have
ninup
sewing
a=u-kor-pa-re
IND.A=REC-have-PL-CAUS
‘As to my sewing and Anna’s sewing, we (you and I) gave (them) to each other (lit. let each other have them).’
GIVE an Alternation:
Subject-oriented reciprocal
(38)
Epon hi wano aeciukore kunihi aye kor okaan ruwe ne.
e=pon
2SG.S=little
hi
time
wa-no
ABL-ADV
a=eci=u-kor-e
IND.A=2PL.O=REC-have-CAUS
kuni-hi
going.to-COMP
a=ye
IND.A=say
kor
and
oka=an
exist.PL=IND.S
ruwe
INF.EV
ne
COP
‘Since your childhood we agreed to give you (as bride and bridegroom) to each other, and so we live (lit. let you have each other).’
GIVE an Alternation:
Object-oriented reciprocal
(39)
Mokor uske ecinukare kusne na.
mokor
sleep
usi-ke
place-POSS
eci=nukar-e
1SG.A+2SG.O=see-CAUS
kusu-ne
going.to-COP
na
FIN
‘I will show you the bed.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1 2 3 subj[1].obj[2].V
(40)
Apoutari aacautari anukare somo ki yak wen kusu ...
a=po-utar-i
IND.A=child-PL-POSS
a=aca-utar-i
IND.A=uncle-PL-POSS
a=nukar-e
IND.A=see-CAUS
somo
NEG
ki
do.AUX
yak
if
wen
be.bad
kusu
because
‘We had to show our children to uncles, so...’
SHOW an Alternation:
Direct causative
(41)
Kamuy ka neno ainukare, eani ka neno ainukare ruwe ne na.
kamuy
god
ka
also
ne-no
COP-ADV
a=i=nukar-e
IND.A=IND.O=see-CAUS
eani
2SG
ka
also
ne-no
COP-ADV
a=i=nukar-e
IND.A=IND.O=see-CAUS
ruwe
INF.EV
ne
COP
na
FIN
‘(I did not swallow snakes.) I have just shown myself like this to the gods, I have shown myself like this to you.’
SHOW a Coding frame:
1 2 3 subj[1].obj[2].V
(42)
Anna huci matanpusi unukare.
Anna
Anna
huci
grandmother
matanpusi
headband
u-nukar-e
REC-see-CAUS
‘Anna and granny showed each other their headbands.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Subject-oriented reciprocal
(43)
Iteki sikunnukare!
iteki
PROH
si-kur-nukar-e
REFL-appearance-see-CAUS
‘Don't show me to him (lit. Don't let him see my appearance!)!’
SHOW an Alternation:
Noun incorporation
(44)
Paycar sey kuytop sinukare wa kinno.
paycar
March
sey
shell.fish
kuytop
wild.goose
si-nukar-e
REFL-see-CAUS
wa
and
kinno
be.fat
‘In March, the shell fish wanted to show itself to the wild goose and got fat.’
SHOW an Alternation:
Reflexive
(45)
Okikurmi aynu pito esinukare ki rok oka?
Okikurmi
Okikurmi
aynu
human/Ainu
pito
god
e=si-nukar-e
2SG.A=REFL-see-CAUS
ki
do.AUX
rok
PERF.PL
oka
exist.PL
‘Have you shown your nude body (lit. yourself) to the human god Okikurmi?’
SHOW an Alternation:
Reflexive
(46)
Matkaci saranip sucihi konuyna.
matkaci
girl
saranip
basket
sut-ihi
grandmother-POSS
ko-nuyna
APPL.DAT-hide
‘The girl hid the basket from her grandmother.’
HIDE a Coding frame:
1 2 3 subj[1].obj[2].V
(47)
Aosoro ne usi asapaha ne usi ayaykonuyna.
a=osor-o
IND.A=buttock-POSS
ne
COP
usi
place.POSS
a=sapa-ha
IND.A=head-POSS
ne
COP
usi
place.POSS
a=yay-ko-nuyna
IND.A=REFL-APPL.DAT-hide
‘I hid my buttocks and head by pulling them to my body (lit. hid at myself).’
HIDE the Verb form ko-nuyna
(48)
Ahokuhu ka tepaha ka mipihi ka akososo kuni.
a=hoku-hu
IND.A=husband-POSS
ka
also
tepa-ha
loincloth-POSS
ka
also
mi-p-ihi
wear-NR-POSS
ka
also
a=ko-sos-o
IND.A=APPL.DAT-peel-CAUS
kun-i
going.to-COMP
‘(I sang) that I would take from my husband his loincloth and clothes.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Dative applicative ko-
(49)
Munihi anuwenuwe akerkeri wa soy ao.
mun-ihi
rubbish-POSS
a=nu-w-e-nu-w-e
IND.A=sweep-EP-CAUS-sweep-EP-CAUS
a=ker-keri
IND.A=scrap-scrap
wa
and
soy
outside
a=o
IND.A=put.in.PL
‘I vigorously swept the rubbish and scrapped it and took it off outside.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(50)
Cise onnay anuwenuwe apirupiru.
cise
house
onnay
inside
a=nu-w-e-nu-w-e
IND.A=wipe-EP-CAUS-sweep-EP-CAUS
a=pir-u-pir-u
IND.A=wipe-CAUS-wipe-CAUS
‘I swept and wiped inside the house with all my might.’
WIPE a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(51)
Orowa iahunke kuni menoko munnuwe humi as.
orowa
then
i=ahun-ke
IND.O=enter.SG-CAUS
kuni
in.order
menoko
woman
mun-nu-w-e
rubbish-wipe-EP-CAUS
humi
NONVIS.EV
as
stand.SG
‘Then it sounded as if, in order to let me in, the woman was sweeping.’
WIPE the Verb form nu-w-e (SG)/nú-pa (PL)
(52)
Surku kamuy utar ka teyne pokna mosir akonuwe kusu ne sekor haweanan.
surku
aconite
kamuy
god
utar
PL
ka
also
teyne
be.wet
pokna
be.low
mosir
world
a=ko-nu-w-e
IND.A=APPL.DAT-wipe-EP-CAUS
kusu
in.order
ne
COP
sekor
QUOT
hawean=an
say.SG=IND.S
‘We wished that the Aconite-poison gods would be wiped away to hell (=wet low country).’
WIPE an Alternation:
Dative applicative ko-
(53)
Inuwe wenpe.
i-nu-w-e
APASS-wipe-EP-CAUS
wen-pe
be.bad-thing
‘Total devastation by war [or flood].’
WIPE an Alternation:
Antipassive
(54)
Toan nitek noko ani tuye yan.
toan
that
ni-tek
tree/wood-hand
noko
saw
ani
INST
tuy-e
cut-CAUS
yan
IMP.POL
‘Cut that branch with a saw.’
CUT a Coding frame:
1 2 (3+ani) subj[1].obj[2].V
(55)
Aramu rok pe... apaotki ne manu p emus etuye.
a=ramu
IND.A=think
rok
PERF.PL
pe
NR
apa-otki
door-attach.to.bamboo.blind
ne
COP
manu
called
p
NR
emus
sword
e-tuy-e
APPL.INS-cut-CAUS
‘The man I was thinking about...cut the thing called a door bamboo blind with a sword.’
CUT the Verb form tuy-e (SG) / tuy-pa (PL)
(56)
Aynu utar cep ronnu kor munin cikuni ani kikkikpa.
aynu
human/Ainu
utar
PL
cep
fish
ronnu
kill.PL
kor
while
munin
be.rotten
cikuni
tree
ani
INST
kik-kik-pa
hit-hit-PL
‘To kill fish the Ainu hit it repeatedly with a piece of rotten wood.’
BEAT a Coding frame:
1 2 (3+ani) subj[1].obj[2].V
(57)
Mimtuci ukokikkik hine rayke ruwe ene an hi ne.
mimtuci
mermaid
uko-kik-kik
SOC-beat-beat
hine
and
ray-ke
die-CAUS
ruwe
INF.EV
ene
like.this
an
exist.SG
hi
NR
ne
COP
‘They have beaten the mermaid altogether and killed him.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Direct causative
(58)
Ne hekattar aukokikkik aukoronnu anki yaynuan a korka.
ne
this
hekattar
children
a=uko-kik-kik
IND.A=SOC-beat-beat
a=uko-ronnu
IND.A=SOC-kill.PL
anki
be.close.to
yay-nu=an
REFL-hear=IND.S
a
PERF.SG
korka
but
‘I thought I was close to smashing and killing these children altogether.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Reflexive
(59)
Anteke ni anekikkik.
an=tek-e
IND.A=hand-POSS
ni
tree/wood
an=e-kik-kik
IND.A=APPL.INS-beat-beat
‘I repeatedly struck my hand on the tree (because I killed my brothers).’
BEAT an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative e-
(60)
Yaykikkikan hopunpaan hine.
yay-kik-kik=an
REFL-beat-beat=IND.A
hopunpa=an
jump.PL=IND.S
hine
and
‘I hit myself repeatedly and jumped.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Reflexive
(61)
Emus hene tasiro hene ruyke wa, ani (aresu cape) rayke.
emus
sword
hene
also
tasiro
knife
hene
also
ruyke
sharpen
wa
and
ani
INST
a=resu
IND.A=raise
cape
cat
ray-ke
die-CAUS
‘Sharpen your sword and your mountain knife, and kill the cat (that we used to have) with them.’
KILL an Alternation:
Direct causative
(62)
Tumikor wa urayke.
tumi-kor
war-have
wa
and
u-ray-ke
REC-die-CAUS
‘Fight and kill each other.’
KILL an Alternation:
Subject-oriented reciprocal
(63)
Aiukorayke.
a=i=uko-ray-ke
IND.A=IND.O=SOC-die-CAUS
‘(I felt) I will be killed (by my siblings and parents).’
KILL the Verb form ray-ke (SG) / ronnu (PL)
(64)
Yayrayke.
yay-ray-ke
REFL-die-CAUS
‘Kill oneself. / He/she killed himself/herself.’
KILL an Alternation:
Reflexive
(65)
Ahunan pakno (ni ani) cip puta aperpa ruwe ne.
ahun=an
enter.SG=IND.S
pak-no
till-ADV
ni
tree/wood
ani
INST
cip
boat
puta
lid
a=per-pa
IND.A=break-PL
ruwe
INF.EV
ne
COP
‘He broke the boat lids (with the stick) until (it was possible) to enter them.’
BREAK a Coding frame:
1 2 (3+ani) subj[1].obj[2].V
(66)
Kumi p perke.
ku=mi
1SG.A=wear
p
NR
per-ke
break-ACAUS
‘My garment is torn.’
BREAK an Alternation:
Anticausative
(67)
Oro ta asucihi tasiro ani ki mose wa ani pon cise kar.
or-o
place-POSS
ta
LOC
a=sut-ihi
IND.A=grandmother-POSS
tasiro
knife
ani
INST
ki
reeds
mose
mow
wa
and
ani
INST
pon
little
cise
house
kar
make
‘Grandmother then cut reed grass with her mountain knife and built a small house with that reed grass where they lived.’
BUILD a Coding frame:
1 2 (3+ani) subj[1].obj[2].V
(68)
Orano te ta cisekaran.
or-o-no
place-POSS-ADV
te
here
ta
LOC
cise-kar=an
house-make=IND.S
‘So, I built a house here.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Noun incorporation
(69)
Ene okay noya pon ay nep aekar pe ta an a?
ene
like.this
okay
exist.PL
noya
mugwort
pon
little
ay
arrow
nep
what
a=e-kar
IND.A=APPL.INS-make
pe
NR
ta
EMP
an
exist.SG
a
FIN
‘What do you use for this these small mugwort arrows?’
BUILD an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative e-
(70)
Anan hi, nea pon menoko, ahokuhu eun ye noyne.
an=an
exist.SG=IND.S
hi
NR
nea
that
pon
young
menoko
woman
a=hoku-hu
IND.A=husband-POSS
eun
DAT
ye
say
noyne
seem
‘It seemed that that young woman said to my husband that I was (there).’
NAME a Coding frame:
1 2+(e)un 3 subj[1].obj[3].V
(71)
Uye.
u-ye
REC-say
‘They quarreled with each other.’
NAME an Alternation:
Subject-oriented reciprocal
(72)
Sinrit oruspe anenure na.
sinrit
ancestor
oruspe
story
an=e=nu-re
IND.A=2SG.O=hear-CAUS
na
FIN
‘I will tell you the story of the ancestors.’
TELL an Alternation:
Direct causative
(73)
Nea poniwne noyne an okkaypo … aep su esikte pa.
nea
that
pon-iw-ne
young-human-COP
noyne
seem
an
exist.SG
okkay
man
aep
food
su
pot
e-sik-te
APPL.INS-be.full-CAUS
pa
PL
‘That younger man …filled the pot with food (to cook it).’
FILL a Coding frame:
1 2 3 subj[1].obj[2].V
(74)
Aeinure.
a=e=i-nu-re
IND.A=2SG.O=APASS-hear-CAUS
‘You will be notified.’
TELL an Alternation:
Antipassive
(75)
Kamuy or wa okamkir ene aeyaynure.
kamuy
god
or
place
wa
ABL
okamkir
on.purpose
ene
like.this
a=e=yay-nu-re
IND.A=2SG.O=REFL-hear-CAUS
‘I made you think that I am a god on purpose.’
TELL an Alternation:
Reflexive
(76)
Tomesan peci Sinutapka ekotankor kur aynu nispa a=sonkonure kusu keraypo...
Tomesan
Tomesan
pet-i
river-POSS
Sinutapka
Sinutapka
e-kotan-kor
APPL.INS-village-have
kur
man
aynu
human/Ainu
nispa
rich.man
a=sonko-nu-re
IND.A=message-hear-CAUS
kusu
because
keraypo
thanks
‘Thanks to my sending message to the Ainu rich man, a village chief of Shinutapka at Tomesan river...’
TELL an Alternation:
Noun incorporation
(77)
Cise kor tono umurek… usa okay pe iekoysoytak.
cise
house
kor
have
tono
master
umurek
couple
usa
various
okay
exist.PL
pe
NR
i=e-ko-isoytak
IND.O=APPL.INS-APPL.DAT-tell.story
‘The couple of the master of the house told me stories about various things.’
TELL a Coding frame:
1 2 3 subj[1].obj[2].V
(78)
Nep ka kamuy oruspe hene teeta aynu oruspe hene aewkoysoytak wa.
nep
what
ka
also
kamuy
god
oruspe
story
hene
even
teeta
old.times
aynu
human/Ainu
oruspe
story
hene
even
a=e-u-ko-isoytak
IND.A=APPL.INS-REC-APPL.DAT-tell.story
wa
and
‘We told to each other various stories about gods and about the Ainu of the past.’
TELL an Alternation:
Subject-oriented reciprocal
(79)
Ataye aenkotak kor kan.
atay-e
payment-POSS
a=en=ko-tak
IND.A=1SG.O=APPL.DAT-call/invite/get
kor
and
k=an
1SG.S=exist.SG
‘They are asking me for the payment (lit. 'the payment for (it)' as is expressed by the possessive marking).’
ASK FOR a Coding frame:
1 2 3 subj[1].obj[2].V
(80)
Piskan kotan oro un nispa utar rametok utar sikotak ranke ronno wa isam.
piskan
around
kotan
village
or-o
place-POSS
un
ALL
nispa
rich.man
utar
PL
rametok
brave.man
utar
PL
si-ko-tak
REFL-APPL.DAT-call/invite/get
ranke
HAB
ronno
kill.PL
wa
and
isam
not.exist
‘Each time he invited to his place (lit. to him) rich men and brave men from surounding villages, he killed them.’
ASK FOR an Alternation:
Reflexive
(81)
Sekor okay pe nesi iekoytak.
sekor
QUOT
okay
exist.PL
pe
NR
nesi
really
i=e-ko-itak
IND.O=APPL.INS-APPL.DAT-say/talk
‘He really talked to me about these matters.’
TALK a Coding frame:
1 2 3 subj[1].obj[2].V
(82)
Iramante oruspe sorekusu aeukoytak pa.
iramante
hunt
oruspe
story
sorekusu
especially
a=e-u-ko-itak
IND.A=APPL.INS-REC-APPL.DAT-say/talk
pa
PL
‘(At night, we would gather and) and talk about hunting and other things.’
TALK the Verb form e-ko-itak
(83)
Ora Iskar emkoho kor okkaypo utar iamkir pa p ne.
ora
then
Iskar
Ishikari
emko-ho
upstream-POSS
kor
and
okkay-po
man-DIM
utar
PL
i=amkir
IND.O=know
pa
PL
p
NR
ne
COP
‘Even the youngsters from Upstream Ishikari knew me.’
KNOW a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(84)
Yayamkir.
yay-amkir
REFL-know
‘Know yourself! (imperative) / He/she knows him/herself.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Reflexive
(85)
Payean ciki esiramkir ya?
paye=an
go.PL=IND.S
ciki
if
e=sir-amkir
2SG.S=ground/world-know
ya
Q
‘Do you remember the way if we were to go there?’
KNOW the Verb form amkir
(86)
Ekasi húci nukar.
ekasi
grandfather
húci
grandmother
nukar
see
‘Grandfather saw grandmother.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(87)
Re pa ka somo unukaran a wa.
re
three
pa
year
ka
even
somo
NEG
u-nukar=an
REC-see=exist.SG
a
PERF.SG
wa
FIN
‘We haven't seen each other for three years.’
MEET an Alternation:
Subject-oriented reciprocal
(88)
Konukar.
ko-nukar
APPL.DAT-see
‘Compare sth with sth / he/she compares sth with sth.’
MEET an Alternation:
Dative applicative ko-
(89)
Ni ka un inkar wa inukar.
ni
tree/wood
ka
top
un
ALL
inkar
look
wa
and
i=nukar
IND.O=see
‘The pup looked up at the tree and then looked at me.’
MEET an Alternation:
Antipassive
(90)
Ponpetteksama aoinkar kor pon pet etoko un arpaan.
pon-pet-teksam-a
little-river-near-side.of
a=o-inkar
IND.A=APPL.LOC-look
kor
and
pon
little
pet
river
etok-o
source-POSS
un
ALL
arpa=an
go.SG=IND.S
‘As I looked at the side of (this) little river, I went to the source of (this) little river.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Locative applicative o-
(91)
Wakkaus kamuy ratcitara payekaas kuni enkoinkar yan!
wakka-us
water-attach
kamuy
god
ratcitara
peacefully
payeka=as
travel=1PL.EXC.S
kuni
COMP
en=ko-inkar
1SG.O=APPL.DAT-look
yan
IMP.POL
‘Water goddess! Please please protect us in our trip!’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Dative applicative ko-
(92)
Enkimatekka.
en=kimatek-ka
1SG.O=be.surprised-CAUS
‘He frightened me.’
FRIGHTEN a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(93)
Ekimatekka.
e-kimatek-ka
APPL.INS-be.surprised-CAUS
‘Hurry somebody about something.’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative e-
(94)
Autari utar ukimatekka.
a=utar-i
IND.A=people-POSS
utar
PL
u-kimatek-ka
REC-be.surprised-CAUS
‘Our people had a great fuss.’
FRIGHTEN the Verb form kimatek-ka
(95)
Tane kimun kamuy ka isitoma.
tane
now
kim-un
mountain-belong.to
kamuy
god
ka
also
i=sitoma
IND.O=fear
‘That bear is afraid of me as well.’
FEAR a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(96)
Aynu opitta... akositoma wa.
aynu
human/Ainu
opitta
all
a=ko-sitoma
IND.A=APPL.DAT-fear
wa
and
‘All the Ainu are afraid of (smallpox from a smallpox god).’
FEAR an Alternation:
Dative applicative ko-
(97)
Wen kamuy ne wa ausitomare kor siran pe ne a p.
wen
be.bad
kamuy
god
ne
COP
wa
and
a=u-sitoma-re
IND.A=REC-fear-CAUS
kor
and
sir-an
ground/world-exist.SG
pe
NR
ne
COP
a
PERF.SG
p
NR
‘It is an evil god, so we are altogether afraid of him.’
FEAR the Verb form sitoma
(98)
Wen kur sani, ne hi iyekoyki, pe ne kusu po hene yaysitomaan wa.
wen
bad
kur
person
san-i
descendant-POSS
ne
COP
hi
COMP
i=y-e-koyki
IND.O=EP-APPL.INS-bully
pe
NR
ne
COP
kusu
because
po
still.more
hene
even
yay-sitoma=an
REFL-fear=IND.S
wa
and
‘I felt even more ashamed because they bullied me that I was the descendant of a poor/bad person / lit. bullied that she is the descendant of a poor/bad person.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Reflexive
(99)
Ohaw eeramasu ya?
ohaw
soup
e=eramasu
2SG.A=like
ya
Q
‘Do you like soup?’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(100)
Sisamutari katkemat eneramasuy pe ka okay.
sisam-utar-i
Japanese-people-POSS
katkemat
married.woman
en=eramasuy
1SG.O=like
pe
NR
ka
also
okay
exist.PL
‘(Among) the Japanese women, there were those who liked me.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(101)
Uweramasu.
u-w-eramasu
REC-EP-like
‘(They) like each other/sleep.’
LIKE an Alternation:
Subject-oriented reciprocal
(102)
Akor huci akor ekasi earkinne iomap wa.
a=kor
IND.A=have
huci
grandmother
a=kor
IND.A=have
ekasi
grandfather
earkinne
very
i=omap
IND.O=love
wa
and
‘Grandfather and grandmother loved me dearly.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(103)
Uwomap siri!
u-w-omap
REC-EP-love
siri
VIS.EV
‘It seems that children play with each other as friends!’
LIKE an Alternation:
Subject-oriented reciprocal
(104)
Ayuputari anak yaykata poutari omap ka somo ki no a poutari patek ikoomap pa.
a=yup-utar-i
IND.A=elder.brother-PL-POSS
anak
TOP
yaykata
oneself
po-utar-i
child-PL-POSS
omap
love
ka
even
somo
NEG
ki
do.AUX
no
and
a=po-utar-i
IND.A=child-PL-POSS
patek
only
i=ko-omap
IND.O=APPL.DAT-love
pa
PL
‘The brothers ignored their own children, and adored only my child.’
LIKE an Alternation:
Dative applicative ko-
(105)
Ponan hi epitta ayuputari asaha iukoomap kor okaan.
pon=an
little=IND.S
hi
NR
epitta
throughout
a=yup-utar-i
IND.A=elder.brother-PL-POSS
a=sa-ha
IND.A=elder.sister-POSS
i=uko-omap
IND.O=SOC-love
kor
and
oka=an
exist.PL=IND.A
‘Throughout my childhood, my elder brother and sister cared for me, and so we lived.’
LIKE the Verb form omap
(106)
Ecinukar rusuy kusu te ta ecihunara.
eci=nukar
1SG.A+2SG.O=see
rusuy
DESID
kusu
because
te
here
ta
LOC
eci=hunara
1SG.A+2SG.O=search
‘I was searching for you here, because I wanted to meet you.’
SEARCH FOR a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(107)
Aynuhunaraan kusu sanan a p.
aynu-hunara=an
human/Ainu-search=IND.S
kusu
because
san=an
descend.SG=IND.S
a
PERF.SG
p
but
‘I came down the mountain looking for people (and found this house).’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Noun incorporation
(108)
Kasi peka kuinkar wa kuihunara.
kas-i
top-POSS
peka
TRV
ku=inkar
1SG.S=look
wa
and
ku=i-hunara
1SG.S=APASS-search
‘I search looking on top of this (but did not notice it).’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Antipassive
(109)
ア・オナハ アナクネ シノ イソンクル ネ プ ネ クス
Aonaha anakne isonkur ne p ne kusu.
a=ona-ha
IND.A=father-POSS
anak-ne
TOP-COP
ison-kur
be.successful.in.a.hunt-man
ne
COP
p
NR
ne
COP
kusu
because
‘My father was a really good hunter, (so everyday he brought as game a deer or bear).’
BE A HUNTER a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(110)
Kamuy aonaha anukar nani itakan pe ne kusu.
kamuy
god
a=ona-ha
IND.A=father-POSS
a=nukar
IND.A=see
nani
immediately
itak=an
say/talk=IND.S
pe
NR
ne
COP
kusu
because
‘(I was now able to speak. ) I had met the kamui father and had immediately been able to speak.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(111)
Enos ek kor an.
en=os
1SG.O=behind
ek
come.SG
kor
and
an
exist.SG
‘He/She is following me.’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(112)
Nen kane eos nen ka arki yak wen kusu...
nen
who
ka
even
ne
COP
e=os
2SG.O=behind
nen
who
ka
even
arki
come.PL
yak
if
wen
bad
kusu
because
‘In any way, no one must follow you, so...’
FOLLOW a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(113)
Orano asaha ka akasuy.
orano
then
a=sa-ha
IND.A=older.sister-POSS
ka
also
a=kasuy
IND.A=help
‘(Older sister went down and started to gather firewood.) Then I helped older sister.’
HELP a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(114)
Asautarihi nep ka aekasuy ka somo ki no.
a=sa-utar-ihi
IND.A=older.sister-PL-POSS
nep
what
ka
even
a=e-kasuy
IND.A=APPL.INS-help
ka
even
somo
NEG
ki
do.AUX
no
and
‘I did not help my sisters with anything.’
HELP an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative e-
(115)
Ukuran wano arpa wa ikasuy kor an.
ukuran
evening
wa-no
ABL-ADV
arpa
go.SG
wa
and
i-kasuy
APASS-help
kor
and
an
exist.SG
‘(Our grandmother) from evening went (to the place where a wife had died) and is helping there.’
HELP an Alternation:
Antipassive
(116)
Cep supa kur cep supa kam supa kur kam supa kane ukasuy hine.
cep
fish
supa
cook.PL
kur
man
cep
fish
supa
cook.PL
kam
meat
supa
cook.PL
kur
man
kam
meat
supa
cook.PL
kane
and
u-kasuy
REC-help
hine
and
‘A man responsible for cooking fish cooked fish, and a man responsible for cooking meat cooked meat, and so they helped each other.’
HELP an Alternation:
Subject-oriented reciprocal
(117)
Yaykasuy.
yay-kasuy
REFL-help
‘Help oneself, be(come) independent / he/she helped himself/herself, be(came) independent.’
HELP an Alternation:
Reflexive
(118)
Hemanta ee rusuy?
hemanta
what
e=e
2SG.A=eat
rusuy
DESID
‘What do you want to eat?’
EAT a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(119)
Asaha suke hine ipean pa ruwe ne.
a=sa-ha
IND.A=older.sister-POSS
suke
cook.SG
hine
and
i-p-e=an
APASS-EP-eat=IND.S
pa
PL
ruwe
INF.EV
ne
COP
‘Older sister had prepared dinner, so we ate dinner.’
EAT an Alternation:
Antipassive
(120)
Ue.
u-e
REC-eat
‘Practice cannibalism.’
EAT an Alternation:
Subject-oriented reciprocal
(121)
Kotanu utar yuk cikoykip uk wa yuk kam uere pe ne.
kotan-u
village-POSS
utar
people
yuk
deer
ci-koyki-p
1PL.EXC.A-catch-NR
uk
take.SG
wa
and
yuk
deer
kam
meat
u-e-re
REC-eat-CAUS
pe
NR
ne
COP
‘Villagers get deer gain and eat deer meat altogether.’
EAT the Verb form e
(122)
Nep ka ae ka akoe ka somo ki no.
nep
what
ka
even
a=e
IND.A=eat
ka
even
a=ko-e
IND.A=APPL.DAT-eat
ka
even
somo
NEG
ki
do.AUX
no
and
‘Whatever I ate, I ate it without (a side dish).’
EAT an Alternation:
Dative applicative ko-
(123)
Pon asaha imire kor okaan ruwe ne.
pon
little
a=sa-ha
IND.A=older.sister-POSS
i-mi-re
APASS-wear-CAUS
kor
and
oka=an
exist.PL=IND.S
ruwe
INF.EV
ne
COP
‘(I carried her down, and raised her.) Second older sister dressed(lit. 'made her wear cloths') her and (in this manner) we led our lives.’
DRESS a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(124)
Sorekusu yayipere yayimire easkay pakno okaan nispa ne rokan kus.
sorekusu
especially
yay-ipe-re
REFL-eat-CAUS
yay-i-mi-re
REFL-APASS-wear-CAUS
e-askay
APPL.INS-be.able
pakno
till.ADV
oka=an
exist.PL=IND.S
nispa
rich.man
ne
as
rok=an
sit.PL=IND.S
kus
because
‘We can provide our food and we can provide the things we wear.’
DRESS an Alternation:
Reflexive
(125)
Orano nani usey kar nea iwatarap huraye a huraye a.
orano
then
nani
immediately
usey
hot.water
kar
make
nea
that
iwatarap
baby
huraye
wash
a
REP
huraye
wash
a
REP
‘Right away, my wife boiled some water, and washed the baby’s body carefully.’
WASH a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(126)
Useykaran hine aneyaykopuntek yayhurayean.
usey-kar=an
hot.water-make=IND.A
hine
and
an=e-yaykopuntek
IND.A=APPL.INS-be.happy
yay-huraye=an
REFL-wash=IND.S
‘I boiled water and happily washed myself.’
WASH an Alternation:
Reflexive
(127)
Kunuhu ka omke a omke a p.
k=unu-hu
1SG.A=mother-POSS
ka
even
omke
cough
a
REP
omke
cough
a
REP
p
but
‘My mother coughed and coughed.’
COUGH a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(128)
Tan nupuri or ta hemespaan ciki hokampa isam ya?
tan
this
nupuri
mountain
or
place
ta
LOC
hemespa=an
climb.PL=IND.S
ciki
if
hokampa
difficulty
isam
not.exist
ya
Q
‘Is it not difficult to climb this mountain?’
CLIMB a Coding frame:
1 LOC2 subj[1].V
(129)
Tan nupuri atcas ne ekohemesu wa.
tan
this
nupuri
mountain
atcas
one.try
ne
as
e=ko-hemesu
2SG.A=APPL.DAT-climb.SG
wa
and
‘You climbed this mountain at one try.’
CLIMB an Alternation:
Dative applicative ko-
(130)
Nupuri hontom ohemesu wa.
nupuri
mountain
hontom
middle
o-hemesu
APPL.LOC-climb.SG
wa
and
‘(The fox) climbed halfway up the mountain and...’
CLIMB an Alternation:
Locative applicative o-
(131)
Ne kotan kor nispa oro ta ahunan apa sam ta aan.
ne
this
kotan
village
kor
have
nispa
rich.man
or-o
place-POSS
ta
LOC
ahun=an
enter.SG=IND.S
apa
door
sam
near
ta
LOC
a=an
sit.SG=IND.S
‘I entered the village chief’s house, shaking all over. I sat down near the front door.’
SIT a Coding frame:
1 LOC2 subj[1].V
(132)
Kim erok kamuy ne yakka inaw akorpare siri ne kusu.
kim
mountain
e-rok
APPL.INS-sit.PL
kamuy
god
ne
COP
yak-ka
if-even
inaw
prayer.stick
a=kor-pa-re
IND.A=have-PL-CAUS
siri
VIS.EV
ne
COP
kusu
because
‘Since I gave inaw-prayer sticks to gods who live in (lit. sit in) the mountains, (please protect me).’
SIT an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative e-
(133)
Itukari ta ek hi kusu, mono aan.
i=tukari
IND.O=front
ta
LOC
ek
come.SG
hi
NR
kusu
because
mono
quietly
a=an
sit.SG=IND.S
‘He came right in front of me, so I sat down properly (on the floor).’
SIT a Coding frame:
1 LOC2 subj[1].V
(134)
Matne ekaci hoyupu kusu cinukar kusu payeas.
mat-ne
woman-COP
ekaci
child
hoyupu
run.SG
kusu
because
ci=nukar
1PL.EXC.A=see
kusu
in.order
paye=as
go.PL=1PL.EXC.S
‘It was the girls' running contest (lit. 'since girls ran'), so we went to watch it.’
RUN a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(135)
Ram cikuni hap kitayke aehoyupu.
ram
low
cikuni
tree
hap
treetop
kitayke
top
a=e-hoyupu
IND.A=APPL.INS-run.SG
‘I ran over tree tops of low trees.’
RUN an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative e-
(136)
Cikoykip uhoyuppare uterkere siri annukar.
ci-koyki-p
1PL.EXC.A-catch-NR
u-hoyuppa-re
REC-run.PL-CAUS
u-terke-re
REC-jump-CAUS
siri
VIS.EV
an=nukar
IND.A=see
‘I saw wild beasts running and jumping around.’
RUN the Verb form hoyupu (SG)/hoyuppa (PL)
(137)
Hemanta iesikari hine orowano ekimne iehoyupu humi as.
hemanta
something
i=esikari
IND.O=grab
hine
and
or-o-wa-no
place-POSS-ABL-ADV
ekimne
to.the.mountains
i=e-hoyupu
IND.O=APPL.INS-run.SG
humi
NONVIS.EV
as
stand.SG
‘It felt as if someone grabbed me and then ran to the mountains, holding me.’
RUN an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative e-
(138)
Rorunso or peka tennep tetterke.
ror-un-so
place.of.honour-belong.to-seat
or
place
peka
TRV
tennep
baby
tetterke
jump
‘The baby jumped on the seat of honor.’
JUMP a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(139)
"Aunarpehe" sekor haweoka kor asucihi kotetterke pa.
a=unarpe-he
IND.A=aunt-POSS
sekor
QUOT
haweoka
say.PL
kor
and
a=sut-ihi
IND.A=grandmother-POSS
ko-tetterke
APPL.DAT-jump
pa
PL
‘"Grandmother" the young men said and jumping at my grandmother ( they embraced her, crying).’
JUMP an Alternation:
Dative applicative ko-
(140)
Tu takne nisi re takne nisi ukotetterke.
tu
two
takne
short
nis-i
cloud-POSS
re
three
takne
short
nis-i
cloud-POSS
uko-tetterke
SOC-jump
‘Two short clouds, three short clouds jumped altogether.’
JUMP the Verb form tetterke
(141)
Kuca orta arpaan rusuy.
kuca
hunting.cabin
or
place
ta
LOC
arpa=an
go.SG=IND.S
rusuy
DESID
‘I wanted to go to the hunting cabin.’
GO a Coding frame:
1 LOC2 subj[1].V
(142)
Arkamuyasi oro aoarpa ruwe ne.
ar-kamuyasi
complete-devil
or-o
place-POSS
a=o-arpa
IND.A=APPL.LOC-go.SG
ruwe
INF.EV
ne
COP
‘(IfIdie at the place of devil),Iwill go to hell (lit. to the place of devil).’
GO an Alternation:
Locative applicative o-
(143)
Ne wenkur okkaypo eun anakne iteki arpaan yak pirka.
ne
this
wen-kur
be.bad-man
okkay-po
man-DIM
eun
DAT
anak-ne
TOP-COP
iteki
PROH
arpa
go.SG
=an
=IND.S
yak
if
pirka
be.good
‘You must never go to that young poor man’s place.’
GO a Coding frame:
1 LOC2 subj[1].V
(144)
Kuioroinkar eek ruwe un.
ku=ioroinkar
1SG.S=go.sightseeing
e-ek
APPL.INS-come.SG
ruwe
INF.EV
un
COP
‘I came (here) for sightseeing.’
GO an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative e-
(145)
Tan kotan ta hempak pa ean ruwe an?
tan
this
kotan
village
ta
LOC
hempak
how.many
pa
year
e=an
2SG.S=exist.SG
ruwe
INF.EV
an
exist.SG
‘How many years have you lived in this village?’
APPEAR a Coding frame:
1 LOC2 subj[1].V
(146)
Okkaypo tun pakno an ruwe ne noyne siran.
okkay-po
man-DIM
tu-n
two-thing.CL
pak-no
till-ADV
an
exist.SG
ruwe
INF.EV
ne
COP
noyne
seem
sir-an
ground/world-exist.SG
‘It seemed that there appeared two men (on the road).’
APPEAR a Coding frame:
1 LOC2 subj[1].V
(147)
Hempara cup kamuy hetuku ruwe an?
hempara
when
cup
moon
kamuy
god
hetuku
appear.SG
ruwe
INF.EV
an
exist.SG
‘What time does the moon appear?’
APPEAR a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(148)
Káni ka sinotca kuki kusune na.
káni
I
ka
even
sinotca
song
ku=ki
1SG.A=do
kusu-ne
going.to-COP
na
FIN
eani
2SG.S/A/O
hem
also/and
sinotca
song
ki
do
yan
IMP.POL
‘I will sing a song, so you should also sing.’
SING a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(149)
Akor huci sinotcaki kor wakkata. Sinotcaki kor suke ike, ...
a=kor
IND.A=have
huci
grandmother
sinotca-ki
song-do
kor
while
wakka-ta
water-dig
sinotca-ki
song-do
kor
while
suke
cook
hike
and
‘Grandmother would sing while drawing water and she would sing while preparing meals...’
SING a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(150)
Tan ay ani acotca ciki kamuy ray ruwe an?
tan
this
ay
arrow
ani
INST
a=cotca
IND.A=shoot
ciki
if
kamuy
bear
ray
die
ruwe
INF.EV
an
exist.SG
‘Will a bear die if this arrow hits it?’
DIE a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(151)
Amut emusi notak kasike eray kuni p ene ruwe ne na!
a=mut
IND.A=wear.sword
emus-i
sword-POSS
notak
edge
kas-i-ke
top-POSS-place
e-ray
APPL.INS-die
kuni
should
p
NR
e=ne
2SG.A=COP
ruwe
INF.EV
ne
COP
na
FIN
‘You will die at the edge of the sword that I wear!’
DIE an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative e-
(152)
Poro nitne kamuy sapa kasi un iyutani okkayo hacir rok awa.
poro
big
nitne
fierce
kamuy
god
sapa
head.POSS
kas-i
top-POSS
un
ALL
i-y-uta-ni
APASS-EP-grind-tree
okkayo
man
hácir
fall
rok
PERF.PL
awa
and
‘The pestle men fell on the head of the big fierce god.’
FALL a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(153)
Ene ae rusuy ene iperusuyan pe ...
ene
like.this
a=e
IND.A=eat
rusuy
DESID
ene
like.this
i-p-e-rusuy=an
APASS-EP-eat-DESID=IND.S
pe
but
‘Even though I was so hungry and wanted to eat, ...’
BE HUNGRY a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(154)
Apto as.
apto
rain
as
stand.SG
‘It rained.’
RAIN a Coding frame:
V
(155)
Orano akor son utar ona ne ye pa kor.
orano
then
a=kor
IND.A=have
son
child
utar
PL
ona
father
ne
MUT
ye
say
pa
PL
kor
and
‘(He came in and sat down). Calling (him) “Father”, (my children jumped all over him).’
NAME a Coding frame:
1 2+(e)un 3 subj[1].obj[3].V
(156)
Ene “wenkur okkaypo” sekor aiye p ne a korka.
ene
like.this
wen-kur
be.bad-man
okkay-po
man-DIM
sekor
QUOT
a=i=ye
IND.A=IND.O=say
p
NR
ne
COP
a
PERF.SG
korka
but
‘Once they called me a “young poor man”.’
NAME a Coding frame:
1 2+(e)un 3 subj[1].obj[3].V
(157)
Apohoutari ne yakka koinkar siri ne kuni kuramu.
a=po-ho-utar-i
IND.A=child-POSS-PL-POSS
ne
COP
yak-ka
if-even
ko-inkar
APPL.DAT-look
siri
VIS.EV
ne
COP
kun-i
going.to-NR
ku=ramu
1SG.A=think
‘I thought that (the gods) are going to protect my sons.’
THINK a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(158)
Tuki uk yan.
tuki
wine.cup
uk
take.SG
yan
IMP.POL
‘Please take a wine cup.’
GET the Verb form ko-uk (SG) / ko.uyna (PL)
(159)
Tan toy oro wa makanak pakno auk ruwe an?
tan
this
toy
earth
or-o
place-POSS
wa
ABL
makanak
what
pak-no
till-ADV
a=uk
IND.A=take.SG
ruwe
INF.EV
an
exist.SG
‘What can one grow on this plot? / lit. How much can one get from this plot?’
GET a Coding frame:
1 2 3 subj[1].obj[2].V
(160)
Poro soukan.
poro
big
so-uk=an
debt-take.SG=IND.S
‘They have large debts.’
GET the Verb form ko-uk (SG) / ko.uyna (PL)
(161)
Rapokke nea okkaypo ani kik kuni, kisma hum pirkano an, an cikuni tuye.
rapok-ke
between-POSS
nea
that
okkay-po
man-DIM
ani
INST
kik
beat
kuni
in.order
kisma
grab
hum
sound/feeling
pirka-no
be.good-ADV
an
exist.SG
an
exist.SG
cikuni
tree/wood
tuy-e
cut-CAUS
‘Then that young man cut a tree (such that) the feeling is good of grabbing (it) [i.e. which fits his hand] in order to beat with (it). / lit. Then that young man cut a tree_i [(such that) the sound/feeling j [(that) he grabs __i in order to beat with __i] is good].’
HIT a Coding frame:
1 2 (3+ani) subj[1].obj[2].V
(162)
Nea cip ka pira tom aekik hine.
nea
that
cip
boat
ka
also
pira
cliff
tom
middle
a=e-kik
IND.A=APPL.INS-hit
hine
and
‘That boat was hit against the cliff.’
HIT an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative e-
(163)
Nan kokik.
nan
face
ko-kik
APPL.DAT-hit
‘To slap the face.’
HIT an Alternation:
Dative applicative ko-
(164)
Aniukokik wa.
an=i=uko-kik
IND.A=IND.O=SOC-hit
wa
and
‘I was hit by everyone.’
HIT the Verb form kik
(165)
Sekor aehawekoyki nankor.
sekor
QUOT
a=e=haw-e-koyki
IND.A=2SG.O=voice-APPL.INS-bully
nankor
probably
‘(Say quickly!...) They will probably shout at you like this.’
SHOUT AT a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(166)
Nerok utar ehawekoyki wa.
nerok
that
utar
people
e-haw-e-koyki
APPL.INS-voice-APPL.INS-bully
wa
and
‘(My husband) shouted at those people (because of that).’
SHOUT AT an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative e-
(167)
Ene poro horkew ahun wa... katkemat utar hurarakkar kor...ihurarakkar.
ene
like.this
poro
big
horkew
wolf
ahun
enter.SG
wa
and
katkemat
married.woman
utar
PL
hura-rak-kar
scent-smell-make
kor
and
i=hura-rak-kar
IND.O=scent-smell-make
‘A huge wolf came in, smelled the women and smelled me.’
SMELL a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(168)
Iwatarap akorsi akisma w anrimseka.
iwatarap
baby
a=korsi
IND.A=child.POSS
a=kisma
IND.A=hug
wa
and
an=rimse-ka
IND.A=dance-CAUS
‘I hugged the baby and made him dance.’
HUG a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(169)
Aniukokisma.
an=i=uko-kisma
IND.A=IND.O=SOC-hug
‘I was hugged (by my elder brother and sister).’
HUG the Verb form kisma
(170)
Apunitara aeyaykewtum ka/kokisma kane.
apunitara
peacefully
a=e-yay-kewtum
IND.A=APPL.INS-REFL-feeling
ka
also
ko-kisma
APPL.DAT-hug
kane
and
‘I have peacefully calmed myself down.’
HUG an Alternation:
Dative applicative ko-
(171)
Nep ka kukar ka somoki no, kuyaytekkisma kor kan kor earkinne ku-mismu.
nep
what
ka
even
ku=kar
1SG.A=make
ka
even
somo
NEG
ki
do.AUX
no
and
ku=yay-tek-kisma
1SG.A=REFL-hand-hug
kor
and
k=an
1SG.S=exist.SG
kor
while
earkinne
very
ku=mismu
1SG.S=be.sad
‘I had nothing to do and felt really bored keeping my hands in pockets.’
HUG an Alternation:
Noun incorporation
(172)
Utekkisma.
u-tek-kisma
REC-hand-hug
‘Hold each other's hands.’
HUG an Alternation:
Noun incorporation
(173)
Santek kata ukisma.
san-tek
descend.SG-hand
ka
top
ta
LOC
u-kisma
REC-hug
‘Hold each other's arms / show affection to each other.’
HUG an Alternation:
Subject-oriented reciprocal
(174)
Sama ta aekasi cep aukosina p ne apekor an pe, ran hine oraun ehonkokisma.
sam-a
near-POSS
ta
LOC
a=ekas-i
IND.A=grandfather-POSS
cep
fish
a=u-ko-sina
IND.A=REC-APPL.DAT-bind
p
NR
ne
COP
a-pekor
PERF-as.if
an
exist.SG
pe
NR
ran
come.down.SG
hine
and
oraun
then
e-hon-ko-kisma
head.PF-belly-APPL.DAT-hug/grab
‘Something that looked like a bundle of fish came down near my grandfather, then he tucked it at his belly.’
HUG an Alternation:
Dative applicative ko-
(175)
エ・サパハ ク・メムケ
Esapaha kumemke.
e=sapa-ha
2SG.A=head-POSS
ku=memke
1SG.A=shave
‘I will shave your head.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(176)
エ・ナヌフ メムケ=髭を剃れ.
Enanuhu memke.
e=nan-uhu
2SG.A=face-POSS
memke
shave
‘Shave your beard.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(177)
Anyupihi utar yaymemke.
an=yup-ihi
IND.A=elder.brother-POSS
utar
PL
yay-memke
REFL-shave
‘My brothers shaved their beards.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
Reflexive
(178)
Sikraprapu.
sik-rap-rap-u
eye-flap.wings-flap.wings-CAUS
‘Blink / He/she blinks.’
BLINK a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(179)
Umurek utar inukar wa, mina kane okay.
umurek
couple
utar
people
i=nukar
IND.O=see
wa
and
mina
laugh
kane
and.so.on
okay
exist.PL
‘A couple saw me, smiled and so on.’
LAUGH a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(180)
Aemina kor anan akusu.
a=e-mina
IND.A=APPL.INS-laugh
kor
and
an=an
exist.SG=IND.S
akusu
then
‘I laughed at them.’
LAUGH an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative e-
(181)
Sonno pon hekattar utar uminare kor ukesanpa wa.
sonno
really
pon
little
hekattar
children
utar
PL
u-mina-re
REC-laugh-CAUS
kor
and
u-kesanpa
REC-chase
wa
and
‘Indeed, little children are laughing and chasing each other.’
LAUGH the Verb form mina
(182)
Toy tum un nep ka kirirse haw as pekor hawas hawas.
toy
earth
tum
inside
un
ALL
nep
who
ka
even
kirirse
scream
haw
voice
as
stand.SG
pekor
as.if
haw-as
voice-stand.SG
haw-as
voice-stand.SG
‘It sounded as if there was someone screaming in the ground.’
SCREAM a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(183)
Ukokirirsepa yakka kirirsepa.
uko-kirirse-pa
SOC-scream-PL
yak-ka
if-even
kirirse-pa
scream-PL
‘Even if everyone screams altogether...’
SCREAM the Verb form kirirse
(184)
Nisatta tunasno tan kotan wa kuarpa kusne na.
nisat-ta
dawn-LOC
tunas-no
be.early-ADV
tan
this
kotan
village
wa
ABL
ku=arpa
1SG.S=go.SG
kusu-ne
going.to-COP
na
FIN
‘I will leave this village early tomorrow.’
GO a Coding frame:
1 LOC2 subj[1].V
(185)
Kukemaha kukoni.
ku=kema-ha
1SG.A=leg-POSS
ku=koni
1SG.A=be.in.pain.at
‘My leg hurts.’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(186)
Ikoni.
i-koni
APASS-be.in.pain.at
‘Give birth / she gave birth.’
FEEL PAIN an Alternation:
Antipassive
(187)
Kukokkasapa arka korka, kunetopake anak totek pe ne kusu.
ku=kokka-sapa
1SG.A=knee-head.POSS
arka
hurt
korka
but
ku=netopake
1SG.A=body.POSS
anak
TOP
totek
be.healthy
pe
NR
ne
COP
kusu
because
‘My knees hurt, but my body is healthy.’
FEEL PAIN a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(188)
Kamuy ne noyne an matkaci sinot kor an wa anukar a p.
kamuy
god
ne
COP
noyne
seem
an
exist.SG
matkaci
girl
sinot
play
kor
and
an
exist.SG
wa
and
a=nukar
IND.A=see
a
PERF.SG
p
but
‘(I saw that) the girl who looked like a goddess was playing.’
PLAY a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(189)
Kikay esinot wa tun ne wa sinot kor oka.
kikay
machine
e-sinot
APPL.INS-play
wa
and
tu-n
two-human.CL
ne
COP
wa
and
sinot
play
kor
and
oka
exist.PL
‘The two of them are having fun, they are playing with a machine.’
PLAY an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative e-
(190)
Emerayke ciki amip mi.
e=me-ray-ke
2SG.S=cold-die-CAUS
ciki
if
amip
clothing
mi
wear
‘If you are cold, put on clothes.’
FEEL COLD a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(191)
Ene mismuan kor anan humi ene an.
ene
like.this
mismu=an
be.sad=IND.S
kor
and
an=an
exist.SG=IND.S
humi
NONVIS.EV
ene
like.this
an
exist.SG
‘Why have I been so sad, living like this.’
BE SAD a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(192)
Sinen ne okaan hi anemismu kus.
sinen
alone
ne
COP
oka=an
exist.PL=IND.S
hi
NR
an=e-mismu
IND.A=APPL.INS-be.sad
kus
because
‘I feel sad about being alone.’
BE SAD an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative e-
(193)
Poro ape ari wa uhuy-ka kusu, sunku uhuy wa arpa ayne.
poro
big
ape
fire
ari
light
wa
and
uhuy-ka
burn-CAUS
kusu
because
sunku
fir.tree
uhuy
burn
wa
and
arpa
go.SG
ayne
finally
‘Since he lit the big fire, and burned it, the fir-tree burned (well).’
BURN a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(194)
Ru sat.
ru
road
sat
be.dry
‘The road is dry.’
BE DRY a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(195)
Pet asam ta rer wa an.
pet
river
asam
bottom
ta
LOC
rer
sink
wa
and
an
exist.SG
‘It has sunk to the bottom of the river.’
SINK a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(196)
Aarserkehe toy tum orer.
a=ar-serke-he
IND.A=one-part.POSS-POSS
toy
earth
tum
inside
o-rer
APPL.LOC-sink
‘Half of my body sank in the earth.’
SINK an Alternation:
Locative applicative o-
(197)
Upas tum aoma wa karkarsean wa ranan.
upas
snow
tum
inside
a=oma
IND.A=enter.SG
wa
and
karkarse=an
roll=IND.S
wa
and
ran=an
descend.SG=IND.S
‘He fell into the snow and was rolling down.’
ROLL a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(198)
Sintoko utar hene cise oske ta ukokarkarse.
sintoko
wine.vessel
utar
PL
hene
even
cise
house
oske
inside
ta
LOC
uko-karkarse
SOC-roll
‘Even wine vessels were rolling altogether inside the house.’
ROLL the Verb form karkarse
(199)
Tumunci utar ukoparaparak cise kokarkarse.
tumunci
devil
utar
PL
uko-paraparak
SOC-cry
cise
house
ko-karkarse
APPL.DAT-roll
‘Tuminchi-devils cried and rolled together with the house.’
ROLL an Alternation:
Dative applicative ko-
(200)
Sonno sunke sak no isepo aenkoeikka ka ki p ne a wa.
sonno
really
sunke
lie
sak
lack
no
ADV
isepo
hare
a=en=ko-e-ikka
IND.A=1SG.O=APPL.DAT-APPL.INS-steal
ka
even
ki
do
p
NR
ne
COP
a
PERF.SG
wa
and
‘Seriously, a hare has been stolen from me.’
STEAL a Coding frame:
1 2 3 subj[1].obj[2].V
(201)
Amacihi anakne menokopo menoko monrayke epakasnu.
a=mac-ihi
IND.A=wife-POSS
anak-ne
TOP-COP
menoko-po
woman-DIM
menoko
woman
monrayke
work
e-pakasnu
APPL.INS-teach
‘My wife taught women’s work to (our) daughters.’
TEACH a Coding frame:
1 2 3 subj[1].obj[2].V
(202)
Aenepakasnu p ne ruwe ne.
a=en=e-pakasnu
IND.A=1SG.O=APPL.INS-teach
p
thing
ne
COP
ruwe
INF.EV
ne
COP
‘This is what I have been taught about.’
TEACH a Coding frame:
1 2 3 subj[1].obj[2].V
(203)
Akor hekattar uimak ta uwepakasnu wa, ene aynumotokor hi ye.
a=kor
IND.A=have
hekattar
children
u-imak
REC-behind
ta
LOC
u-w-e-pakasnu
REC-EP-APPL.INS-teach
wa
and
ene
like.this
aynu-moto-kor
human/Ainu-origin-have
hi
NR
ye
say
‘My children! Over many generations teach to each other about it, tell that (we) have an Ainu origins like this.’
TEACH an Alternation:
Subject-oriented reciprocal
(204)
Nisatta ne oro un isirepakasnu yak pirka.
nisat-ta
dawn-LOC
ne
this
or-o
place-POSS
un
ALL
i=sir-e-pakasnu
IND.O=ground/world-APPL.INS-teach
yak
if
pirka
be.good
‘Tomorrow teach me the way there.’
TEACH an Alternation:
Noun incorporation
(205)
Akor huci cis kor wakkata cis kor suke hine an.
a=kor
IND.A=have
huci
grandmother
cis
cry
kor
while
wakka-ta
water-dig
cis
cry
kor
while
suke
cook
hine
and
an
exist.SG
‘(I then realized that) grandmother was crying while drawing water and crying when she prepared meals.’
CRY a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(206)
"Hapo hay" ye kane uciste koonno.
"hapo
mother
hay"
ouch
ye
say
kane
while
u-cis-te
REC-cry-CAUS
koonno
like.this
‘"Mother! Ouch! " They said and cried altogether.’
CRY the Verb form cis
(207)
Ecis.
e-cis
APPL.INS-cry
‘Cry about / He cried about it.’
CRY an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative e-
(208)
Siyeye wa an yak aye.
siyeye
be.sick
wa
and
an
exist.SG
yak
COMP
a=ye
IND.A=say
‘It is said that he/she was sick.’
BE ILL a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(209)
Sinrit oruspe enu rusuy kusu...
sinrit
ancestor
oruspe
story
e=nu
2SG.A=hear
rusuy
DESID
kusu
because
‘Since you want to hear the story of the anscestors...’
HEAR a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(210)
Inuan hike ahoppa hekaci poro wa.
i-nu=an
APASS-hear=IND.A
hike
as
a=hoppa
IND.A=leave
hekaci
boy
poro
big
wa
and
‘As far as I heard, a boy that I had left grew big.’
HEAR an Alternation:
Antipassive
(211)
Yuk cikoykip nep pahawe ikonu rok pe.
yuk
deer
ci-koyki-p
1PL.EXC.A-catch-NR
nep
what
pa-ha-w-e
mouth-POSS-EP-POSS
i=ko-nu
IND.O=APPL.DAT-hear
rok
PERF.PL
pe
NR
‘Deer [game] asked me about some rumours.’
HEAR an Alternation:
Dative applicative ko-
(212)
Ukonukar.
uko-nukar
REC-see
‘Examine sth by joining together / compare (two things).’
MEET an Alternation:
Object-oriented reciprocal
(213)
Imemke sisam.
i-memke
APASS-shave
sisam
Japanese
‘Barber / lit. Japanese person (who) shaves.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) an Alternation:
Antipassive
(214)
Unure.
u-nu-re
REC-hear-CAUS
‘Tell to each other / they told each other.’
TELL an Alternation:
Subject-oriented reciprocal
(215)
Iyepa.
i-ye-pa
APASS-say-PL
‘(For many people) to say things together / they said things (together).’
NAME an Alternation:
Antipassive
(216)
Pon cikappo ne yaykaran ki wa.
pon
little
cikap-po
bird-DIM
ne
MUT
yay-kar=an
REFL-make=IND.A
ki
do.AUX
wa
and
‘I have turned myself into a little bird.’
BUILD an Alternation:
Reflexive
(217)
Usinotte.
u-sinot-te
REC-play-CAUS
‘Play together / they played together.’
PLAY the Verb form sinot
(218)
Taan ta an anan pe urar kamu wa aesiknak.
taan
here
ta
LOC
an
exist.SG
anan
ADM
pe
NR
urar
mist
kamu
cover
wa
and
a=e-siknak
IND.A=APPL.INS-be.unable.to.see
‘A mist covered the thing that was here and I cannot see it.’
COVER the Verb form kamu-re
(219)
Okimunpe an wa cise oinuwe.
o-kim-un-pe
bottom.PF-mountain-belong.to-NR
an
exist.SG
wa
and
cise
house
o-i-nu-w-e
APPL.LOC-APASS-wipe-EP-CAUS
‘There was a flood and it has passed the house / lit.(The flood) has swept things at the house.’
WIPE an Alternation:
Locative applicative o-
(220)
Tek uwekikkik wa onkami.
tek
hand
u-w-e-kik-kik
REC-EP-APPL.INS-hit-hit
wa
and
onkami
pray
‘Having clapped their hands, they pray.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Object-oriented reciprocal
(221)
Eenikikkik ki kunihi.
e=e-ni-kik-kik
2SG.O=APPL.INS-tree/wood-hit-hit
ki
do.AUX
kuni-hi
going.to-NR
‘He is going to hit you repeatedly by a tree.’
BEAT an Alternation:
Noun incorporation
(222)
Asaha orano easir sorekusu mina tura isoytak.
a=sa-ha
IND.A=older.sister-POSS
orano
then
easir
for.the.first.time
sorekusu
especially
mina
laugh
tura
COM
isoytak
tell.story
‘Then my older sister for the first time told her story smiling.’
TELL the Verb form e-ko-isoytak
(223)
Tan ponmenoko ene wa itakan ciki e=nu katu an na.
tan
this
pon-menoko
young-woman
e=ne
2SG.A=COP
wa
and
itak=an
say/talk=IND.S
ciki
if
e=nu
2SG.A=hear
katu
COMP
an
exist.SG
na
FIN
‘Young girl, listen well to what I have to say.’
TALK the Verb form e-ko-itak
(224)
Kimatekan wa.
kimatek=an
be.surprised=IND.S
wa
and
‘(Having heard that it was the squirrel), I was surprised/scared.’
FRIGHTEN the Verb form kimatek-ka
(225)
Tokaci wa ek pewre kur monrayke eirkasuy.
Tokaci
Tokachi
wa
ABL
ek
come.SG
pewre
be.young
kur
man
monrayke
work
e-i-kasuy
APPL.INS-APASS-help
‘A young man who came from Tokachi helped everyone with work.’
HELP an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative e-
(226)
Inne utari turano ukoipean wa yakun po keraan pe ne.
inne
be.many
utar-i
people-POSS
tura-no
COM-ADV
uko-ipe=an
SOC-eat=IND.S
wa
and
yak-un
if-EMP
po
more
kera-an
taste-exist.SG
pe
NR
ne
COP
‘When we eat together with many (other) people the food is much more delicious.’
EAT the Verb form e
(227)
Pirkano imi hine.
pirka-no
be.good-ADV
i-mi
APASS-wear
hine
and
‘He/She put on nice clothes.’
DRESS the Verb form i-mi-re
(228)
Mour mi wa kasi wa amip mi ur mi.
mour
underwear
mi
put.on
wa
and
kas-i
top-POSS
wa
and
amip
clothing
mi
wear
ur
fur.coat
mi
put.on
‘Put on the underwear, on top of that put on the dress (and) put on the fur coat.’
DRESS the Verb form i-mi-re
(229)
Kamuyoroarpaan ka eaykap korka.
kamuy-or-o-arpa=an
god-place-APPL.LOC-go.SG=IND.S
ka
even
e-aykap
APPL.INS-be.unable.AUX
korka
but
‘I couldn’t even go to the other world. (lit. ‘to the land of gods’).’
GO the Verb form arpa (SG) / paye (PL)
(230)
Nisatta nepkiepayean kus ne na!
nisat-ta
dawn-LOC
nepki-e-paye=an
work-APPL.INS-go.PL=IND.S
kus
going.to
ne
COP
na
FIN
‘Let’s go to work tomorrow!’
GO the Verb form arpa (SG) / paye (PL)
(231)
Ene kunne hene tokap hene ene sinotcakian kor anan hawe ene an hi ne.
ene
like.this
kunne
black
hene
also
tokap
daytime
hene
also
ene
like.this
sinotca-ki=an
song-do=IND.A
kor
and
an=an
exist.SG=IND.S
hawe
REP.EV
ene
like.this
an
exist.SG
hi
NR
ne
COP
‘I sang songs like this night and day.’
SING a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(232)
Ito Anna oro wa amip esouk wa an.
Ito
Ito
Anna
Anna
or-o
place-POSS
wa
ABL
amip
clothing
e-so-uk
APPL.INS-debt-take.SG
wa
and
an
exist.SG
‘Anna has borrowed a dress from Ito.’
GET the Verb form ko-uk (SG) / ko.uyna (PL)
(233)
(Icen) eciekosouk.
icen
money
eci=e-ko-so-uk
1SG.A+2SG.O=APPL.INS-APPL.DAT-debt-take.SG
‘I borrowed money from you.’
GET the Verb form ko-uk (SG) / ko.uyna (PL)
(234)
Ainu or un iteki ikka yan!
ainu
Ainu
or
place
un
ALL
iteki
PROH
ikka
steal
yan
IMP.POL
‘Don’t steal in the land of the Ainu!’
STEAL the Verb form ko-e-ikka
(235)
Aeeikka hene aerayke yakka.
a=e=e-ikka
IND.A=2SG.O=APPL.INS-steal
hene
and
a=e=ray-ke
IND.A=2SG.O=die-CAUS
yak-ka
if-even
‘Even if you were stolen and killed (you were still young, so they may have dumped you off somewhere).’
STEAL the Verb form ko-e-ikka
(236)
Aenkoikka yakun okake ta ke p ka isam pe ne kusu.
a=en=ko-ikka
IND.A=1SG.O=from.APPL-steal
yak-un
if-COP
oka-ke
after-POSS
ta
LOC
k=e
1SG.A=eat
p
NR
ka
even
isam
not.exist
pe
NR
ne
COP
kusu
because
‘If they steal from me, I will have nothing to eat afterwards.’
STEAL the Verb form ko-e-ikka
(237)
Aonaha ipakasnu kor okaan.
a=ona-ha
IND.A=father-POSS
i=pakasnu
IND.O=teach
kor
and
oka=an
exist.PL=IND.S
‘My father taught me (like this).’
TEACH the Verb form e-pakasnu
(238)
Neyta ne yakka pirka uske ao ro.
neyta
where
ne
COP
yak-ka
if-even
pirka
be.good
us-ke
place-POSS
a=o
IND.A=get.on
ro
COHR
‘(Once I bought the tickets,) we can get on anywhere.’
LOAD the Verb form oma-re (SG) / o (PL)
(239)
Sekor asa hawean hine cip iore hine.
sekor
QUOT
a=sa
IND.A=older.sister
hawean
say.SG
hine
and
cip
boat
i=o-re
IND.O=put-CAUS
hine
and
‘Older sister said as she put me in the boat.’
LOAD the Verb form oma-re (SG) / o (PL)
(240)
Suma itese ka akote.
itese
weave
ka
thread
a=kot-é
IND.A=tie-CAUS
suma
stone
ré-he
name-POSS
pit
pit.stone
‘The name of stone tied to the weaving thread is "pit".’
TIE a Coding frame:
1 2 LOC3 subj[1].obj[2].V
(241)
Wakka ta wa ek.
wakka
water
ta
dig.up/scoop
wa
and
ek
come.SG
‘Go draw some water.’
POUR a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(242)
Teeta wenkur tane nispa nep poutari suma ari nihum ari yapkir.
teeta
old.times
wen-kur
be.bad-man
tane
now
nispa
rich.man
nep
what
po-utar-i
child-PL-POSS
suma
stone
ari
INST
nihum
piece.of.wood
ari
INST
yapkir
throw
‘The children of the people who were poor in the past but are rich now were throwing stones and pieces of wood.’
THROW the Verb form e-yapkir
(243)
Penampe…ne posta utar suma ari nihum ari koyapkir.
Penampe
Penampe
ne
this
posta
little.dog
utar
PL
suma
stone
ari
INST
nihum
piece.of.wood
ari
INST
ko-yapkir
APPL.DAT-throw
‘Penampe threw stones and pieces of wood at these little dogs.’
THROW the Verb form e-yapkir
(244)
Poro aynu yuk tapkir sine-p ani kane wa, ek wa.
poro
bold
aynu
human/Ainu
yuk
deer
tapkir
animal.fore.leg
sine-p
one-thing.CL
ani
hold/carry.in.hands.SG
kane
suddenly
wa
and
ek
come.SG
wa
and
‘Suddenly an old man brought a single deer fore leg.’
BRING the Verb form ko-ani (SG) / ko-anpa (PL)
(245)
Inan pe kukor kor pirka hawe an?
inan
which
pe
thing
ku=kor
1SG.A=have
kor
and
pirka
be.good
hawe
REP.EV
an
exist.SG
‘Which one should I choose?’
GIVE the Verb form kor-e (SG)/kor-pa-re (PL)
(246)
Eunuhu enuyna.
e=unu-hu
2SG.A=mother-POSS
e=nuyna
2SG.O=hide
‘(The entire village was ruined.) Your mother sneaked you out.’
HIDE the Verb form ko-nuyna
(247)
Kapuhu soso.
kap-uhu
skin-POSS
sos-o
peel-CAUS
‘He/she peeled the skin.’
PEEL a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(248)
Cikuni ne ciki nep ne ciki, a=tekehe kere ka somo ki no kar kor oka=an ruwe ne a p.
cikuni
tree/wood
ne
COP
ciki
if
nep
something
ne
COP
ciki
if
a=tek-ehe
IND.A=hand-POSS
ker-e
touch-CAUS
ka
even/also
somo
NEG
ki
do
no
and
kar
make
kor
and
oka=an
exist.PL=IND.S
ruwe
INF.EV
ne
COP
a
PERF.SG
p
but
‘We lived that way without him even letting (lit. 'making') my hands touch the firewood and so on.’
TOUCH the Verb form ker-e (SG)/ker-pa (PL)
(249)
Ennukar.
en=nukar
1SG.O=see
‘He/she/it sees me.’
MEET a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(250)
Umma kere kus ne.
umma
horse
ku=e-re
1SG.A=eat-CAUS
kusu
going.to
ne
COP
‘I'm going to feed it to my horse.’
EAT an Alternation:
Direct causative
(251)
Ikismakar.
i-kisma-kar
APASS-hug/seize-APPL
‘To seize./ To take hold of.’
HUG an Alternation:
Antipassive
(252)
Aituye kusu ne hi ta akot tono ieikisma ne yakka.
a=i=tuy-e
IND.A=IND.O=cut-CAUS
kusu
going.to
ne
COP
hi
thing/place/time
ta
LOC
a=kor
IND.A=have
tono
master
i=e-i-kisma
IND.O=APPL.INS-APASS-hug/seize
‘At the moment when I was about to be cut (=killed), my Japanese master (=lover) [tried to] stop people (=seize people) for my sake.’
HUG an Alternation:
Antipassive
(253)
Einkarpe pon nociw ne cewsamkur unuunu.
e-inkar-pe
APPL.INS-look-NR
pon
little
nociw
star
ne
MUT
c(i)-e-u-sam-kur
RES-APPL.INS-REC-near-shadow
un-u-un-u
attach.to-CAUS-attach.to-CAUS
‘His eyes (lit. 'the things (which) (he) looks with') are glittering like stars.’
LOOK AT an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative e-
(254)
Sitomare.
sitoma-re
fear-CAUS
‘Make sb. fear sth./sb.’
FEAR an Alternation:
Direct causative
(255)
Iyohay sitomare!
iyohay
oh.my.gosh
sitoma-re
fear-CAUS
‘Oh my gosh! How suprising!’
FEAR an Alternation:
Direct causative
(256)
Ene rametokkor wa isiekimatekka acapo ne a korka.
ene
like.this
rametok-kor
courage-have
wa
and
i=si-e-kimatek-ka
IND.O=REFL-APPL.INS-be.surprised-CAUS
acapo
uncle
ne
COP
a
PERF
korka
but
‘It was such a brave uncle who scared me but...’
FRIGHTEN an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative e-
(257)
Kutci pirka wa keramasuy korka, eytasa ni ri wa kuhemesu ka niwkes.
kutci
actinidia.arguta.fruit
pirka
be.good
wa
and
k=eramasuy
1SG.A=want
korka
but
eytasa
very
ni
tree
ri
high
wa
and
ku=hemesu
1SG.S=climb
ka
even/also
niwkes
be.unable
‘The actinidia arguta fruit is good (=well ripen) and I want it but the tree is tall and I cannot climb it.’
LIKE a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(258)
Iiyomapka poyson!
i-i-y-omap-ka
APASS-APASS-EP-like-CAUS
pon-son
little-child
‘What a cute child!’
LIKE an Alternation:
Direct causative
(259)
Ene ya sinen ne, iomapan h_umi anan!
ene
like.this
ya
Q
sinen
alone
ne
MUT
i-omap=an
APASS-like=IND.S
humi
NONVIS.EV
anan
ADM
‘But here I am cherising the child all alone!’
LIKE an Alternation:
Antipassive
(260)
Enkoamkir wa enkore yan.
en=ko-amkir
1SG.O=APPL.DAT-know
wa
and
en=kor-e
1SG.O=have-CAUS
yan
IMP.POL
‘Please understand me. /lit. Please understand it for me and give it to me.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Dative applicative ko-
(261)
Ne kotan kor kur aitakamkire.
ne
this
kotan
village
kor
have
kur
person
a=itak-amkir-e
IND.A=speech-remember-CAUS
‘I warned this village chief.’
KNOW an Alternation:
Direct causative
(262)
Op ek noyne iramu hi kusu.
op
spear
ek
come.SG
noyne
seems
i-ramu
APASS-think
hi
NR
kusu
because
‘I thought/felt as if a spear came, so.’
THINK an Alternation:
Antipassive
(263)
Koramu.
ko-ramu
APPL.DAT-think
‘To suspect. \ To think.’
THINK an Alternation:
Dative applicative ko-
(264)
Pirkap tapne asurorke hopuni hawe ayairamure.
pirka-p
be.good-NR
tap-ne
like.this-COP
asur-or-ke
rumor-place-POSS
hopuni
arise.SG
hawe
REP.EV
a=yay-ramu-re
IND.A=REFL-think-CAUS
‘I made myself think that there was a rumor such as she was a beauty.’
THINK an Alternation:
Direct causative
(265)
Tanpe kusu ne iki kamuy tu moto orke re moto orke a=kohunara ki a korka.
tan-pe
this-thing
kusu
because
ne
this
i-ki
APASS-do
kamuy
god/spirit
tu
two
moto
origin
or-ke
place-POSS
re
three
moto
origin
or-ke
place-POSS
a=ko-hunara
IND.A=APPL.DAT-search
ki
do
a
PERF
korka
but
‘For this reason, I have been looking what kind of god (I was) here and there (lit. 'towards the place of two rumors, three rumors (=many rumors)).’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Dative applicative ko-
(266)
Akot turesi ahunarare kusu aye kane kor.
a=kor
IND.A=have
turesi
younger.sister
a=hunara-re
IND.A=search-CAUS
kusu
in.order
a=ye
IND.A=say
kane
PROG
kor
and
‘I asked to look for my younger sister for my sake (lit. 'said in order to make him/her search for my younger sister').’
SEARCH FOR an Alternation:
Direct causative
(267)
Ontaro or un ihuraye.
ontaro
tub
or
place
un
ALL
i-huray-e
APASS-wash-CAUS
‘She did laundry in a tub / lit. washed things.’
WASH an Alternation:
Antipassive
(268)
Pirka amip sapte wa imire.
pirka
beautiful
amip
clothing
sap-te
descend.PL-CAUS
wa
and
i=mi-re
IND.O=wear-CAUS
‘(The village chief cut my hair, cleaned my face), brought out beautiful garments and dressed me [in them].’
DRESS the Verb form i-mi-re
(269)
Ku kor kur ni eak kusu ... ku paro ka perke.
ku=kor
1SG.A=have
kur
person
ni
tree
e-ak
APPL.INS-shoot
kusu
because
ku=par-o
1SG.A=mouth-POSS
ka
even/also
per-ke
break-ACAUS
‘Since my husband threw a stick, my mouth got torn (lit. 'broke').’
BREAK an Alternation:
Anticausative
(270)
[Cikuni ani] iteki enkere.
cikuni
tree/wood
ani
INST
iteki
PROH
en=ker-e
1SG.O=touch-CAUS
‘Don't touch me [with the stick].’
TOUCH a Coding frame:
1 2 (3+ani) subj[1].obj[2].V
(271)
Ukere humiash.
u-ker-e
REC-touch-CAUS
humi
NONVIS.EV
as
stand.SG
‘It felt as if they touched each other.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
Subject-oriented reciprocal
(272)
Aunuhu nep ka tekekere siri ka isam.
nea
that
pon
young
menoko
woman
a=unu-hu
IND.A=mother-POSS
nep
something
ka
even/also
tek-e-ker-e
hand-APPL.INS-touch-CAUS
siri
VIS.EV
ka
even/also
isam
not.exist
no
and
arikiki
work.hard
hike
but
ka
even/also
‘That young woman ...worked hard and my mother did not touch anything with her hands.’
TOUCH an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative e-
(273)
Sintoko patci ka akouk utar anakne nep ka pirka pirka nukar somo ki yakka ...
sintoko
acquer_ware
patci
bowl
ka
even/also
a=ko-uk
IND.A=APPL.DAT-take.SG
utar
people
anak-ne
TOP-COP
nep
somehow
ka
even/also
pirka
good
pirka
good
nukar
see
somo
NEG
ki
do
yak-ka
if-even
‘Although the people who were robbed of lacquer-ware and bowls, didn’t look carefully at [the things] at all ...’
GET an Alternation:
Dative applicative ko-
(274)
Ukouk upopo.
u-ko-uk
REC-APPL.DAT-take.SG
upopo
singing.clapping.the.hands.and.dancing
‘Singing, clapping the hands and dancing in a circular canon.’
GET an Alternation:
Subject-oriented reciprocal
(275)
Nea pinay uwekari soske hine.
nea
that
pinay
valley
u-w-ekari
REC-EP-facing
sos-ke
peel-ACAUS
hine
and
‘A big clot of blood flew from the middle of the village and tore apart above the village.’
PEEL an Alternation:
Anticausative
(276)
Honi yasa wa cipori sanke.
hon-i
belly-POSS
yas-a
tear-CAUS
wa
and
cipor-i
roe-POSS
san-ke
descend-CAUS
‘(He) torn off the (salmon’s) belly and took its roe off.’
TEAR a Coding frame:
1 2 subj[1].obj[2].V
(277)
Kotan noski wa poro kem tak hopuni wa kotan enka ta yaske.
kotan
village
noski
middle
wa
ABL
poro
big
kem
blood
tak
clot
hopuni
fly.SG
wa
and
kotan
village
enka
over
ta
LOC
yas-ke
tear-ACAUS
‘A big clot of blood flew from the middle of the village and tore apart above the village.’
TEAR an Alternation:
Anticausative
(278)
Enkonuyna wa enkore.
en=ko-nuyna
1SG.O=APPL.DAT-hide
wa
and
en=kor-e
1SG.O=have-CAUS
‘Hide me (from other people) for my sake.’
HIDE the Verb form ko-nuyna
(279)
Itura utar apumakore sinep sinep ki ruwe ne h_ine ase.
i=tura
IND.O=follow
utar
people
a=puma-kor-e
IND.A=wage-have-CAUS
sine-p
one-thing.CL
sine-p
one-thing.CL
ki
do.AUX
ruwe
INF.EV
ne
COP
h_ine
and
a=se
IND.A=carry.on.back
‘We paid wages to each person who came with us to carry the things down.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Noun incorporation
(280)
Rupne mat utar_ ne yakka aipere pa aikorpare pa.
rupne
old
mat
woman
utar
PL
ne
COP
yak-ka
if-even
a=i-p-e-re
IND.A=APASS-EP-eat-CAUS
wa
and
a=i-kor-pa-re
IND.A=APASS-have-PL-CAUS
wa
and
‘We were charitable and fed the older women.’
GIVE an Alternation:
Antipassive
(281)
Okikurmi turesihi tumokorkamui remokorkamui chikopayere.
Okikurmi
Okikurmi
turesihi
younger.sister
tu
two
mokor
sleep
kamuy
god/spirit
re
three
mokor
sleep
kamuy
god/spirit
ci=ko-paye-re
1PL.EXC.A=APPL.DAT-go.PL-CAUS
‘We send two or three sleepiness gods on Okikurumi's younger sister.’
SEND an Alternation:
Dative applicative ko-
(282)
Shisoya kotan Shisoya moshir aioarpare katu ne rok oka.
Si-soya
real-bee
kotan
village
Si-soya
real-bee
mosir
land
a=i=o-arpa-re
IND.A=IND.O=APPL.LOC-go.SG-CAUS
kat-u
shape-POSS
ne
COP
rok
PERF.PL
oka
exist.PL
‘I was sent to a hornet village, to a hornet land.’
SEND an Alternation:
Locative applicative o-
(283)
Erura.
e-rura
APPL.INS-carry
‘Carry sth by sth/sb / carry sth with sb.’
CARRY an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative e-
(284)
Ne katkemat mipihi opitta akoanu.
ne
this
katkemat
woman
mi-p-ihi
wear-NR-POSS
opitta
all
a=ko-an-u
IND.A=APPL.DAT-exist.SG-CAUS
‘All of this woman's clothes were taken off ('all clothes were put (aside) from this woman').’
PUT an Alternation:
Dative applicative ko-
(285)
Anipunkari i(y)oikir ka aeanu.
anipuntar
a.type.of.sake.bottle
iyoykir
treasure
ka
top
a=e-an-u
IND.A=APPL.INS-exist.SG-CAUS
‘We put a sake bottle on top of treasures.’
PUT an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative e-
(286)
Iyomare.
i-y-oma-re
APASS-EP-enter.SG-CAUS
‘Pour alcohol.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Antipassive
(287)
Wakkataan wa su or wakka aomare.
wakka-ta=an
water-dig=IND.S
wa
and
su
pot
or
place
wakka
water
a=oma-re
IND.A=enter.SG-CAUS
‘I drew some water and put it in a pot.’
LOAD an Alternation:
Noun incorporation
(288)
Atuy or un akuta akusu.
atuy
sea
or
place
un
ALL
a=kuta
IND.S=pour
akusu
when
‘(Again I pulled out the silver dipper and) when I poured [water] into the sea (the water raised to the middle of the sea.).’
POUR a Coding frame:
1 2 LOC3 subj[1].obj[2].V
(289)
Ora su oha h_i kusu ora soy ta ruri akuta.
ora
then
su
pot
oha
empty
h_i
NR
kusu
because
ora
then
soy
outside
ta
LOC
ruri
soup
a=kuta
IND.A=pour
‘When the pot was empty, I threw the soup outside.’
POUR a Coding frame:
1 2 LOC3 subj[1].obj[2].V
(290)
Ra okuta.
ra
bottom/down
o-kuta
APPL.LOC-pour
‘Drop/spill/pou down / drop/spill/pour down to the bottom.’
POUR an Alternation:
Locative applicative o-
(291)
へカッタラ パシ ロク パシ ロク コロ オカ クス ロクテ ワ アヌ
Hekattara pas rok pas rok kor oka kusu rokte wa anu.
hekattara
children
pas
run
rok
PERF.PL
pas
run
rok
PERF.PL
kor
and
oka
exist.PL
kusu
because
rok-te
sit.PL-CAUS
wa
and
an-u
exist.SG-CAUS
‘Children are running around, so sit them down.’
SIT an Alternation:
Direct causative
(292)
Minare.
mina-re
laugh-CAUS
‘Make laugh.’
LAUGH an Alternation:
Direct causative
(293)
Etekehe earkare hawe?
e=tek-ehe
2SG.A=hand-POSS
e=arka-re
2SG.A=hurt-CAUS
hawe
REP.EV
‘Is it said that you have hurt your hand?’
FEEL PAIN an Alternation:
Direct causative
(294)
Kasi osinot.
kas-i
top/on-POSS
o-sinot
APPL.LOC-play
‘Play on top of (it).’
PLAY an Alternation:
Locative applicative o-
(295)
Soy ta aesinotte SITARI nen nen ne ya.
soy
outside
ta
LOC
a=e=sinot-te
INF.A=2SG.O=play-CAUS
SITARI
if.do
‘If I amuse you outside, (somehow since they were bad men, they would hear about it.They would find a way to kill you...).’
PLAY an Alternation:
Direct causative
(296)
Akor son aiperusuyka yak wen.
a=kor
IND.A=have
son
son
a=i-p-e-rusuy-ka
IND.A=APASS-EP-eat-DESID-CAUS
yak
if
wen
be.bad
‘I cannot let my son go hungry.’
BE HUNGRY an Alternation:
Direct causative
(297)
エシソウン ニス カラカラセレ ワ アラパ
Esisoun nisu karkarsere wa arpa.
e-si-so-un
head.PF-right-seat-ALL
nisu
mortar
karkarse-re
roll-CAUS
wa
and
arpa
go.SG
‘Roll the mortar to the right side.’
ROLL an Alternation:
Direct causative
(298)
Ipetam anakne suma akote wa poro to noski un arere.
i-p-e-tam
APASS-EP-eat-sword
anak-ne
TOP-COP
suma
stone
a=kot-e
IND.A=tie-CAUS
wa
and
poro
big
to
lake
noski
middle
un
ALL
a=rer-e
IND.A=sink-CAUS
‘As to the man-eating sword, I have tied up a stone to it and made it sink at the middle of the lake.’
SINK an Alternation:
Direct causative
(299)
Kotan auhuyka kusu ne.
kotan
village
a=uhuy-ka
IND.A-burn-CAUS
kusu
intention
ne
COP
‘We will burn down the village.’
BURN an Alternation:
Direct causative
(300)
Poronno asaha cep mike satke.
poro-n-no
big/many-EP-ADV
a=sa-ha
IND.A=older.sister-POSS
cep
fish
mike
fish.slice
sat-ke
dry-CAUS
‘Older sister laid out many fish slices to dry.’
BE DRY an Alternation:
Direct causative
(301)
Kem apto as kor siran ruwe anukar_ ruwe ne korka.
kem
blood
apto
rain
as
stand.SG
kor
and
sir-an
ground/world-exist.SG
ruwe
INF.EV
a=nukar
IND.A=see
ruwe
INF.EV
ne
COP
korka
because
‘(There fell a fog over the Tomisanpet river) and I saw the sight of a blood rain raining.’
RAIN the Verb form (apto) as
(302)
Apto ashteguru.
apto
rain
as-te
stand.SG-CAUS
kur
person
‘A rainmaker / lit. a person (who) makes rain (lit. who makes rain stand).’
RAIN an Alternation:
Direct causative
(303)
Isonkur ennere.
ison-kur
be.successful.in.a.hunt-man
en=ne-re
1SG.O=COP-CAUS
‘He made me a successful hunter.’
BE A HUNTER an Alternation:
Direct causative
(304)
Kanpi iyepakasnu kur.
kanpi
paper
i-y-e-pakasnu
APASS-EP-about-teach
kur
man
‘A person who teaches to people reading and writing (=a teacher).’
TEACH an Alternation:
Antipassive
(305)
"Hinak wa ek seta ene iki an?" sekor yaynuan.
hinak
where
wa
ABL
ek
come.SG
seta
dog
ene
like.this
i-ki
APASS-do
an
exist.SG
sekor
QOUT
yay-nu=an
REFL-hear=IND.S
‘“Where did that dog come from?” I thought.’
HEAR the Verb form nu
(306)
Nep kusu epas wa eek ya?
nep
what
kusu
for
e=pas
2SG.S=run
wa
and
e=ek
2SG.S=come.SG
ya
Q
‘Why did you run (here)?’
RUN a Coding frame:
1 subj[1].V
(307)
Corpokke aepas wa.
corpok-ke
under-POSS
a=e-pas
IND.A=APPL.INS-run
wa
and
‘I ran under him (i.e. under my husband who was rising to heaven in the shape of a bird).’
RUN an Alternation:
Instrumental applicative e-
(308)
Somo ekopas y_akun ehekote kamuy amaketa noyne.
somo
NEG
e=ko-pas
2SG.A=APPL.DAT-run
yak-un
if-COP
e=hekote
2SG.A=turn
kamuy
god/spirit
a=maketa
IND.A=defeat
noyne
as.if
‘(Your husband your precious husband has fought 60 battles with that demon god. This is a situation where) if you do not go to help him (lit. 'run for him') it looks as if your divine husband will be defeated.’
RUN an Alternation:
Dative applicative ko-
(309)
Tu iworso ka tu kenasso ka anopasopas.
tu
two
iwor-so
hunting.field-place
ka
top/on
tu
two
kenas-so
tree.plain-place
ka
top/on
an=o-pas-o-pas
IND.A=APPL.LOC-run-APPL.LOC-run
‘I ran and ran on many hunting fields and tree plains.’
RUN an Alternation:
Locative applicative o-
(310)
Hunak un awakina pencay kayapaste wa payean.
hunak
where
un
ALL
awakina
common.grass
pencay
cargo.ship
kaya-pas-te
sail-run-CAUS
wa
and
paye=an
go.PL=IND.S
‘The cargo boat (made) of common grass moved quickly under sail in an undetermined direction and (so) we went (lit. 'the cargo ship made the sail (O-inc) run').’
RUN an Alternation:
Direct causative
(311)
Nea tamanum raytamanum hácire.
nea
that
tama-num
ball-drop
ray-tama-num
die-ball-drop
hácir-e
fall-CAUS
‘(My older brother) dropped that ball drop, the ball drop (with the dead person's soul).’
FALL an Alternation:
Direct causative
(312)
アエシノッ ペ ウコエウナラ・アシ ワ カキヒ(ク・アキヒ) ク・チシテ
Aesinot pe ukoeunaraas wa kakihi kuciste.
a=e-sinpt
IND.A=APPL.INS-play
pe
thing
u-ko-e-hunara=as
REC