Alternations of Ainu

Alternations
Alternation name Description Examples Verbs
C
y The prefix i- ‘thing/person’, also referrred to as “generalized object”. Valency-reducing. Object-deleting. (A=S) An
The expression of the object is blocked completely (i.e. no oblique expression is possible).
(29)
Konto kotan kor utar ne yakka apumakore pa wa irura pa.
konto
then
kotan
village
kor
have
utar
PL
ne
COP
yak-ka
if-even
a=puma-kor-e
IND.A=wage-have-CAUS
pa
PL
wa
and
i-rura
APASS-carry
pa
PL
‘(I carried the things that the wise man had owned.) Then I paid the villagers and they carried (the things).’
18
C
y Prefix u-. Valency reducing, object deleting, the so-called object-oriented reciprocal with the meaning of joining sth/sb together.
A distinctive feature of this diathesis type is the omission of one of the objects co-referential with another object. Unlike subject-oriented constructions, these may have a singular subject, while the object is as a rule plural semantically or it refers to an entity composed of some parts involved in the action. The reciprocals belonging here denote joining, mixing, comparing two or more entities together and the like. There are about 20 object-oriented reciprocals in our corpus and all of them are derived either from three-argument causatives or applicatives (Alpatov et al. 2007: 1776).
(2)
Ukamure.
u-kamu-re
REC-cover-CAUS
‘Lay one on top of another / (He/she) lays/laid (them/a thing) on top of another.’
4
C
y Valency-reducing. Is quite fixed in the lexicon. Only arguments can be incorporated: P, S and patientive A. Might be important for distinguishing verbal classes.
(10)
Sirkamure.
sir-kamu-re
ground/world-cover-CAUS
‘Cover ground with sth. / He/she covers/covered ground with it.’
9
C
y Prefix ko-. Valency-increasing (S=A). Can generally be defined as dative ko-, but the actual referential range of the respective constructions stretches over several semantic roles and the exact role is attributed to the interaction between the semantics of the prefix and verb. The important functions of the applicative prefix ko- are as follows (Bugaeva 2011):

ko- 1. Addressee, 2. Goal, 3. Recipient/Beneficiary, 4. Comitative: Co-patient, 5. Malefactive Source, 6. Other (Cause/Purpose).
(284)
Ne katkemat mipihi opitta akoanu.
ne
this
katkemat
woman
mi-p-ihi
wear-NR-POSS
opitta
all
a=ko-an-u
IND.A=APPL.DAT-exist.SG-CAUS
‘All of this woman's clothes were taken off ('all clothes were put (aside) from this woman').’
25
C
y The prefix yay-. Valency-reducing. Object-demoting.
(44)
Paycar sey kuytop sinukare wa kinno.
paycar
March
sey
shell.fish
kuytop
wild.goose
si-nukar-e
REFL-see-CAUS
wa
and
kinno
be.fat
‘In March, the shell fish wanted to show itself to the wild goose and got fat.’
13
C
y Prefix e-. Valency-increasing (S=A). Can generally be defined as instrumental e-, but the actual referential range of the respective constructions stretches over several semantic roles and the exact role is attributed to the interaction between the semantics of the prefix and verb. The important functions of the applicative prefix e- are as follows (Bugaeva 2011):

e- 1. Content, 2. Location, 3. Instrument, 4. Theme, 5. Cause/Purpose, 6. Other (Comitative: Co-agent, Manner, Beneficiary, Path).
(285)
Anipunkari i(y)oikir ka aeanu.
anipuntar
a.type.of.sake.bottle
iyoykir
treasure
ka
top
a=e-an-u
IND.A=APPL.INS-exist.SG-CAUS
‘We put a sake bottle on top of treasures.’
19
C
y The prefix u-. Valency-reducing. Object-demoting.
Derives both canonical (A/P) and indirect (A/R) reciprocals.
(21)
Keraan pe ukoani.
keraan
be.delicious
pe
NR
u-ko-ani
REC-APPL.DAT-hold/carry.in.hands.SG
‘(They) brought delicious things to each other.’
17
C
y Prefix o-. Valency-increasing (S=A). Can generally be defined as locative o-, but the actual referential range of the respective constructions stretches over several semantic roles and the exact role is attributed to the interaction between the semantics of the prefix and verb. The important functions of the applicative prefix e- are as follows (Bugaeva 2011):

o- 1. Goal, 2. Location.
(90)
Ponpetteksama aoinkar kor pon pet etoko un arpaan.
pon-pet-teksam-a
little-river-near-side.of
a=o-inkar
IND.A=APPL.LOC-look
kor
and
pon
little
pet
river
etok-o
source-POSS
un
ALL
arpa=an
go.SG=IND.S
‘As I looked at the side of (this) little river, I went to the source of (this) little river.’
9
C
y Prefix ke-. Valency-reducing. Subject-demoting. Unproductive.
(66)
Kumi p perke.
ku=mi
1SG.A=wear
p
NR
per-ke
break-ACAUS
‘My garment is torn.’
3
C
y Valency-increasing (S=P).
Unproductive suffixes:
-V (-e/-u/-o/-i, not fully predictable) – for verbs denoting Change of State, attaches to vi/vt or occurs in equipollent causative-anticausative oppositions (with no basic verb) alternating with the anticausative causative -V ;
-
ka – for verbs denoting some spontaneous actions/processes/states and some Emotion verbs, attaches to vi/vt;
-
ke – for Motion verbs and some verbs denoting Change of State, attaches to vi.
Productive allomorphic suffix
-re/-e/-te as a default marker of direct causation. Is also used for indirect causation.
(250)
Umma kere kus ne.
umma
horse
ku=e-re
1SG.A=eat-CAUS
kusu
going.to
ne
COP
‘I'm going to feed it to my horse.’
29