Locative applicative o- C

Description

Prefix o-. Valency-increasing (S=A). Can generally be defined as locative o-, but the actual referential range of the respective constructions stretches over several semantic roles and the exact role is attributed to the interaction between the semantics of the prefix and verb. The important functions of the applicative prefix e- are as follows (Bugaeva 2011):

o- 1. Goal, 2. Location.
for Derived CF
Verb meaning Verb form Occurs Basic Coding frame Derived Coding frame
CARRY rúra M
(25)
aynu
human/Ainu
nimar-a
half-POSS
Iskar
Ishikari
emko
upstream
kor
have
nispa
rich.man
eun
DAT
nea
that
nispa
rich.man
kor
have
pa
PL
p
NR
opitta
all
rúra
carry
pa
PL
‘The (remaining) half of the Ainu carried all of that rich man’s belongings to the the rich man at Upstream Ishikari.’
(27)
nea
that
kotan
village
pa
upper.part
un
belong.to
nispa
rich.man
mac-ihi
wife-POSS
e-utar-ne
APPL.INS-kin-COP
kur
man
kotan
village
pa
upper.part
un
belong.to
kur
man
uni
house
o
put.in
p
NR
yayteknata
by.onself
cip
boat
or
place
un
ALL
rúra
carry
‘The man who married the wife of the elder from above the village carried the things from the house of the man from above the village to his boat.’
SHOW nukar-e N
(39)
mokor
sleep
usi-ke
place-POSS
eci=nukar-e
1SG.A+2SG.O=see-CAUS
kusu-ne
going.to-COP
na
FIN
‘I will show you the bed.’
(40)
a=po-utar-i
IND.A=child-PL-POSS
a=aca-utar-i
IND.A=uncle-PL-POSS
a=nukar-e
IND.A=see-CAUS
somo
NEG
ki
do.AUX
yak
if
wen
be.bad
kusu
because
‘We had to show our children to uncles, so...’
(41)
kamuy
god
ka
also
ne-no
COP-ADV
a=i=nukar-e
IND.A=IND.O=see-CAUS
eani
2SG
ka
also
ne-no
COP-ADV
a=i=nukar-e
IND.A=IND.O=see-CAUS
ruwe
INF.EV
ne
COP
na
FIN
‘(I did not swallow snakes.) I have just shown myself like this to the gods, I have shown myself like this to you.’
LOOK AT inkar R
(89)
ni
tree/wood
ka
top
un
ALL
inkar
look
wa
and
i=nukar
IND.O=see
‘The pup looked up at the tree and then looked at me.’
CLIMB hemesu (SG) / hemespa (PL) R
(128)
tan
this
nupuri
mountain
or
place
ta
LOC
hemespa=an
climb.PL=IND.S
ciki
if
hokampa
difficulty
isam
not.exist
ya
Q
‘Is it not difficult to climb this mountain?’
GO arpa (SG) / paye (PL) R
(141)
kuca
hunting.cabin
or
place
ta
LOC
arpa=an
go.SG=IND.S
rusuy
DESID
‘I wanted to go to the hunting cabin.’
(143)
ne
this
wen-kur
be.bad-man
okkay-po
man-DIM
eun
DAT
anak-ne
TOP-COP
iteki
PROH
arpa
go.SG
=an
=IND.S
yak
if
pirka
be.good
‘You must never go to that young poor man’s place.’
(184)
nisat-ta
dawn-LOC
tunas-no
be.early-ADV
tan
this
kotan
village
wa
ABL
ku=arpa
1SG.S=go.SG
kusu-ne
going.to-COP
na
FIN
‘I will leave this village early tomorrow.’
SINK rer R
(195)
pet
river
asam
bottom
ta
LOC
rer
sink
wa
and
an
exist.SG
‘It has sunk to the bottom of the river.’
EAT e
(118)
hemanta
what
e=e
2SG.A=eat
rusuy
DESID
‘What do you want to eat?’
HUG kisma
(168)
iwatarap
baby
a=korsi
IND.A=child.POSS
a=kisma
IND.A=hug
wa
and
an=rimse-ka
IND.A=dance-CAUS
‘I hugged the baby and made him dance.’
MEET nukar
(86)
ekasi
grandfather
húci
grandmother
nukar
see
‘Grandfather saw grandmother.’
(110)
kamuy
god
a=ona-ha
IND.A=father-POSS
a=nukar
IND.A=see
nani
immediately
itak=an
say/talk=IND.S
pe
NR
ne
COP
kusu
because
‘(I was now able to speak. ) I had met the kamui father and had immediately been able to speak.’
(249)
en=nukar
1SG.O=see
‘He/she/it sees me.’
SMELL hurarakkar
(167)
ene
like.this
poro
big
horkew
wolf
ahun
enter.SG
wa
and
katkemat
married.woman
utar
PL
hura-rak-kar
scent-smell-make
kor
and
i=hura-rak-kar
IND.O=scent-smell-make
‘A huge wolf came in, smelled the women and smelled me.’
FEAR sitoma
(95)
tane
now
kim-un
mountain-belong.to
kamuy
god
ka
also
i=sitoma
IND.O=fear
‘That bear is afraid of me as well.’
FRIGHTEN kimatek-ka
(92)
en=kimatek-ka
1SG.O=be.surprised-CAUS
‘He frightened me.’
LIKE eramasu(y) N
(99)
ohaw
soup
e=eramasu
2SG.A=like
ya
Q
‘Do you like soup?’
(100)
sisam-utar-i
Japanese-people-POSS
katkemat
married.woman
en=eramasuy
1SG.O=like
pe
NR
ka
also
okay
exist.PL
‘(Among) the Japanese women, there were those who liked me.’
(257)
kutci
actinidia.arguta.fruit
pirka
be.good
wa
and
k=eramasuy
1SG.A=want
korka
but
eytasa
very
ni
tree
ri
high
wa
and
ku=hemesu
1SG.S=climb
ka
even/also
niwkes
be.unable
‘The actinidia arguta fruit is good (=well ripen) and I want it but the tree is tall and I cannot climb it.’
KNOW amkir N
(83)
ora
then
Iskar
Ishikari
emko-ho
upstream-POSS
kor
and
okkay-po
man-DIM
utar
PL
i=amkir
IND.O=know
pa
PL
p
NR
ne
COP
‘Even the youngsters from Upstream Ishikari knew me.’
THINK ramu
(157)
a=po-ho-utar-i
IND.A=child-POSS-PL-POSS
ne
COP
yak-ka
if-even
ko-inkar
APPL.DAT-look
siri
VIS.EV
ne
COP
kun-i
going.to-NR
ku=ramu
1SG.A=think
‘I thought that (the gods) are going to protect my sons.’
SEARCH FOR hunara
(106)
eci=nukar
1SG.A+2SG.O=see
rusuy
DESID
kusu
because
te
here
ta
LOC
eci=hunara
1SG.A+2SG.O=search
‘I was searching for you here, because I wanted to meet you.’
WASH huray-e (SG) / huray-pa (PL)
(125)
orano
then
nani
immediately
usey
hot.water
kar
make
nea
that
iwatarap
baby
huraye
wash
a
REP
huraye
wash
a
REP
‘Right away, my wife boiled some water, and washed the baby’s body carefully.’
DRESS i-mi-re
(123)
pon
little
a=sa-ha
IND.A=older.sister-POSS
i-mi-re
APASS-wear-CAUS
kor
and
oka=an
exist.PL=IND.S
ruwe
INF.EV
ne
COP
‘(I carried her down, and raised her.) Second older sister dressed(lit. 'made her wear cloths') her and (in this manner) we led our lives.’
SHAVE (a body part/person) memke
(175)
e=sapa-ha
2SG.A=head-POSS
ku=memke
1SG.A=shave
‘I will shave your head.’
(176)
e=nan-uhu
2SG.A=face-POSS
memke
shave
‘Shave your beard.’
HELP kasuy
(113)
orano
then
a=sa-ha
IND.A=older.sister-POSS
ka
also
a=kasuy
IND.A=help
‘(Older sister went down and started to gather firewood.) Then I helped older sister.’
FOLLOW os ek (SG) / arki (PL) N
(111)
en=os
1SG.O=behind
ek
come.SG
kor
and
an
exist.SG
‘He/She is following me.’
(112)
nen
who
ka
even
ne
COP
e=os
2SG.O=behind
nen
who
ka
even
arki
come.PL
yak
if
wen
bad
kusu
because
‘In any way, no one must follow you, so...’
TALK e-ko-itak N
(81)
sekor
QUOT
okay
exist.PL
pe
NR
nesi
really
i=e-ko-itak
IND.O=APPL.INS-APPL.DAT-say/talk
‘He really talked to me about these matters.’
ASK FOR ko-tak N
(79)
atay-e
payment-POSS
a=en=ko-tak
IND.A=1SG.O=APPL.DAT-call/invite/get
kor
and
k=an
1SG.S=exist.SG
‘They are asking me for the payment (lit. 'the payment for (it)' as is expressed by the possessive marking).’
SHOUT AT hawekoyki
(165)
sekor
QUOT
a=e=haw-e-koyki
IND.A=2SG.O=voice-APPL.INS-bully
nankor
probably
‘(Say quickly!...) They will probably shout at you like this.’
TELL nu-re N
(72)
sinrit
ancestor
oruspe
story
an=e=nu-re
IND.A=2SG.O=hear-CAUS
na
FIN
‘I will tell you the story of the ancestors.’
NAME ye N
(70)
an=an
exist.SG=IND.S
hi
NR
nea
that
pon
young
menoko
woman
a=hoku-hu
IND.A=husband-POSS
eun
DAT
ye
say
noyne
seem
‘It seemed that that young woman said to my husband that I was (there).’
(155)
orano
then
a=kor
IND.A=have
son
child
utar
PL
ona
father
ne
MUT
ye
say
pa
PL
kor
and
‘(He came in and sat down). Calling (him) “Father”, (my children jumped all over him).’
(156)
ene
like.this
wen-kur
be.bad-man
okkay-po
man-DIM
sekor
QUOT
a=i=ye
IND.A=IND.O=say
p
NR
ne
COP
a
PERF.SG
korka
but
‘Once they called me a “young poor man”.’
BUILD kar
(67)
or-o
place-POSS
ta
LOC
a=sut-ihi
IND.A=grandmother-POSS
tasiro
knife
ani
INST
ki
reeds
mose
mow
wa
and
ani
INST
pon
little
cise
house
kar
make
‘Grandmother then cut reed grass with her mountain knife and built a small house with that reed grass where they lived.’
BREAK per-e (SG) / per-pa (PL)
(65)
ahun=an
enter.SG=IND.S
pak-no
till-ADV
ni
tree/wood
ani
INST
cip
boat
puta
lid
a=per-pa
IND.A=break-PL
ruwe
INF.EV
ne
COP
‘He broke the boat lids (with the stick) until (it was possible) to enter them.’
KILL ray-ke (SG) / ronnu (PL)
(61)
emus
sword
hene
also
tasiro
knife
hene
also
ruyke
sharpen
wa
and
ani
INST
a=resu
IND.A=raise
cape
cat
ray-ke
die-CAUS
‘Sharpen your sword and your mountain knife, and kill the cat (that we used to have) with them.’
BEAT kik-kik
(56)
aynu
human/Ainu
utar
PL
cep
fish
ronnu
kill.PL
kor
while
munin
be.rotten
cikuni
tree
ani
INST
kik-kik-pa
hit-hit-PL
‘To kill fish the Ainu hit it repeatedly with a piece of rotten wood.’
TOUCH ker-e (SG)/ker-pa (PL)
(270)
cikuni
tree/wood
ani
INST
iteki
PROH
en=ker-e
1SG.O=touch-CAUS
‘Don't touch me [with the stick].’
CUT tuy-e (SG) / tuy-pa (PL)
(54)
toan
that
ni-tek
tree/wood-hand
noko
saw
ani
INST
tuy-e
cut-CAUS
yan
IMP.POL
‘Cut that branch with a saw.’
HIDE ko-nuyna
(46)
matkaci
girl
saranip
basket
sut-ihi
grandmother-POSS
ko-nuyna
APPL.DAT-hide
‘The girl hid the basket from her grandmother.’
GIVE kor-e (SG)/kor-pa-re (PL) N
(35)
Anna
Anna
ninup
sewing
en=kor-e
1SG.O=have-CAUS
‘Anna gave me a sewing (lit. let me have a sewing).’
SEND arpa-re (SG) / paye-re (PL) R
(33)
seta
dog
oyakata
master
eun
DAT
arpa-re
go.SG-CAUS
‘(He instructed us to) send him to the dog master.’
THROW e-yapkir N
(17)
Panampe
Panampe
tane
now
si-oka
REFL-behind
un
ALL
kunne
black
ka-tak
string-ball
e-yapkir
APPL.INS-throw
kus-ne
going.to-COP
‘Panampe was going to throw the ball of black string behind himself.’
TIE kot-e
(240)
itese
weave
ka
thread
a=kot-é
IND.A=tie-CAUS
suma
stone
ré-he
name-POSS
pit
pit.stone
‘The name of stone tied to the weaving thread is "pit".’
PUT an-u (SG) / ari (PL) N
(12)
ora-no
then-ADV
a=kor
IND.A=have
ekasi
grandfather
anak
TOP
aoypepi
dish
sir-ka
ground/world-top
ta
LOC
an-u
exist.SG-CAUS
‘Grandfather put the dish down on the ground.’
(13)
nea
that
a=sike-he
IND.A=luggage-POSS
ape
fire
etok
front
un
ALL
an-u
exist.SG-CAUS
oharkiso
the.seat.to.the.left(south).of.the.hearth
un
ALL
a=an
sit.SG=IND.S
‘(The woman) placed my luggage at the upper seat of honor, and I sat at the lower seat of honor.’
POUR o-ta N
(8)
ratcako
lamp
sum
oil
hene
for.example
pon-no
little-ADV
or-o
place-POSS
o-ta
APPL.LOC-dig
wa
and
uhuy-ka
burn-CAUS
‘Pour at least some lamp oil there and light it.’
COVER kamu-re N
(1)
a=ekasi
IND.A=grandfather
cep
fish
a=u-ko-sina
IND.A=REC-APPL.DAT-bind
p
NR
ne
COP
ápekor
as.if
an
exist.SG
pe
thing
kas-i
top-POSS
wa
ABL
amip
clothing
kamu-re
cover-CAUS
kane
while
an
exist.SG
‘(My grandfather) covered up something that looked like a bundle of fish with his clothing.’
(3)
Penampe
Penampe
ci
penis
kursut-u
root-POSS
kisma
grab
tek
hand
kamu-re
cover-CAUS
kane
while
‘Penampe grabbed his penis and covered (it) with his hand.’
FILL e-sik-te
(73)
nea
that
pon-iw-ne
young-human-COP
noyne
seem
an
exist.SG
okkay
man
aep
food
su
pot
e-sik-te
APPL.INS-be.full-CAUS
pa
PL
‘That younger man …filled the pot with food (to cook it).’
BLINK sik-rap-rap-u
(178)
sik-rap-rap-u
eye-flap.wings-flap.wings-CAUS
‘Blink / He/she blinks.’
COUGH omke N
(127)
k=unu-hu
1SG.A=mother-POSS
ka
even
omke
cough
a
REP
omke
cough
a
REP
p
but
‘My mother coughed and coughed.’
RUN hoyupu (SG)/hoyuppa (PL)
(134)
mat-ne
woman-COP
ekaci
child
hoyupu
run.SG
kusu
because
ci=nukar
1PL.EXC.A=see
kusu
in.order
paye=as
go.PL=1PL.EXC.S
‘It was the girls' running contest (lit. 'since girls ran'), so we went to watch it.’
SIT a (SG) / rok (PL)
(131)
ne
this
kotan
village
kor
have
nispa
rich.man
or-o
place-POSS
ta
LOC
ahun=an
enter.SG=IND.S
apa
door
sam
near
ta
LOC
a=an
sit.SG=IND.S
‘I entered the village chief’s house, shaking all over. I sat down near the front door.’
(133)
i=tukari
IND.O=front
ta
LOC
ek
come.SG
hi
NR
kusu
because
mono
quietly
a=an
sit.SG=IND.S
‘He came right in front of me, so I sat down properly (on the floor).’
JUMP tetterke
(138)
ror-un-so
place.of.honour-belong.to-seat
or
place
peka
TRV
tennep
baby
tetterke
jump
‘The baby jumped on the seat of honor.’
SING sinotca-ki
(148)
káni
I
ka
even
sinotca
song
ku=ki
1SG.A=do
kusu-ne
going.to-COP
na
FIN
eani
2SG.S/A/O
hem
also/and
sinotca
song
ki
do
yan
IMP.POL
‘I will sing a song, so you should also sing.’
(149)
a=kor
IND.A=have
huci
grandmother
sinotca-ki
song-do
kor
while
wakka-ta
water-dig
sinotca-ki
song-do
kor
while
suke
cook
hike
and
‘Grandmother would sing while drawing water and she would sing while preparing meals...’
(231)
ene
like.this
kunne
black
hene
also
tokap
daytime
hene
also
ene
like.this
sinotca-ki=an
song-do=IND.A
kor
and
an=an
exist.SG=IND.S
hawe
REP.EV
ene
like.this
an
exist.SG
hi
NR
ne
COP
‘I sang songs like this night and day.’
APPEAR an (SG) / oka (PL)
(145)
tan
this
kotan
village
ta
LOC
hempak
how.many
pa
year
e=an
2SG.S=exist.SG
ruwe
INF.EV
an
exist.SG
‘How many years have you lived in this village?’
(146)
okkay-po
man-DIM
tu-n
two-thing.CL
pak-no
till-ADV
an
exist.SG
ruwe
INF.EV
ne
COP
noyne
seem
sir-an
ground/world-exist.SG
‘It seemed that there appeared two men (on the road).’
LAUGH mina
(179)
umurek
couple
utar
people
i=nukar
IND.O=see
wa
and
mina
laugh
kane
and.so.on
okay
exist.PL
‘A couple saw me, smiled and so on.’
SCREAM kirirse
(182)
toy
earth
tum
inside
un
ALL
nep
who
ka
even
kirirse
scream
haw
voice
as
stand.SG
pekor
as.if
haw-as
voice-stand.SG
haw-as
voice-stand.SG
‘It sounded as if there was someone screaming in the ground.’
FEEL PAIN koni N
(185)
ku=kema-ha
1SG.A=leg-POSS
ku=koni
1SG.A=be.in.pain.at
‘My leg hurts.’
FEEL COLD merayke
(190)
e=me-ray-ke
2SG.S=cold-die-CAUS
ciki
if
amip
clothing
mi
wear
‘If you are cold, put on clothes.’
DIE ray
(150)
tan
this
ay
arrow
ani
INST
a=cotca
IND.A=shoot
ciki
if
kamuy
bear
ray
die
ruwe
INF.EV
an
exist.SG
‘Will a bear die if this arrow hits it?’
PLAY sinot R
(188)
kamuy
god
ne
COP
noyne
seem
an
exist.SG
matkaci
girl
sinot
play
kor
and
an
exist.SG
wa
and
a=nukar
IND.A=see
a
PERF.SG
p
but
‘(I saw that) the girl who looked like a goddess was playing.’
BE SAD mismu
(191)
ene
like.this
mismu=an
be.sad=IND.S
kor
and
an=an
exist.SG=IND.S
humi
NONVIS.EV
ene
like.this
an
exist.SG
‘Why have I been so sad, living like this.’
BE HUNGRY i-p-e-rusuy N
(153)
ene
like.this
a=e
IND.A=eat
rusuy
DESID
ene
like.this
i-p-e-rusuy=an
APASS-EP-eat-DESID=IND.S
pe
but
‘Even though I was so hungry and wanted to eat, ...’
ROLL karkarse N
(197)
upas
snow
tum
inside
a=oma
IND.A=enter.SG
wa
and
karkarse=an
roll=IND.S
wa
and
ran=an
descend.SG=IND.S
‘He fell into the snow and was rolling down.’
BURN uhuy
(193)
poro
big
ape
fire
ari
light
wa
and
uhuy-ka
burn-CAUS
kusu
because
sunku
fir.tree
uhuy
burn
wa
and
arpa
go.SG
ayne
finally
‘Since he lit the big fire, and burned it, the fir-tree burned (well).’
BE DRY sat
(194)
ru
road
sat
be.dry
‘The road is dry.’
RAIN (apto) as N
(154)
apto
rain
as
stand.SG
‘It rained.’
BE A HUNTER isonkur ne N
(109)
a=ona-ha
IND.A=father-POSS
anak-ne
TOP-COP
ison-kur
be.successful.in.a.hunt-man
ne
COP
p
NR
ne
COP
kusu
because
‘My father was a really good hunter, (so everyday he brought as game a deer or bear).’
WIPE nu-w-e (SG)/nú-pa (PL) R
(49)
mun-ihi
rubbish-POSS
a=nu-w-e-nu-w-e
IND.A=sweep-EP-CAUS-sweep-EP-CAUS
a=ker-keri
IND.A=scrap-scrap
wa
and
soy
outside
a=o
IND.A=put.in.PL
‘I vigorously swept the rubbish and scrapped it and took it off outside.’
(50)
cise
house
onnay
inside
a=nu-w-e-nu-w-e
IND.A=wipe-EP-CAUS-sweep-EP-CAUS
a=pir-u-pir-u
IND.A=wipe-CAUS-wipe-CAUS
‘I swept and wiped inside the house with all my might.’
BRING ko-ani (SG) / ko-anpa (PL) N
(19)
pon
little
cep
fish
ne
COP
korka
but
arturere
half.POSS
poka
only
e=kor
2SG.A=have
unarpe
aunt
ko-ani
APPL.DAT-hold/carry.in.hands.SG
wa
and
ek
come.SG
‘It is a little fish but bring at least half of it to your grandmother.’
BE ILL siyeye
(208)
siyeye
be.sick
wa
and
an
exist.SG
yak
COMP
a=ye
IND.A=say
‘It is said that he/she was sick.’
CRY cis
(205)
a=kor
IND.A=have
huci
grandmother
cis
cry
kor
while
wakka-ta
water-dig
cis
cry
kor
while
suke
cook
hine
and
an
exist.SG
‘(I then realized that) grandmother was crying while drawing water and crying when she prepared meals.’
TELL e-ko-isoytak N
(77)
cise
house
kor
have
tono
master
umurek
couple
usa
various
okay
exist.PL
pe
NR
i=e-ko-isoytak
IND.O=APPL.INS-APPL.DAT-tell.story
‘The couple of the master of the house told me stories about various things.’
BRING kor wa ek (SG) / arki (PL) N
(23)
kuneywa
in.the.morning
isimne
next.day
an
exist.SG
akusu
then
a=yup-utar-i
IND.A=elder.brother-PL-POSS
sorekusu
especially
cip
boat
sik-no
be.full-ADV
kane
while
cep
fish
kor
have
wa
and
arki
come.PL
pa
PL
‘The next morning, older brothers brought home a boatful of fish.’
LIKE omap
(102)
a=kor
IND.A=have
huci
grandmother
a=kor
IND.A=have
ekasi
grandfather
earkinne
very
i=omap
IND.O=love
wa
and
‘Grandfather and grandmother loved me dearly.’
APPEAR hetuku (SG) / hetukpa (PL)
(147)
hempara
when
cup
moon
kamuy
god
hetuku
appear.SG
ruwe
INF.EV
an
exist.SG
‘What time does the moon appear?’
FALL hácir
(152)
poro
big
nitne
fierce
kamuy
god
sapa
head.POSS
kas-i
top-POSS
un
ALL
i-y-uta-ni
APASS-EP-grind-tree
okkayo
man
hácir
fall
rok
PERF.PL
awa
and
‘The pestle men fell on the head of the big fierce god.’
HIT kik
(161)
rapok-ke
between-POSS
nea
that
okkay-po
man-DIM
ani
INST
kik
beat
kuni
in.order
kisma
grab
hum
sound/feeling
pirka-no
be.good-ADV
an
exist.SG
an
exist.SG
cikuni
tree/wood
tuy-e
cut-CAUS
‘Then that young man cut a tree (such that) the feeling is good of grabbing (it) [i.e. which fits his hand] in order to beat with (it). / lit. Then that young man cut a tree_i [(such that) the sound/feeling j [(that) he grabs __i in order to beat with __i] is good].’
PEEL sos-o (SG)/sos-pa (PL)
(247)
kap-uhu
skin-POSS
sos-o
peel-CAUS
‘He/she peeled the skin.’
FEEL PAIN arka
(187)
ku=kokka-sapa
1SG.A=knee-head.POSS
arka
hurt
korka
but
ku=netopake
1SG.A=body.POSS
anak
TOP
totek
be.healthy
pe
NR
ne
COP
kusu
because
‘My knees hurt, but my body is healthy.’
STEAL ko-e-ikka
(200)
sonno
really
sunke
lie
sak
lack
no
ADV
isepo
hare
a=en=ko-e-ikka
IND.A=1SG.O=APPL.DAT-APPL.INS-steal
ka
even
ki
do
p
NR
ne
COP
a
PERF.SG
wa
and
‘Seriously, a hare has been stolen from me.’
TEACH e-pakasnu
(201)
a=mac-ihi
IND.A=wife-POSS
anak-ne
TOP-COP
menoko-po
woman-DIM
menoko
woman
monrayke
work
e-pakasnu
APPL.INS-teach
‘My wife taught women’s work to (our) daughters.’
(202)
a=en=e-pakasnu
IND.A=1SG.O=APPL.INS-teach
p
thing
ne
COP
ruwe
INF.EV
ne
COP
‘This is what I have been taught about.’
HEAR nu
(209)
sinrit
ancestor
oruspe
story
e=nu
2SG.A=hear
rusuy
DESID
kusu
because
‘Since you want to hear the story of the anscestors...’
TEAR yas-a (SG) / yas-pa (PL)
(276)
hon-i
belly-POSS
yas-a
tear-CAUS
wa
and
cipor-i
roe-POSS
san-ke
descend-CAUS
‘(He) torn off the (salmon’s) belly and took its roe off.’
LOAD oma-re (SG) / o (PL)
(4)
nea
that
cep
fish
cip
boat
or
place
a=o
IND.A=put
‘She put the fish into the boat (and stood on the bow of the boat).’
(287)
wakka-ta=an
water-dig=IND.S
wa
and
su
pot
or
place
wakka
water
a=oma-re
IND.A=enter.SG-CAUS
‘I drew some water and put it in a pot.’
POUR kuta R
(288)
atuy
sea
or
place
un
ALL
a=kuta
IND.S=pour
akusu
when
‘(Again I pulled out the silver dipper and) when I poured [water] into the sea (the water raised to the middle of the sea.).’
(289)
ora
then
su
pot
oha
empty
h_i
NR
kusu
because
ora
then
soy
outside
ta
LOC
ruri
soup
a=kuta
IND.A=pour
‘When the pot was empty, I threw the soup outside.’
RUN pas R
(306)
nep
what
kusu
for
e=pas
2SG.S=run
wa
and
e=ek
2SG.S=come.SG
ya
Q
‘Why did you run (here)?’
JUMP hopuni(SG) / hopunpa (PL)
(60)
yay-kik-kik=an
REFL-beat-beat=IND.A
hopunpa=an
jump.PL=IND.S
hine
and
‘I hit myself repeatedly and jumped.’
LEAVE hop-i (SG)/hop-pa (PL)
(318)
a=kor
IND.A=have
nispa
rich.man
mosir
land
hoppa
leave.PL
hi
NR
or-o
place-POSS
wa-no
ABL-ADV
‘Since the moment my husband has left this world...’
BOIL pop N
(328)
úsey
hot.water
pop
boil
kor
and
an
exist.SG
‘The hot water is boiling.’
GRIND uta
(330)
sito
dumpling
uta
grind
kor
and
okay
exist.PL
okkayo
man
utar
PL
menoko
women
utar
PL
Panampe
Panampe
or
place
un
ALL
inkar
look
wa
and
mina
laugh
kane
and.so.on
okay
exist.PL
‘Men and women (who) were pounding dumplings looked at Panampe and laughed.’
DIG ta
(241)
wakka
water
ta
dig.up/scoop
wa
and
ek
come.SG
‘Go draw some water.’
(332)
sir-paykar
ground/world-spring
kor
and
turep
turep.lily.root
a=ta
IND.A=dig
wa
and
turep
turep.lily
irup
starch
a=kar
IND.A=make
wa
and
‘In Spring, I dug up turep-lily roots from which I made starch.’
COOK suw-e (SG)/sú-pa (PL)
(334)
poro
big
su
pan
sik-te-no
be.full-CAUS-ADV
usa
various
kam
meat
usa
various
cep
fish
su-w-e
cook-EP-CAUS
wa
and
‘(She took a big pan and) cooked a full pan of all kinds of meat and fish.’
PUSH oputuy-e (SG)/ oputuy-pa (PL)
(335)
i=resu
IND.O=rise
sapo
older.sister
hawean
say.SG
kor
and
cise
house
or
place
un
ALL
i=oputuy-e
IND.O=push-CAUS
kor
and
‘My foster sister (lit. 'an older sister (who) raised me') said (so) and pushed me into the house.’
GET ko-uk (SG) / ko.uyna (PL)
(159)
tan
this
toy
earth
or-o
place-POSS
wa
ABL
makanak
what
pak-no
till-ADV
a=uk
IND.A=take.SG
ruwe
INF.EV
an
exist.SG
‘What can one grow on this plot? / lit. How much can one get from this plot?’